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OXFOKD UNIVERSITY 
EXAMIJSTATIO^T PAPEES 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMINATION 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



TRINITY TERM, 1911 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 

116 HIGH STREET 



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SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History, 

L 

[Candidates are recommended to attempt Question 1.] 

1. Comment on any five of the following passages, 
translating those marked with an asterisk : — 

(a) If the king call his 'leod' to him, and any one 
there do them evil, let him compensate with a twofold 
* hot ' and fifty shillings to the king. (Laivs of Ethelbert.) 

(b) And that a gemot be held in every wapontake ; 
and the xii senior thegns . . . swear . . . that they will 
accuse no innocent man, nor conceal any guilty one. 

(Laivs of Ethelred.) 

(c) Archiepiscopi, episcopi, et universae personae 
regni, qui de rege tenent in capite, habent possessiones 
suas sicut baroniam. {Constitutions of Clarendon,) 

*(cZ) . . . deposuit fere omnes vicecomites Angliae et 
ballivos eorum, pro eo quod male tractaverant homines 
regni sui. (Ben. Abb. 1170.) 

. . . deposuit a bailiis suis Ranulfum de Glanvilla . . . 
et fere omnes vicecomites et ballivos eorum, et omnes 
redemit usque ad ultimum quadrantem. 

(Ben. Abb. 1189.) 

*(e) Nullus liber homo de cetero det amplius alicui 
vel vendat de terra sua quam ut de residuo terrae suae 
possit sufRcienter fieri domino feodi servitium ei debitum 
quod pertinet ad feodum illud. (Magna Cartay 1217.) 

*(/) Murdrum de cetero non adiudicetur coram 
iustitiis ubi infortunium tantummodo adiudicatum est ; 
sed locum habeat murdrum in interfectis per feloniam et 
non a] iter. (Provisions of Westminster.) 

*((/) Avoms grante pur nous et pur nos heirs, qe mes 
tieles aides, mises, ne prises, ne treroms a custume, pur 
nule chose qe soit fait ou qe par roule ou en autre maniere 
peust estre trove. (Confirmation of the Charters^ 1297.) 

3 H 19 [Turn over. 



2. Explain the following Btatements : — 

((/) 'A vill is the titri as accepted by the French 
conquerors, not as founded or re-settled by English 
colonists.' 

(h) ' The whole husbandry of an Old English village 
[had] a decidedly communalistic bent.' 

3. To what extent did a manorial system exist in 
Anglo-Saxon England ? 

4. In what directions did the English constitution 
develop between the Norman Conquest and the death of 
Henry I? 

5. Describe and illustrate the police system of the 
reign of Henry II. 

6. Give some account of the constitutional history of 
the City of London from the Norman Conquest to 
Magna Carta. 

7. Is Simon de Montfort or Edward I the greater 
name in the history of Parliament ? 

8. Describe the relations between Kichard II and his 
Parliaments and indicate the magnitude of the issues 
involved. 

9. Did the reign of Edward III or that of Henry VI 
provide the best historical foundations for the claims 
made by the Commons in the seventeenth century ? 

10. Discuss the importance of the constitutional 
history of the Yorkist reigns. 

11. What important changes do you find in the finan- 
cial system of England between the death of Henry II 
and the death of Henry VI ? 

12. Sketch the growth of local government in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

13. Write notes on — Frankpledge, the j^Taemunientes 
clause, Mortmain, the Acts of Praemunirey the Act of 
Provisors, ' compassing or imagining the king's death/ 
the ' forty shilling freeholder '. 

[T.r. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History. 

11. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt Question 1.] 

1. Comment on not more than Jive of the following 
passages : — 

(a) The said Statute of Repeal and everything therein 
contained, only concerning the said book and the ser- 
vice, administration of the Sacraments, rites, and cere- 
monies contained or appointed in or by the said book, 
shall be void and of none effect from and after the Feast 
of the Nativity of St. John Baptist the next coming. 

{Act of Uniformity.) 

(b) In the parliament (which is nothing else but the 
head court of the King and his vassals) the laws are but 
craved by his subjects and only made by him at their 
rogation and with their advice. 

(Extracts from Political Writers.) 

(c) All binding of a King by law upon the advan- 
tage of his necessity makes the breach itself lawful in a 
King, his charters and all other instruments being no 
other than the surviving witnesses of unconstrained will. 

(Ibid.) 

(d) The arduous and urgent affairs concerning the 
King, state and defence of the realm . . . are proper sub- 
jects and matter of counsel and debate in parliament. 

(Protestation of the Commons, 1621.) 

(e) By pretext whereof some of your Majesty's sub- 
jects have been by some of the said Commissioners put 
to death, when and where, if by the laws and statutes of 
the land they had deserved death, by the same laws and 
statutes they might, and by no other ought to have been, 
adjudged and executed. (Petition of Bight.) 

(/) Also the dangers considered which, on every 
side, in these times of war do hang over our heads, it 
behoveth us and our subjects to hasten the defence of 
the sea and kingdom with all the expedition or speed 
that we can. (First Writ of Ship Money, 1634.) 

3 H 20 [Turn over. 



(g) For the depriving of the Bishops of their votes 
in Parliament we would have you consider that their 
right is grounded upon the fundamental law of the king- 
dom and constitution of Parliament. 

(The Kings Ansiuer.) 

(h) That your Highness will for the future be 
pleased to call Parliaments consisting of two Houses. 

(Humble Petition and Advice.) 

(z) That no person who shall hereafter come to the 
possession of this Crown shall go out of the dominions of 
England, Scotland or Ireland, without consent of Parlia- 
ment. (Act of Settlement.) 

2. Trace the development of administrative machinery 
under Henry VII and Henry VIII and estimate its 
effect on the power of the Crown. 

3. By what methods and with what success did the 
Crown influence the composition of the House of Com- 
mons between the fall of Wolsey and the death of Mary ? 

4. ' In the last years of Elizabeth's reign one can find 
in the germ all the causes of James I's quarrels with his 
subjects.' Discuss this. 

5. To what extent did the reigns of the first two Stuarts 
bring about a material alteration in the character and 
composition of the House of Lords ? 

6. What light is thrown on the relations between the 
executive and the legislature by (a) the fall of Clarendon, 
(h) the Peace of Utrecht, (c) the career of Carteret 1 

7. ' The King shall live of his own.' How far had 
this ancient rule become impossible in the second half 
of the seventeenth century ? 

8. Under what circumstances can the right of impress- 
ing men (a) for service on land, (b) for service at sea, be 
exercised, and by what laws has it been regulated ? 

9. How far can the modern Cabinet system be said to 
have come into existence (a) by the death of Anne, (b) by 
the year 1800. 

10. Describe and discuss the position and powers of 
the Justices of the Peace in the eighteenth century ? 



11. What were the principal forms of borough-franchise 
in England in the eighteenth century, and in what 
ways did they lend themselves to political corruption ? 

12. What do you understand by (a) a Crown Colony, 
(6) a Protectorate ? Distinguish between the different 
types of constitution under which they are governed. 

13. Give some account of the principal changes effected 
by the Judicature Act of 1873. 



[7: T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTORY. 



English Political History. 
I. 

[Candidatea are expected to answer questions from all 
three sections of the paper, including at least one 
of the questions marked with an asterisk^ 

A. 

■*^1. Discuss, with a map, the question of the first 
settlements of the West Saxons. What importance do 
you attach to the early entries in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle ? 

2. Discuss the following statement : — ' The result of 
the synod of Whitby was a grave misfortune for English 
nationality.' 

3. To what extent was England united or civilized by 
A.D. 8501 

*4. Draw a map to show the territorial distribution of 
England at the death of Edward the Elder. How far can 
his effective authority be said to have extended ? 

5. What part was played in the resistance to Sweyn 
and Canute (a) by Edmund Ironside, {h) by the men of 
London ? 

*6. Indicate the importance of the great earldoms in 
the eleventh century up to the death of Edward the 
Confessor. Draw a map to illustrate the ' family policy * 
of Godwin, 

7. Illustrate the eflfeot of the Danish invasions on the 
relations of England with the Continent. 

B. 

8. Is it possible to regret the Norman Conquest ? 

9. What light does the career of Geoffrey de Mande- 
ville throw on the condition of England in the reign of 
Stephen ? 

10. Compare the ecclesiastical opposition to William II 
and Henry I with that offered to Henry II. 

3Hl7 [Turnover. 



11. Trace the relations between Scotland and England 
from the Conquest to the death of Richard I, and explain 
the part played by William the Lion in the baronial 
rebellion of 1173-4. 

12. Give some account of the part played by aliens in 
England in the reign of Henry III. 

■^13. Trace, with a map, the campaign of Evesham. 

*14. Draw a sketch-map of Wales in the thirteenth 
century, and estimate the military difficulties encountered 
by Edward I in his conquest of the country. 

C. 

15. Give some account of the authorities for English 
history in either the first or the second half of the four- 
teenth century. 

*16. Trace, with a sketch-map, the loss of the English 
dominions in France between 1360 and 1399. 

17. Can you give any credit for unselfish patriotism 
to the barons who led the opposition to Richard II at 
different periods of his reign ? 

18. On what grounds may Humphrey of Gloucester 
be described as the evil genius of his family 1 

*19. Trace, with a map, Warwick's operations in 1471, 
and discuss his generalship. 

20. Has the character of Richard III been misrepre- 
sented by Shakespeare or by historical writers ? 

"^21. Draw a sketch-map of the Anglo-Scottish borders, 
marking Halidon Hill, Otterburn, Homildon Hill, Rox- 
burgh, Alnwick, Wark, Lochmaben, Fast Castle. 



\T.T, 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Engliali Political History. 
II. 

[Candidates are expected to antsirer quedioud from all 
three sections of the paper, including at least oxi: of 
those marked with an asterisJc.~\ 

A. 

1. Wbac justitication can be urged on behalf of the 
domestic policy of either Henry VII or Mary Tudor ? 

2. ' There could be no union of hearts between the 
Catholic Emperor and the schismatic King.' Discuss 
this opinion of the relations between Henry VIII and 
Charles V. 

3. ' The realization of arbitrary power went far to 
destroy Henry's better nature.' Is this statement borne 
out by a study of the last decade of Henry VIII's 
reign 1 

4. Examine the personal attitude of Elizabeth towards 
the religious problems of her day. 

*5. Explain the success of Elizabeth in establishing the 
Presidencies of Minister and Connaught, and her failure 
to establish an English administration in Ulster. Illus- 
trate your answer by a sketch-map. 

6. Discuss Shakespeare's treatment of English history 
in historical plays. How far may they be regarded as a 
dramatic whole ? 

7. Illustrate from the English operations against 
Spain between 1589 and 1603 the military weakness of 
England and Elizabeth's inability to understand war. 

B. 

8. Can the unpopularity of James I be attributed to 
his foreign policy or to the transitional character of his 
rei gn ? 

9. Compare the policy of Charles I towards Scotland 
with that of Charles II, and estimate the results in each 
case. 

3H 18 [Turn over. 



*10. Show the importance of the reigns of Charles II 
and James II in the history of English colonization. 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map of North 
America. 

*11. Describe the geographical position and indicate 
the historical importance of any six of the following : — 
Amboyna, Athlone, the Barrier fortresses, Brihuega, 
Hispaniola, Malaga, Newburn, Solebay, Surat, Tangier, 
Turin ^ Vigo. 

12. To what extent was England's position in the 
Spanish Succession War affected by {a) the capture of 
Gibraltar, (b) the battle of Blenheim, (c) the death of the 
Emperor Joseph I ? 

13. Sketch the parts played by Dan by, Halifax 
(Savile), and Harley in relation to the development of 
party government. 

14. Discuss the political influence of the writings of 
either Defoe or Swift previous to the death of Queen 
Anne. 

C. 

15. ' We did nob enter upon the war till we had no 
other means of doing ourselves justice.' Examine criti- 
cally this assertion as to the outbreak of war with Spain 
in 1739. 

16. Explain and illustrate the influence and impor- 
tance of any one of the following : — the Drapier's Letters, 
the Craftsman, the letters of Junius, Peter Plymley's 
Letters, Cobbett's Political Register. 

*17. Sketch and illustrate by means of a sketch-map 
either the extent of British dominion in India in 1770 
with relation to the principal native states or the Vit- 
toria campaign. 

18. Can Pitt be held responsible for the political con- 
fusion of the first ten years of George Ill's reign ? 

19. 'Down to 1808 England's part in the great war 
against France is a story of wasted opportunities.' 
Explain and illustrate this statement. 



20. 'Few governments have been more underrated 
or more unjustly criticized than that which carried 
England through the final stages of the struggle with 
Napoleon and the hardly less formidable internal crisis 
which followed the peace of 1815.' Do you agree with 
this verdict ? 

21. Can any similarity be observed between the cir- 
cumstances which produced the religious revivals in the 
reigns of George II and of William IV ? 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOKY. 



General History. Period I. (284-604.) 

I. 

[At least one of the questions marked * should be 

attempted.] 

1. Describe the general characteristics of the 'New 
Monarchy ' of Diocletian and Constantine, with special 
reference to the financial innovations of those emperors. 

2. Sketch the political situation in the East at the 
beginning of the fourth century, and discuss Constantino's 
motives for founding a new capital. 

*3. Draw a sketch-map to illustrate the campaigns of 
Julian either on the Rhine or on the Euphrates ; and 
discuss his importance as a military reformer and as a 
general. 

4. Discuss the situation of the pagans in the Empire 
after the Edict of Milan. 

5. 'It was in his cell at Bethlehem, meditating and 
completing the Vulgate, that Jerome fixed for centuries 
the dominion of Latin Christianity over the mind of 
man.' Comment on this. 

6. ' The genius of Rome expired with Theodosius.* 
Discuss this statement. 

7. Sketch the career of Alaric, with special reference 
to the Italian expedition of 405-410. 

*8. Describe the events which led up to the Vandal 
occupation of Africa. Illustrate your answer by a 
sketch-map. 

9. Estimate the importance in the history of Church 
and State of one of the following Bishops of Rome : — 
Liberius, Innocent I, Leo I. 

10. What is the interest of the career of the Empress 
Placidia ? 

11. Explain the importance of the Codex Alaricianus. 

*12. Describe with the aid of a sketch-map the political 
situation in Gaul in 476. 

13. Describe the state of literature in the West in the 
fifth century with special reference to one or more of 
the following : — St. Augustine, C'laudian, Apollinaris 
SidoniuB. 

3 H 1 [T. T. 1911. 1 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period I. (284-604.) 

II. 

[At lead one of the questions inarTced * should he 

attempted.'] 

1. What are the contemporary authorities for the 
history of the Ostrogoths in Italy ? Bring out the 
importance of this race in Teutonic Epic and Legend. 

2. ' Ni le Christianisme, ni la civilisation romaine n'ont 
p^n^tr^ profond^ment le fondateur de la domination 
franque : ses successeurs lui ressembleront et . . . tous 
ces rois m^rovingiens sont Timage fidele du peuple franc/ 
Discuss the general characteristics of Merovingian 
civilization. 

■^3. Describe with a sketch-map or maps the chief 
political and racial changes in the Balkan peninsula 
during your period. 

4. Consider the importance in East Roman history of 
the reign of either Zeno or Maurice. 

5. Examine the relations of the Visigoths to the 
Franks from the accession of Clovis to the death of 
Leovigild. 

6. Illustrate the influence of the Papacy in the West 
under Gregory I by an account of his relations either 
with Gaul or with Spain. 

7. Who w^ere the chief Patriarchs of Alexandria in 
the fifth and sixth centuries ? 

8. Discuss the characteristics of Byzantine learning 
and education. 

9. Give an account of the military organization of the 
Lombards. 

*10. To what extent had the Franks subdued the other 
German races by the beginning of the seventh century ? 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

11. What ideals are illustrated by the monasticism of 
St. Benedict and of Cassiodorus respectively ? 

■^12. What possessions were left to the Empire in the 
West at the beginning of the seventh century ? Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

3H2 [r. r. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General Hisfori/. Period 11. (476-919.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * shovM he 

attempted.^ 

I. Sketch the career and estimate the importance of 
Odoacer. 

*2. Compare the position of the Ostrogoths in Italy 
with that of the Visigoths in the Spanish peninsula. 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map showing the 
largest extension of the territories of each. 

3. ' Early in the fifth century the Eastern Empire 
seemed as likely as the Western to collapse before the 
attacks of the barbarians.' Why did this not happen ? 

4. In wdiat respects did the kingdom of Clovis and his 
sons difi'er from those of the other Teutonic races ? 

5. Describe the main features of the domestic policy 
of Justinian. 

*6. Describe with the aid of a sketch-map either the 
campaigns of Narses in Italy or those of Heraclius 
against the Persians. 

^7. Give some account of the dealings of the Franks 
with their neighbours north of the Alps in the period 
A. D. 551-700 and illustrate your answ^er by a sketch- 
map. 

8. ShoAV what chano-es the Benedictine rule introduced 
into the ideals and the practice of the monastic life. 

9. Compare the attitude of the Papacy towards the 
Franks and towards the Lombards. 

10. Estimate the immediate influence of the rise of 
Mohammedanism on European Christianity. 

II. Sketch briefly the career of any one of the fol- 
lowing : — Leovigild, Lothar II, Belisarius, Sisibut^ 
Justinian II. 

12. Compare the achievements and position of Pippin 
of Heristal and Charles Martel. 

3H3 [T,T, 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



General History. Period II. (476-919.) 

11. 

[At least ONE of the questions viarJced * should be 

attempted.] 

l.*;Has the importance of the work clone by the house 
of Pippin in resisting the advance of the Moslems been 
exaggerated '^ 

*2. Estimate the debt of the Eastern Empire to the 
Isaurian dynasty. Illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map. 

3. ' The alliance between the Carolingians and the 
Papacy was no less detrimental to the best interests of 
the Prankish kingdom than to those of Italy.' Discuss 
this statement. 

*4. Account for the failure of the Saxons to maintain 
against Charles the Great the independence they had 
till then upheld so successfully. Illustrate your answer 
by a sketch-map. 

5. What do you know of any i/ivo of the following — 
Tasilo of Bavaria, St. Boniface, Stauracius, Alcuin, 
Abderrahman the Ommeiad, Boso of Aries ? 

6. How far can Lewis the Pious be held personally 
responsible for the troubles of his reign ? 

7. Which of the Popes of the ninth century has made 
most of a mark on history ? 

8. ' The military measures which provided W^estern 
Europe with an effective defence against the Vikings 
involved political consequences hardly less harmful than 
the danger they averted.' Discuss this. 

^9. To what extent did the Saracens succeed in gain- 
ing a footing in Italy in the eighth and ninth centuries, 
and by whom were they checked'? Illustrate 3'our 
answer by a sketch-map, 

3 H 1 [Turn over. 



10. Compare the relative strength of the separatist 
and unifying tendencies in either France or Germany at 
the end of your period. 

11. At what times in your period were literature and 
education most flourishing and most depressed ? 

12. ' The Saracen was seen at his best in Spain.' Is 
this statement justifiable ^ 

13. Give some account of the social and economic 
condition of the Eastern Empire in the tenth century. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period III. (919-1273.) 

I. 

[At least one of the questions marked ivith an asterisk''^ 
should, he attempted,'] 

*1. Trace and account for the growth of the power of 
the Saxon House in Germany under Henry the Fowler. 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

2. ' When the early Capetians were carrying on their 
petty warfare in the regions between Seine and Loire . . . 
half a score of feudal potentates were building up a series 
of local states with foundations as strong, and patriotism 
as intense, as those of the lords of Paris.' Discuss this 
summary of the political history of France in the tenth 
century. 

3. How^ far was the reign of Otto II (a) successful in 
Italy, {h) detrimental to German unity ? 

4. Estimate the importance of the reign of Basil II in 
the history of the Eastern Empire. 

5. Discuss the effect of either the Saxon revolt or the 
submission at Canossa upon the fortunes of the Emperor 
Henry IV. 

6. To what extent was Hildebrand the creator of a new 
policy foi the Papacy ? 

*7. Trace with a map the progress of Norman power 
in Italy from the battle of Civitate (1017) to the battle 
of Civitate (1053). 

8. Explain the circumstances in which the Concordat 
of Worms was drawn up, and discuss it as a settlement 
of the question at issue. 

*9. Trace with a map the history of the kingdom of 
Burgundy in this period. 

10. Describe the relations between Moors and Chris- 
tians in the Iberian peninsula at the beginning of the 
eleventh centuiy. 

11. Trace the rise of the Seljuk Turks and their pro- 
gress down to 1071. 

12. Illustrate the influence of the religious and intel- 
lectual revival of the eleventh century on the politics of 
the age. 

3H5 \T,T. \dll.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period III. (919-1273.) 

II. 

\^At lead one of the questions marked ^ should be 

attempted.] 

*1. Describe with a map the relations of Germany with 
the Slavs on her Eastern frontier in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. 

2. Illustrate the influence of the alliance between the 
Welfs and the Angevin House on the course of European 
history. 

*3. Describe with a map the feudal distribution of 
France north of the Loire towards the end of the twelfth 
century, and indicate the additions to the royal domain 
made during the reign of Philip Augustus. 

4. What were the main routes of European trade 
during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ? Illustrate 
the influence of trade rivalries and ambitions upon 
political events during this period. 

5. Summarize the work of the Lateran Council of 1 2 1 5. 
How far were its schemes of reform effective ? 

6. Compare the policy of Frederick Barbarossa in 
regard to the Lombard towns with that of Frederick II. 

*7. Trace with a map the advance of the Christian 
powers in Spain during the thirteenth century. 

8. Give some account of the Mongol Empire under 
Zenghis Khan and his immediate successors, and describe 
the effects of the Tartar invasion of Eastern Europe. 

*9. Describe with a map the condition and organization 
of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 

10. Trace the territorial fortunes of the younger sons 
of Louis VIII. 

3 H 6 [Turn over. 



11. Illustrate the influence of the revived study of 
Roman law upon the aims and methods of monavchs 
during your period. 

12. Analyse the governmental system of France as it 
was in the time of St. Louis. 

13. Discuss the attitude of public opinion in Europe 
on the struggle between Frederick II and the Papacy. 



[r. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

I. 

[At least one of the questions marked * should he 
attempted.'] 

J. Enumerate the chief princely families of Germany 
at the beginning of the fourteenth century, and show 
how their rivalries affected the fortunes of the German 
kingdom. 

2. Analyse the questions at issue between the Emperor 
Lewis IV and Pope John XXII. 

3. Describe the administrative system of France under 
Philip the Fair. 

^4. Sketch, with the aid of a map or maps, the advance 
of the Ottoman Turks, 1307-1402. What causes facili- 
tated the growth of their power ? 

5. Discuss the career of Etienne Marcel. Why did 
the experiment of representative government in France 
prove a failure ? 

■^6. Trace the history, and analyse the constitution, of 
the Swiss confederation down to 1389. Illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map. 

7. ' It was in the fourteenth century that the relations 
of European States began to be consciously influenced, 
in some degree, by trade interests.' Discuss this. 

8. Describe the condition of the Papal States during 
the ' Babylonish Captivity '. 

9. Trace the development of the theory of a General 
Council down to the meeting of the Council of Pisa. 

10. Show the importance of the Golden Bull. Does 
Charles IV deserve to be regarded as a great statesman 1 

■^11. Describe, with a sketch-map, the condition of the 
Slavonic States of Eastern Europe at the beginning of 
the fifteenth century. 

3 H 7 [Turn over. 



*12 Estimate the significance of the career of Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti. Add a sketch-map of Northern Italy 
showing the Visconti power at its greatest extent, and 
its relations with its neighbours. 

13 How far was the Hussite movement in Bohemia 
caused and governed by nationalist or religious motives ? 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



aeneral History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

II. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should be 

attempted.'] 

*1. Trace the growth of the Venetian possessions on 
the mainland of Italy in the fifteenth century. Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

2. Describe and account for the decadence of the 
French States- General in the fifteenth century. 

3. Illustrate and account for the rapid revival of the 
Ottoman power after the battle of Angora. 

4. How far was the consolidation of the Netherlands 
carried under the Burgundian dynasty ? 

5. Illustrate from the career of Aeneas Sylvius the 
condition of the Church and the intellectual life of Italy 
in his time. 

6. Trace and explain the decadence of the Hanse 
League. 

7. Compare the administration of Louis XI with that 
of Ferdinand and Isabella. 

*8. Draw a sketch-map showing the conquests of 
Mohammed II and add short historical notes. 

9. Account for the decadence of Hungary after the 
death of Matthias Corvinus. 

10. Account for the chronic political instability of the 
kingdom of Naples. 

11. Had Maximilian I any coherent or practicable 
foreign policy ? 

*12. Trace and illustrate by a sketch-map the rise 
of the power of Poland in the fifteenth century. 

13. At what period would you place the culmination 
of the classical renaissance in Italy ? Give reasons for 
your answer. 

3H8 [7^.^.1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period V. (1414-1598.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should be 

attempted.] 

*1. Trace the growth of the Venetian possessions on 
the mainland of Italy in the fifteenth century. Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

2. Describe and account for the decadence of the 
French States-General in the fifteenth century. 

3. Illustrate and account for the rapid revival of the 
Ottoman powder after the battle of Angora. 

4. How far was the consolidation of the Netherlands 
carried under the Burgundian dynasty ? 

5. Illustrate from the career of Aeneas Sylvius the 
condition of the Church and the intellectual life of Italy 
in his time. 

6. Trace and explain the decadence of the Hanse 
League. 

7. Compare the administration of Louis XI with that 
of Ferdinand and Isabella. 

*8. Draw a sketch-map showing the conquests of 
Mohammed II and add short historical notes. 

9. Account for the decadence of Hungary after the 
death of Matthias Corvinus. 

10. Account for the chronic political instability of the 
kingdom of Naples. 

11. Had Maximilian I any coherent or practicable 
foreign policy ? 

*12. Trace and illustrate by a sketch-map the rise 
of the power of Poland in the fifteenth century. 

13. At what period would you place the culmination 
of the classical renaissance in Italy ? Give reasons for 
your answer. 

3 Ho [T. r. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V. (1414-1598.) 

II. 

[At least one of the questions marked * should be 
attempted.'] 

1. Examine the character of the risings in Spain and 
Sicily at the beginning of the reign of the Emperor 
Charles V, and the causes of their failure. 

2. Illustrate and explain the growing divergence of 
the Kenaissance and Reformation movements between 
1519 and 1569. 

*3. Describe briefly the racial and linguistic divisions 
of the Netherlands. Illustrate by a sketch-map showing 
the Provinces and the towns which were prominent 
during the war with Philip II. 

4. What were the chief features in the development of 
Russia in the sixteenth century ? 

5. Illustrate the effect upon the Reformation movement 
of the invasions of Central Europe by Suleiman. 

*6. Draw a sketch-map of France marking (a) the 
Provinces, (b) the following places : — Amboise, Arques, 
Bergerac, Blois, (L'ognac, Ivry, La Rochelle, Meaux, 
Montauban, Poissy, Tours. 

7. Estimate the importance in the history of the Papacy 
of the work of Paul IV and Pius V. 

8. Criticize the statement that — ' during the reign of 
Maximilian II, while the Imperial authority grew weaker 
and weaker, tolerance was the guiding principle of his 
conduct.' 

9. Contrast the character of the Portuguese power in 
the East with that of the Spanish Empire in the West. 

10. Give an account of any one of the following : — 
Franz von Sickingen, Cosimo Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
King Zapolya,IQiaireddin Barbarossa, Michel de I'HopitaL 

3 H 10 [Tiirn over. 



11. Describe the attitude of John III of Sweden 
towards the Counter-Reformation. 

12. Discuss the relations of Henry III to the religious 
parties in France. 

I 13. ' The real line of separation between the Mediaeval 
and the Modern World has to be sought in the middle 
of the sixteenth century.' Illustrate the truth of this 
statement from an examination of Italian literature. 



[r.^'. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HTSTOEY. 



General History. Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

I. 

\^At least one of the questions ^marked * should he 
oiteinpted.'\ 

*1. Draw a sketch-map of Germany at the beginning of 
your period (a) illustrating the territorial distribution 
of the religious parties, and (5) showing the extent of 
the Hapsburg territories under Rudolf II. 

2. Show how the religious wars in France were 
affected by (a) the foreign connexions of the House of 
Guise, (Ij) the revolt of the Netherlands. 

3. What effects, economic and political, had been pro- 
duced in Europe before the end of the sixteenth century 
by the development of new trade-routes ? 

4. ' The old religion, a buttress and defence of absolute 
despotism ; the new doctrine, the banner of liberty.' 
Discuss the truth of this statement with regard to (a) the 
Netherlands, (h) France after the Edict of Nantes. 

*5. Indicate the importance of the reign of Selim II 
in the history of the Ottoman Empire. Illustrate by 
a sketch-map of his dominions. 

6. 'Diplomacy in the period 15 60-1650 was both 
unscrupulous and futile.' Explain and illustrate. 

7. Write a short account of either the constitution of 
Venice, or the constitution of the Society of Jesus. 

8. Give some account of the condition oi' pai*ties in 
France (a) at the accession of Louis XIII, and (h) at the 
death of Richelieu. 

9. Examine the policy of either Spain or Denmark in 
the Thirty Years' War. 

10. What improvements in the art of war were intro- 
duced in the course of the Thirty Years' War ? 

11. Discuss the efiects upon Portugal and the Portu- 
guese Empire of sixty years of Spanish rule. 

12. How do the following books illustrate the thought 
of your period — Bodinus, de Repuhlica ; Sull}^ Economies 
royales ; Grotius, de lure Belli et Pads 1 

13. How far did the fighting in this period influence 
European opinion on the moral aspect of warfare 1 

3H11 iT. T. iOll.J 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

General History, Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

II. 

[At least one of the questions marked * should be 

atteonptedJ] 

■^i. Examine the effects of the Thirty Years' War on 
the position of Spain in Italy, giving a map of the 
Spanish possessions in 1648. 

2. Illustrate and explain the gradual decline of the 
Papal power in political affairs during the latter half of 
the seventeenth century. 

3 Explain the religious position of the Port KoyaHsts 
and account for their fall. 

4. Trace the career of Fouquet, and explain the im- 
portance of his overthrow. 

5. What were the chief difficulties which the Emperor 
Leopold I had to meet and to what extent did he over- 
come them ? 

6. In what degree did Charles XI recover for Sweden 
the position from which she had fallen on the death of 
Charles X? 

7. Describe the constitution of Holland at the time of 
the Revolution of 167 2 and explain tlie political signi- 
ficance of that Revolution. 

8. What date would you fix as marking the beginning 
of the decline of the power of Louis XIV and for what 
reasons ? 

9. Illustrate from the events of the last half of the 
seventeenth century the growing importance attached by 
the European governments to colonial possessions and 
tropical trade. 

10. Illustrate the services of the House of Kiuprili to 
the Turkish Empire. Why had they no permanent 
effect 1 

'**'ll. Discuss and illustrate by means of a sketch-map 
the strategical importance of Bavaria in the Spanish 
Succession War. 

*12. Illustrate, with the aid of a sketch-map, from the 
Spanish Succession War the survival and importance 
of provincial disunion in Spain. 

*13. What were the aims of Peter the Great in the 
Baltic, and what measure of success did he achieve ? 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 
3H12 [r. r. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

I. 

l^At lead one of the questions marked * should he 

attempted.'] 

*1. Draw a sketch-map of the Austrian dominions at 
the beginning of your period and contrast the resources 
and European position of Austria in 1720 and in 1748. 

2. ' It was Louis XV who made the Revolution in- 
evitable.' Discuss this statement. 

3. Explain from the general condition of Europe and 
from the political situation of their respective countries 
the importance of any one of the following : — Ripper da, 
Prince Eugene, Benedict XIV, Gustavus III. 

*4. Discuss the importance of the kingdom of Sardinia 
in European history before 1756. Illustrate your answer 
by a sketch-map. 

5. 'Had Frederick II died in 1750 he would not be 
reckoned a great general ; the reputation of Maurice de 
Saxe would stand far higher.' Discuss this statement. 

6. Discuss the wisdom of the policy adopted by France 
in 1741. What alternatives were open to her? 

7. Is it true to say that Elizabeth Farneso had no 
regard for the real interests of Spain ? 

8. What changes took place in the relations of Holland 
to England and France between 1715 and 1789 ? What 
influence did these changes exert over the domestic affairs 
of Holland ? 

9. * Russia played the decisive part in the Seven 
Years' War.' Discuss this statement. 

10. Why was the French Navy so much more success- 
ful in the War of American Independence than in the 
Seven Years' War ? 

3Hl3 [Tiim over. 



*11. Consider the various attempts made by Austria 
before 1789 to obtain possession of Bavaria. Account 
for their failure, and illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map. 

12. *It is only her foreign policy which entitles 
Catherine II to be called " Great ".' Discuss this verdict. 

13. Illustrate and account for the general atmosphere 
of unrest prevailing in Europe in the ten years preced- 
ing the outbreak of the French Revolution. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

II. 

[At least one of the questions viarked * should he 
attempted.'] 

1. Trace the events which led to the outbreak of war 
in 1792, 

*2. Show the importance of the German lands West 
of the Rhine, and explain their easy conquest by the 
Friich. Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

?. Describe the original constitution of the Consulate 
and its subsequent development. 

4. Describe the institutions of the Holy Roman Empire 
in 1789 and note the events (a) internal, (6) external, 
which after 1800 led to its final dissolution. 

5. Discuss the variations in Napoleon's policy towards 
the Papacy and the effects produced on his position ifi 
Europe. 

*6. How far was Napoleon's policy towards the minor 
states of Germany justified, and to what extent and for 
what reasons was it a failure ? Illustrate your answer 
by a sketch-map. 

7. What circumstances contributed to weaken Napo- 
leon's position in France itself after the conclusion of the 
Treaty of Tilsit ? 

8. Explain and criticize the determination of Austria 
to enter upon war with France in 1809. 

9. Examine the shares taken by Stein, Hardenberg, 
and Gneisenau in the recovery of Prussia after Jena. 

10. Sketch the part played by either Naples or Turkey 
between 1795 and 1815, and account for its importance. 

3 H 14 [Turn over. 



11. ' The cainpaign of 1814 was not a Llunder but a 
crime ' (Lord Wolseley ). Is it possible to justify Napo- 
leon's action in continuing the struggle against the 
coalition after his defeat at Leipzig ? 

12. Examine the circumstances which conduced to the 
unpopularity of Louis XVIII's government in 1814-15 
and to the return of Napoleon from Elba. 

*13. Sketch the course of any one of the following 
campaigns, and illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map : — 1796 in Italy (first half i ; 1805 (up to the fall of 
Ulm) ; 180G (up to Jena). 



[1\T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VIII. (1789-1878.) 

L 

\_At least one of the questions marked * should he 

attempted,'] 

1. Trace the events which led to the outbreak of war 
in 1792. 

*2. Show the importance of the German lands West of 
the Rhine^ and explain their easy conquest by the French. 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

3. Describe the original constitution of the Consulate 
and its subsequent development. 

4. Describe the institutions of the Holy Roman Empire 
in 1789 and note the events (a) internal, (b) external, 
which after 1800 led to its final dissolution. 

5. Discuss the variations in Napoleon's policy towards 
the Papacy and the effects produced on his position in 
Europe. 

*6. How far was Napoleon's policy towards the minor 
states of Germany justified, and to what extent and for 
what reasons was it a failure 1 Illustrate your answer 
by a sketch-map. 

7. What circumstances contributed to weaken Napo- 
leon's position in France itself after the conclusion of the 
Treaty of Tilsit ? 

8. Explain and criticize the determination of Austria 
to enter upon war with France in 1809. 

9. Examine the shares taken by Stein, Hardenberg, 
and Gneisenau in the recovery of Prussia after Jena. 

10. Sketch the part played by either Naples or Turkey 
between 1795 and 1815, and account for its importance. 

3 H 15 [Turn over. 



11. ''The campaign of 1814 was not a blunder but a 
crime ' (Lord Wolseley). Is it possible to justify Napo- 
leon's action in continuing the struggle against the 
coalition after his defeat at Leipzig ? 

12. Examine the circumstances which conduced to the 
unpopularity of Louis XVlII's government in 1814-15 
and to the return of Napoleon from Elba. 

*13. Sketch the couj-se of any one of the following 
campaigns, and illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map : — 179G in Italy (first half) ; 1805 (up to the fall of 
Ulm) ; 1 806 (up to Jena). 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOKY. 



General History. Period VIII, (1789-1878.) 

11. 

[Gandidates should attempt at least one of the 
questions marked ^.] 

1. What was the Holy Alliance? What degree of 
success attended the attempt to secure common action 
among the great Powers between 1815 and 1830"? 

*2. Draw a sketch-map of Italy, showing* the political 
divisions of the country in 1815, and indicating the 
dates of territorial changes between that year and 1872. 
Add brief explanatory notes. 

3. Explain the causes, and narrate the course, of the 
Neapolitan revolution of 1820. Give some account of 
the organization and activities of the Carbonari. 

*4. Trace, with a sketch-map, the history of the German 
Zollverein, and analyse its influence upon political 
history. 

5. Describe the diplomatic difficulties created by the 
revolt of the Belgians in 1830. 

6. Draw a contrast between Guizot and Thiers. 

7. * Maintenant c'est en ami et en gentleman que je 
vous parle ; si nous parvenons a nous entendre sur cette 
afiaire, I'Angleterre et moi, peu m'importe le reste, je 
tiens peu a ce que feront ou penseront les autres.' 
(Nicholas I to Sir H. Seymour, 1853.) 'We put our 
money on the wrong horse' (Lord Salisbury). 

Discuss the relations between England and Russia 
from 1830 to the outbreak of the Crimean War. 

*8. Illustrate from the course of the Revolution of 
1848 the influence of race-conflict upon the fortunes of 
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Draw a map showing 
the geographical distribution of the principal races of the 
Austrian Empire. 

3H 16 [Turn over. 



9. Sketch the history of the Frankfort Parliament 
and account for its failure. 

10. What do you mean by the ' Liberal Empire ' 1 
What was Napoleon Ill's own view of the contrast 
between the earlier and the later parts of his reign ? 

*11. Illustrate from either the campaign of 1866 or 
of 1870 up to Sedan the leading principles of Moltke's 
strategy. Draw a sketch-map to explain your answer. 

12. Describe the work of reorganization carried out 
by the National Assembly in France after the Franco- 
German War. 

*13. Compare the terms proposed by Russia in the 
Treaty of San Stefano with those imposed by the 
Congress of Berlin. Illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map of the Balkan Peninsula. 

14. Describe the domestic reforms of Alexander II in 
Russia. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Saxon Em/perors (936-1002). 

I. 

1. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked with an asterisk * . — 

{a) Interea barbari ad novas res moliendas de- 
saeviunt, percussitque Bolizlav fratrem suum, virum 
christianum. (WiDUKiND.) 

(b) Rex an tern de die in diem proficiens, paterno 
regno nequaqiiam est contentus, sed abiit Burgundiam, 
regem cum regno in suam accepit potestatem. 

(WiDUKIND.) 

■^(c) Tres duces gentis Ungariae capti, ducique 
Henrico praesentati, mala morte, ut digni erant, multati 
sunt; suspendio namque crepuerunt. (Widukind.) 

{d) Confessor Christi indubitanter ferrum i-apit, 
tamdiuque deportat, quo ipse rex decernit; manum in- 
columem cunctis ostendit, fidem catholicam omnibus 
probabilem reddit. (Widukind.) 

(e) Cuonrado duce ad persequendum Berengarium 
relicto, Berengarius eiusdem ducis consilio sponte sua in 
Saxoniam ad regem venit. {Continuatlo Reginonis.) 

(f) Eodem anno quidam ex Langobardis more solito 
ab imperatore deficiunt et Adalbertum in Italiam re- 
ducunt. {Continuatio Reginonis.) 

2. With what motives and with what results did 
Otto I interfere in the West Frankish kingdom ] 

3. Do you agree with the editor of Flodoard that he 
holds a very honourable place among the historians of 
all ages ? Give reasons for your judgement. 

4. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked with an asterisk ^ : — 

(a) Heverardus sane Gislebertum Lotharingorum 
ducem a regis fidelitate seiunxerat, cuius adiutorio regi 
non modice resistebat. (Liutprand.) 

3 H 33 [Turn over. 



(6) Rex Hugo cum divinam animadversionera de- 
clinare ac Berengario praeesse non posset, relicto Lothario 
et, simulata pace, Berengarii fidei tradito, in Provinciam 
orani cum pecunia properavit. (LiUTPRAND.) 

(c) Tunc consurgens Petrus cardinalis presbyter, se 
vidisse ilium missam celebrasse et non communicasse, 
testatus est. - (Liutprand.) 

*(d) Inimicos nostros commoti nil aliud contumelia- 
rum, nisi ; Romane ! dicamus, hoc solo, id est Romano- 
rum nomine, quicquid ignobilitatis, quicquid timiditatis, 
quicquid avaritiae, quicquid luxuriae, quicquid mendacii, 
immo quicquid vitiorum est, comprehendentes. 

(Liutprand.) 

(e) Interea Otto rex cum Rheno transmisso exer- 
citum per Belgicam duceret, obviat regi Conrhado, qui 
tunc ab Alpibus egressus, cum multa expeditione Ludo- 
vico succurrere accelerabat. (Richer.) 

*(/) Gerberga regina legatos dirigit fratribus suis, 
Ottoni regi ac Brunoni ex presule duci, necnon et 
Hugoni Galliarum duci, petens per eos Lotharium filium 
suum in regnum patri defuncto succedere. 

(g) Augustus vero, cum et ipse talium studiosissimus 
haberetur, an Gerbertus erraverit, admirabatur. 

5. What do you learn from your authorities as to 
(a) the means by which the Saxon Emperors controlled 
their Italian kingdom, (6) the effectiveness of their 
control ? 

6. What light does the Legatio of Liutprand throw 
upon the antipathy between Western and Eastern 
Christendom and its causes ? 

7. W^hat evidence is there of separate national feeling 
in the German duchies at this period *? In which of 
them was it most marked ? 

8. What degree of civilization had been reached by 
the Slav peoples with whom the Germans were in 
contact during this period *? 



[2^ T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Saxon Emperors, 
11. 



1. Comment briefly on the folJ owing passages, trans- 
lating those marked with an asterisk * : — 

[a) Qui etiam rex tarn ipse quam Willelmus sed et 
Hugo mittunt obsides Othoni regi per Othonem ducem. 

(Flodoard.) 

(b) Conventus placiti regum Ludowici et Othonis 
super Charam fluvium intrante mense Augusto cele- 
bratur. (Flodoard.) 

*(c) Deinde surgens Artoldus archiepiscopus pro- 
tulit, secundum iussionem papae Romani quam ei dele- 
gaverat, litis initium atque tenorem quae versabatur 
inter ipsum et Hugonem subrogatum sibi ecclesiae 
Remensis antistitem. (Flodoard.) 

{d) Gerberga regina colloquium habuit cum Brunone, 
fratre suo, ubi praedicto Ragenario sui milites et infantes 
redduntur ; reginae vero possessiones, quas illi quondam 
Gislebertus dux dotis nomine dederat, restituuntur. 

(Flodoard.) 

{e) Eo tempore Dania cismarina, quam ludJand in- 
colae appellant, in tres divisa episcopatus, Hamma- 
burgensi episcopatui subiecta est. (Adam.) 

(/) In Norveia Haccon princeps erat, quem, dum 
Nordmanni superbius agentem regno depellerent, 
Haroldus sua virtute restituit et christicolis placatum 
efFecit. (Adam.) 

^ig) Ab ipsa urbe vela tendens quartodecimo die 
ascendes ad Ostrogard Ruzziae. Cuius metropolis civitas 
est Chive, aemula sceptri Constantinopolitani, claris- 
simum decus Graeciae. (Adam) 

2. Account fully for the failure of the Saxon Emperors 
in their attempts upon Southern Italy. 

3. What would you infer from your authorities re- 
garding the intellectual culture of the higher clergy in 
this period ? 

3H31 [Turnover. 



4. Describe, with the help of a map, the extension of 
German rule or overlordship eastwards in this period. 

5. How did the Saxon Emperors conceive of the 
relation between the Empire and the Papacy ? Illustrate 
your answer from your authorities. 

6. Write a life of Liutprand, and examine his trust- 
worthiness as a historian. 

7. How much did Otto I accomplish for the consolida- 
tion of the German kingdom ? 

8. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked wdth an asterisk * : — 

(a) Forte, quia Graecus est, ut dicitis, more Grae- 
corum conregnantem instituere vultis. (Gerbert.) 

(6) Magnoque usui, si placet, haec nostra coniunctio 
erit, magnosque fructus afFeret. Etenim nobis obstantibus, 
nee Gallus nee Germanus fines lacesset Romani imperii. 

(Gerbert.) 

*(c) Regum nomen, quod apud Francos pene emor- 
tuum est, magnis consiliis, magnis viribus resuscitassemus, 
sed propter impia tempora, propter perditissimorum 
hominum iniqua commenta, clam agimus quod palam 
non possumus. (Gerbert.) 

*{d) Tribus ut ita dicam seculi aetatibus, vobis, 
patri, avo, inter hostes et tela, fidem purissimam ex- 
hibui, meam quantulamcuraque personam regibus furenti- 
bus, populis insanientibus, pro vestra salute opposui. 

(Gerbert.) 

(e) Ecce iterum Avares, quasi iam perpetrati sceleris 
obliti, adversum nos arma commoverant ; quos adventare 
dux Heinricus regi nuncians, inceptis eum itineribus 
revocavit. (Thietmar.) 

*(/) Calabriam a crebra Grecorum incursione et 

Saracenorum depredatione magnam vim perpeti caesar 

comperiens, ad supplementum exercitus sui Bawarios 

ac fortes in armis Alemannos vocavit. (Thietmar ) 

(g) Post haec Gregorius, qui cesari valde carus erat, 
dolo eum capere nisus occultas tendebat insidias. 

(Thietmar.) 

[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The First Three Crusades, 
T. 

1. Comment on the following passages from the Gesta 
Francoruvif translating that marked * : — 

*(a) Qui omnino prohibuerunt, dixeriintque ' Certe 
indigni sumus atque iniustum nobis videtur ullatenus ei 
sacramentum iurare '. Forsitan adhuc a nostris uiaiori- 
bus saepe delusi erimus ? Ad ultimiim quid facturi 
erunt ? dicent, quoniam necessitate compulsi, nolentes 
volentesque humiliaverunt se ad nequissimi imperatoris 
voluntatem. 

(6) Tandem nequivit vir fortis Tancredus diu luctari 
cum Balduino doctissimo comite quia illi magnus erat 
exercitus ; tamen volens nolensque dimisit eam et viriliter 
recessit cum suo exercitu, fueruntque ei statim traditae 
duae optimae civitates, videlicet Athena et Manustra et 
plurima castra. 

(c) Illic fuit ordinata acies septena ex acie ducis 
Godefridi et comitis Nortmanniae . . . Hanc miserunt 
obviam Turcis qui veniebant a raari. . . . Aliae autem 
turmae ordinatae sunt a flu mine usque ad montaneam, 
quod distat per II milliaria. 

{d) Saepe fuerunt congregati in ecclesia Sancti Petri 
ad faciendum quod iustum erat. Boamundus recitavit 
suam conventionem suumque ostendit compotum. Comes 
Sancti Egidii similiter sua patefecit verba et iusiurandum 
quod fecerat imperatori per consilium Boamundi. 

(e) Denuo mandavit illis dux ut cito venirent ad 
bellum quod admiravisus Babyloniae praeparat urbi 
Scaloniae. Illi autem festinando intraverunt montaneam, 
quaerentes Saracenorum bella^ et venerunt Caesaream, 

2. Comment on the following passages from Kaymond, 
translating those marked * : — 



t> 



(a) Inter haec comiti et duci mandavit, ut sibi suc- 
currerent ; aberant enim per duo milliaria. 

3 H 31 [Turn over. 



(b) Usus sua potentia et benigDitate Dominus pau- 
perem quemdam rusticum elegit, Provincialem genere, 
per quern omnes nos confortavit, et comiti et Podiensi 
episeopo haec verba niandavit. 

(c) Etenim mos erat in exercitu ut si signum alicuius 
Franci in civitate aut castello reperiretur, anullo postea 
oppugnaretur. 

*((i) Etenim Angli . . . ingressi mare Anglicum, et cir- 
cinata Hispania, transfretantes per mare Oceanum atque 
8ic Mediterraneum mare sulcantes, portum Antiochiae 
atque civitatem Laodiciae antequam exercitus noster per 
terram illuc veniret. 

*(e) Cum iam proximarent cum machinis ad muros 
non solum lapides et sagittae, verum etiam ligna et 
stipula proiiciebantur et super haec ignis et mallei lignei 
involuti pice et cera et sulphure et stupa et panniculis 
igne succensis proiiciebantur in machinas. 

3. Comment on the following passages from Fulcher, 
translating that marked ^ : — 

(a) Verum tamen dux urbis Edessae Balduinus con- 
gregatis Francis quotcunque potuit, Edessenis scilicet et 
Antiochenis, hostes praedictos ubi eos esse audivit quae- 
rere non distulit. Boamundus etiam, cincinno capitis sui 
abscisso, mandavit hoc intersigno Balduino praedicto ut 
ei citato auxilio pro amore Dei succurreret. Quod cum 
audisset Danisman, metuens horum animositatem, non 
est ausus ulterius ante urbem Maletinam morari. 

(b) Cur de Egypto, de Persida, de Mesopotamia, vel 
de Syria non coadunabant saltem centies centum millia 
pugnatorum . . . ? Non enim tunc habebamus plusquam 
trecentos milites, et tantum de peditibus, qui Hierusalem 
et loppam et Ramulam, Caypham etiam castrum custo- 
diebant. 

(c) Sed Goscelinus congregatis septem Turcorum 
millibus, Tancredum importune ad praelium lacessunt, 
et adiuvantibus Turcis quingenti de clientela Tancredi 
ceciderunt. 



*(t/) Comperiens autem et sciens Tuldequinus rex 
Damascenorum nihilominus se esse odiosum illis quam 
nos Christianos, propter Maudulfum, quein in praeterito 
ut superius legitur anno dolose consenserat perimi, qui 
magister satrapa fuerat inilitiae eorum, fecit cum rege 
Balduinus et Rogero principe Antiocheno pacem. 

(e) Praesentis decreti pagina tibi frater charissime 
et coepiscope Gibeline tuisque successoribus et per vos 
sanctae Hierosolymitanae ecclesiae patriarchal i metro- 
politano iure regendas disponendasque sancimus civitates 
omnes atque provincias quas sub praedicti regis ditione 
aut iam restituit aut in futurum restituere divina gratia 
dignabitur. 

4. Draw a map of Asia Minor, showing the lines of 
march of those crusading armies which followed the 
land-route. Discuss the relative merits and defects of 
the various routes. 

5. Estimate the part played by the Genoese and the 
Venetians in the establishment of the Latin power in 
Syria. 

6. Illustrate from your authorities the degree of know- 
ledge possessed by the Crusaders in regard to the political 
condition of western Asia at the time of the first crusade. 

7. Sketch the history of Edessa during its occupation 
by the ' Franks '. 

8. ' Qui fuimus occidentales, nunc facti sumus orientales. 
Qui fuit Romanus aut Francus hac in terra factus est 
Galilaeus aut Palaestinus.' Comment on this. 

9. How far did the Crusaders succeed in adapting 
their military methods to the needs of oriental warfare 
in the half-century following the conquest of Jerusalem ? 

[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The First lliree Crusades. 
II. 

1. Comment on the foUowino- passages from William 
of Tyre, translating that marked * : — 

*(a) Nobilis quidam Turcorum satrapa, ex causia 
quibusdam Mejeredim regis Damascenorum indigna- 
tionem sustinens, et procnratoris eius Mehenedin ... ad 
dominum regem et matrem eius . . . venit Hieroslymam 
asserens quod si dominus rex . . . sufficientem ei vellet 
assignare compensationem, ipse Bostrensem urbem cui 
praeerat una cum oppido Selcath Christianis resignaret. 

[h) Verum Graeci innata usi malitia et consueto iu 
nostros conducti odio, sive de mandato domini sui, sive 
hostium corrupti pecunia, studiose et ex industria per 
devia coeperunt trahere legiones. 

(c) Alii dicunt principem Antiuchenum indignatum 
quod rex Franciae ita ab eo divertisset et beneticiorum 
suorum immemor in nullo eum iuvisset quibusdam man- 
dasse in exercitu principes et obtinuisse quatenus eius 
gratia efficeret ne conatus eius finem sortiretur optatum 
et ut ita procurarent ut infecto nf gotio redire cogeretur 
inglorius. 

2. Comment on any /ottr of the following passages Irom 
the Itinerarmin, translating that marked * : — 

(a) Rex vero cum exercitu reliquo montem proximum 
quem vulgo Turonem dicunt tentoriis figendis eligit, 
unde beneticio loci et maris et terrae speculetur accessus. 

(6) Hie Cursac nomine, omnium malorum nequis- 
simus, ludam exsuperans pei'fidia . . . Salahadino dice- 
batur familiar is et mutuum singuli transisse cruorem in 
signum et testimonium invicem initae confoederationis. 

*(c) Aediticaverat etiam machinam firmissimis com- 
pactam compagibus gradibus ad ascendendum dispositis 
vulgo dictum Berefredum sese nexibus arctius com- 
plectentibus coriis opertam et funibus et solidissimis 
ligneis tabulatis nee petrarium iactibus dissolvendam 
nee ignis Graeci perfusione ncc cuiuscunque materiae 
cessuram iniuriis. 

3 H 32 [Turn over. 



(d) ' Mei quidem sciatis quod animo concipio sanioris 
fore consilii civitatem Ascalonem fugatis Turcis con- 
servare mcolumem ; quia totius orbis peregrinis eo per- 
necessarius non ignoratur esse transitus.' 

o 

(e) Templarii enim et Hospitalarii, Polani nihilo- 
minus terrae illius, in futurum oculos habentea acutiores 
Bupev agendis, regi Ricardo dissuaserunt versus lerusalem 
in illo articulo eundum. 

(/) Exiit enim susurrium a quibusdam Francis, 
Francorum nequitiam tali fictione velare putantibus, . . . 
quod rex Ricardus nequiter procuraverat mortem Mar- 
chisi et mercede conductos Hausassisos ad id agendum, 
dum illos destinaverat homicidas. 

(g) Mandavit Salahadino et eiusdem fratri Saphadino 
ne cniquam hominum liceret adire Sepulcrum Sanctum 
in lerusalem nisi qui suas litteras haberet vel comitis 
Henrici, prout vellent, ut praescripta inter ipsos teneretur 
conditio. 

3. Explain any four of the following passages from 
Michaud : — 

(a) lis all^rent en cons(^quence trouver I'empereur et 
lui d^peignirent le prince de Moussoul comme un homme 
tres-redoutable . . . ' S'il prend Damas, ajouterent-ils, nous 
ne pourrons plus lui tenir tete.' lis engagerent done 
I'empereur a se retirer, et obtinrent Pandas en recom- 
pense. (Ibn-alatir.) 

(6) Schircou s'enferma dans Belb^is; les figyptiens 
et les Francs I'y assi^gerent pendant trois mois : mais 
comme sur ces entrefaites les Chretiens de Syrie avaient 
essuy^ de grands revers, ils proposerent la paix a 
Schircou, a condition qu'il sortirait de I'figypte. 

(Ibn-alatir.) 

(c) Ensuite, quand il sut que Schircou, et apres lui 
Saladin, setaient constituds visirs du calife, et qu'ils 
reconnaissaient tenir leur autorite de lui, il en parut 
constern^. (Ibn-aboutai.) 

(d) Je viens de recevoir la nouvelle du traite conclu 
avec les Francs. Ce traite n'oblige que le souverain 
d'Alep et de Damas . . . C'est un crime contre Dieu. 

(Ibn-aboutaT.) 



3 

(e) Alors les musulmans inontereiit sur la culline et 
renvers^rent la tente du roi. To us les Chretiens qui s'y 
trouvaient furent faits prisonniers . . . Outre le roi, le 
prince Geoffroy son frere, Renaud, seigneur de Carac, 
le seigneur de G^bail, le fils de Honfroi, le grand-maitre 
des templiers et plusieurs hospitaliers et templiers. 

(Ibn-alatir.) 

(/) Voil^ des o})jets pour plus de deux cent mille 
pieces d'or : vous avez accord^ surety aux chr^tiens pour 
leurs efFets, mais non pour les ornemens des (^glises. 

(Emad-eddin.) 

(g) Nous sommes venus a Kaucab apr^s avoir r^diiit 
S^fed, qui appartenait aux templiers. Carac et les autres 
places chr^tiennes sont aussi en nos mains. 

(Deux Jardins.) 

(h) Ce qui nous e'tonne, c'est de voir I'^mulation des 
infid^les et 1' indifference des vrais croyans. 

(Deux Jardins.) 

(i) Tout ce que je desire, c'est de sauver mon honneur 
chez les Francs. Une fois parti, le sultan pourra, s'il 
veut, prendre Ascalon et tout ce qui reste aux chretiens. 

(Boha-eddin.) 

4. Describe the feudal organization of the Latins in 
the East as set forth in the Assizes of Jerusalem. 

5. Analyse the part played by the house of Lusignan 
in the hislory of Latin Syria. 

6. Discuss the authorship, date, and historical value 
of the Itinerariuvi. 

7. Trace w^ith a sketch-map or maps the changes in 
the political distribution of Western Asia among the 
Moslem powers during the twelfth century. 

8. Describe carefully v^ ith a map and a plan the battle 
of Arsuf. What light does it throw upon the military 
capacity of Richard ? 

9. Compare the character and abilities of Salad in 
with those of Noureddin. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



History of Land Tenure, 

I. 

1. Comment on the following passages from the Black 
Booh of Peterborough : — 

{a) Et unus sochemannus faciat servicium cum equo. 

(b) In Turlebi est j carucata terrae et iij bovatae 
ad gelclum Regis et de hac terra tenent viij villani viij 
bovatas et iij bovatae sunt wastae. 

(c) Ricardus Enganie ij hidas in Hamtonascira, et 
servit pro j milite sed socemanni faciunt quartam partem 
militis et ipse iij partes unius militis. 

2. Explain the nature of a fine of lands and describe 
the form of indenture in which it was recorded. 

3. Comment on the following passages, translating 
those marked * : — 

*(a) Ex hoc liquet quod vassallus non potest 
dominum suum infestire, salva fide homagii sui, nisi 
forte se defendendo, vel nisi ex praecepto principis cum 
60 iverit contra dominum suum in exercitum. 

[Glanvill.] 

*(6) Rex Vicecomiti salutem. Praecipio tibi quod 
iusticies N. quod iuste et sine dilatione faciat R. consue- 
tudines et recta servitia quae ei facere debet de tene- 
mento suo quod de eo tenet in ilia villa, si cut rationaliter 
monstrare poterit eum sibi deberi, ne oporteat eum 
amplius inde conqueri pro defectu recti. [Glanvill.] 

(c) Tunc summone per bonos summonitores duo- 
decim liberos et legales homines de viceneto de ilia villa, 
quod sint coram me vel iusticiis meis ea die parati Sacra- 
mento recognoscere, si T. pater praedicti G. fuit seisitus 
in dominico suo sicut de feodo suo de una virgata terrae 
in ilia villa die qua obiit. [Glanvill.] 

{d) Nos non tenebimus terras illorum qui convicti 
fuerint de felonia nisi per unum annum et unum diem, et 
tunc reddantur terrae dominis feodorum. [Magna Carta.] 

3 H 23 [Turn over. 



4. Classify the services rendered by the Libera 
Tenentes on the St. Paul's estates in 1222. 

5. Trace the history of the restrictions on alienation 
of land. 

6. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from the Domesday of St. PauVs : — 

(a) Joti fir Gilibti dim virg' quoda Wakelini cui n 
attinet p id' seru p Willm firmar ut escaeta |)pter furtum. 

{h) Job' holdegrim ij virg' p v sol' p carta capitti i 
vij acras quas aliq^mdiu tenuit sn servicio m*' p viij d 
p cartacapitti p fine fcm c decano % capitlo. 

(c) Manium istud defedit se tsus rege p v hidis s^ 
ptib^ vsus decanu % capim cu op^ fu'it. est au lib'um % 
q'etu ab omi secta comitat^ % hundredi % de similib^ q 
sp^tat in capite ad rege vt ballivos sues. 

(d) Efc X. solidos dederunt eis in gersuma, id est, 
lancept, et pro firma in anno reddent viij libras et 
sextarium vini in die sci Pauli. 

7. Distinguish common appurtenant, appendant and 
in gross. Discuss the doctrine that rights of common 
imply a grant from the lord. 

8. What is the meaning of Seisin ? How did the con- 
ception of it operate at Common Law to restrict the 
freedom of creating future estates in land ? 

9. Explain : — tenant pour autre vie : tenant par le 
verge : advowson : rent sec : coparceners : attornment. 

10. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Est etiam villenagium non ita purum sive con- 
cedatur libero homine vel villano ex conventione tenen- 
dum pro certis servitiis et consuetudinibus nominatis 
et expressis, quamvis servitia et consuetudines sunt 
villanae. [Bracton.] 

(6) Tenens vero nullam facit iniuriam domino suo 
ex tali donatione quamvis damnum, cum ipse dominus 
habere possit relevium de suo feoflfato et eiug haeredibus, 
et licet damnum facit, non tamen iniuriosum erit prae- 
dicta ratione. [Bkacton.] 



3 



(c) Quod quidem iniuriosum est secundum Stepha- 
num de Segrave, maxime cum de primo viro haeredes 
habuerit, quod quidem sustinere posset si nullos habuerit, 
dicebat enim quod lex ilia male intellecta fuit et male 
usitata, quia quod dicitur de lege Angliae intelligi debet 
de primo viro et eorum haeredibus communibus, et non 
de secundo, maxime cum haeredes apparentes extiterint 
de primo. [Bkacton.] 

(d) For we will that none be bound to pay the debt 
of his ancestor, whose heir he is, to any other but to us, 
unless he be thereto especially bound by the deed of his 
ancestor. [Britton.] 

(e) For if the lord's anger grow to expulsion, the 
law hath provided several weapons of remedy ; for it is 
at his election either to sue a subpoena, or an action of 
trespass against the lord. [Coke.] 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



History of Land Tenure. 

IT. 

1. Comment on the following passages from the Ramsey 
Cartulary and translate those marked * : — 

(a) De denariis, qui vocantur viginti solidi, dat 
dimidia virgata sex denarios. 

*(6) Item terra Aliciae viduae die Sancti Michaelis 
duodecim solidos, et ad omnes precarios cum tota familia 
esse debet; et dominus cum virga gradietur ad omnes 
erit lovebones, metet etiam pro weddis. 

(c) ... et ipse, et Mahald filia sua et filia uxoris, 
quam prius habuit, et Mahald uxor sua, quam post eam 
habuit, et Henricus filiusillius,secundae videlicet mulieris, 
et Christina filia eiusdem^ coram omni hu stingo de Lun- 
donia, in domo Alfwini filii Leofstani, omnibus diebus 
amplius in perpetuum in ecclesia Ramesiae habendam, 
pro decem libris denariorum, quas in praesentia totius 
hustingi dedit ei. 

(d) Concessit etiam adhuc amplius pro redemptione 
et salute animae suae, ut si absque liberis de legitima 
coniuge procreatis mortuus fuerit, de terra ilia, et de 
omnibus aliis terris, quas in Huntendona habet, vel 
habiturus est, ecclesia Kamesensis heres efficiatur. 

(e) Abbas de Rameseye tenet de domino rege ad feodi 
iirmam hundredum de Hyrstyngstone, et manerium de 
Kyngus Ryptone, pro decem libris, tredecim solidis, 
quattuor denariis annuatim, solvendis vicecomiti Hun- 
tingdoniae, ad opus regis. 

*(/) Et in praedictis pratis, post fenum asportatum, 
communicabunt omnes, tam de Sancto Ivone, quam de 
Haliwelle et Nidyngworthe, cum omnibus averiis suis ; et 
cum fenum fuerit adunatum, licebit omnibus et singulis 
equos habentibus eos ligare inter muliones; sed si damnum 
faciant, inparcentur et emendas faciant. 

2. Compare the liabilities and rights of the different 
classes of unfree tenants on mediaeval estates. 

3 H 24 [Turn over. 



2 

3. What rights were involved in the franchises enjoyed 
by a great lord in the time of Edward I ? 

4. Comment on the following passages from the King's 
Bipton Court Rolls : — 

(a) Qui quidem lohannes venit in curiam et dicit se 
nuUam bestiam propriam habere unde possit arrare nisi 
ex mutuo unde dicit et allegat quod quandiu bestias 
mutuaverit ad arrandum non debet domino respondere de 
aliqua arrura. 

(b) Willelmus Umfry, lohannes de Hale fuerunt 
plegii Beatricis de Hale regraterisse cervisie quod veniret 
ad istam curiam ad respondendum de transgressione 
vend' servic' contra assisam. 

(c) Et dicit quod non tenetur narracioni sue re- 
spondere eo quod narrando non dicit quod idem lohannes 
ei deforciat predictum tenementum cum pertinenciis nee 
dicit narrando in qua villa predicta tenementa sunt nee 
quis antecessor suus fuit seisitus . . . 

5. Classify and explain the various dues and services 
paid to the Church from the Ramsey, St. Paul's, and 
Peterborough manors. 

6. * Perhaps the greatest event in the history of English 
law is that Henry II cast his protection over possession.' 
Discuss this statement. 

7. Comment on the following passages from the 
Brightivalthcon Court Rolls : — 

(a) Adam Scot factus est dicenarius et iuratus ad 
officium fideliter faciendum. 

(b) Modo videatis et consulatis super iure predicte 
Edithe. Et sciatis quod si haberem ad manus rotulos 
curie tempore Willelmi de Lewes ego vobis certificarem 
et vobis monstrarem multa mirabilia non opportune facta. 

(c) fin. vj. d. Et compertum est per inquiscionem quod ad 
instanciam ipsius Elene status ipsius efficitur 
deterior ad quantitatem v.s. Et idem Ricar- 
dus remittit ei pro bono pacis pro xij.d. 



8. Illustrate as far as you can the improvement in the 
status of the customary tenants during this period of 
history. 

9. Discuss the following statements : — 

(a) The leet is the most ancient court in the land. 

(b) The court baron is the court of the barons or free- 
holders of the manor. 

(c) Libera curia non est libertas nee regale. 

10. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from the Littleport Court Rolls : — 

(a) Nous vous mandons que vous facez dilegeaument 
cerchier vos roulles et vos remembrances pur ent sauer la 
verite, et si par (cases) vous ny purrez ren trouer facez 
sur ce enquere per bonnes et loiaux gentz de Littelport. 

(b) Et quod Petrus de Weting' qui non est com- 
mia. viij. d. munarius falcavitincommunavj^lesch'sinead- 

vocatione alicuius communarii et vendit extra. 

(c) Thomas Thame capellanus non paravit porcionem 
suam super calcetum (de iiij perticatis) ad nocumentum 
omnium ibidem transeuncium (ij.s.). 

(d) . . . Willelmus Akerman tenentes terrarum et 
tenementorum que fuerunt Henrici Whytryng dant 
domino xl.d. pro quadam inquisicione ex officio capienda 
si vidue debent dotari de terris et tenementis venditis 
per viros suos dum vixerint. 

[T. T, 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN FilSTORY. 



Italy (1492-1513). 

I. 

1. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked * : — 

*(a) Et estoient avec luy messire Breto de Flisco, 
et autres G^nevois : au moyen desquels ils esperoient faire 
tourner la ville de Gennes : et peu faillit qu'ils ne le 
fissent ^ la Specie et ^ Rapalo, pr^s de Gennes, oh ils 
mirent en terre quelque mille hommes de leurs partisans. 

(6) En ces entrefaictes se rendit le Chasteau, par 
pratique des Alemans, qui en eurent un monde de biens 
qui estoient dedans ; et aussi fut pris le chasteau do 
rOeuf par batterie. Et par cette conclusion se peut 
voir que ceux qui avoient conduit co grand oeuvre ne 
I'avoient point fait d'eux, mais fut vraye oeuvre de Dieu, 
comme chacun le vit. 

(c) Et fut fait rapport au roy de cette deliberation ; 
mais nonobstant cela il y envoya monseigneur de Bresse 
depuis due de Savoye, le seigneur de Beaumont de 
Polignac, mon beau-fr^re, et le seigneur d'Aubijoux de la 
maison d'Amboise, avec vingt-six hommes d'armes, et 
cinq cens arbalestriers, venus tous frais de France 
par mer. 

{d) Et estoit ja fort le due de Milan, qui avoit estd 
en grand p^ril, qui eut laissd faire le seigneur Jean- 
Jacques ; et luy estoient venus beaucoup de gens des 
V^nitiens. 

(e) A la deuxiesme fois qu'il revint, il amena 
un ambassadeur desdits roys ; et rapporta ledit de 
Clerieux qu'ils se contenteroient d'avoir ce qui est plus 
prochain de Cecile, qui est Calabre, pour ledit droict 
qu'ils pr^tendoient audit royaume de Naples, et que le 
roi prit le reste. 

*(/) Le pape Alexandre, qui regne de present, 
estoit en grand pratique de tous poincts a se ranger 
des siens, comme mal-content des V^nitiens ; et avoit 
messager secret, que je conduisis en la chambre du roy 
nostre sire, peu avant sadite mort. . . . Le roy des Remains 
ne desiroit chose en monde tant que son amiti^et qu'eux 
deux ensemble fissent leurs besongnes en Italie. 

3 H 26 [Turn over. 



2. What according to Commines was (a) the effect 
upon the inhabitants of Southern Italy of Charles VIII's 
arrival in Naples, and (b) the general position of affairs 
at the time of his departure ? 

3. What light is thrown by Commines upon the aims 
and methods of Venetian diplomacy by the negotiations 
of Venice (a) with Charles VIII in 1493, and (b) with 
Commines himself after Charles's return to France 1 

4. Write short explanatory notes on the following : — 

(a) Je loue bien un prince de tenir bons termes aux 
marchands, et leur tenir verity. 

(b) La ville est de tout temps en partiality et se 
gouverne plus follement que ville d'ltalie. 

(c) Peu avant j'ay parl^ comme Tarm^e de mer fut 
faite a Nice pour secourir les chasteaux de Naples, ce qui 
ne se put faire, pour les raisons dessus dites. 

(d) La faute d'esprouver cette belle adventure vint 
de ce que ledit due d'Orleans mua de propos, combien 
qu'on entendoit qu'il dust partir du soir au matin. 

5. Draw a sketch-map of Italy, marking the chief 
physical features and inserting : — Atella, Asti, Bologna, 
Ferrara, Ostia, Pisa, Trani, Rheggio, Otranto, Novara, 
Fornovo, Vercelli, Tarentum^ Perugia, Brindisi. 

6. Examine historically the accuracy of the following 
statements, translating those marked * : — 

(a) Solamente si puo accusarlo nella creazione di 
Giulio 11. 

(6) Come cominciarono a combattere in terra, lascia- 
rono questa virtti, e seguitarono i costumi d'ltalia, 

*(c) Ed il fine delle loro virtti h stato, che quella 
h stata corsa da Carlo, predata da Luigi, sforzata da 
Ferrando, e vituperata da' Svizzeri. 

*(c?) Alcun principe di questi tempi, il quale non h 
bene nominare, non predica mai altro che pace e fede ; 
e deir una e dell' altra h inimicissimo ; e I'una e I'altra, 
quando e' I'avesse osservato, gli arebbe piti volte tolto 
lo stato e la reputazione, 



*(e) Ed in Italia non inanca materia da introdurvi 
ogni forma. Qui e virtii grande nelle membra, quando 
ella non mancasse nei capi. Specchiatevi nelli duelli e 
nei congress! de' pochi, quanto gl' Italiani siano superior! 
con le forze, con la destrezza, con Tingegno. 

(/) Perch^ gli Spagnuoli non possono sostinere i 
cavalli, e gli Svizzeri hanno ad aver paura de* fant! 
quando gli riscontrino nei combattere ostinat! come loro. 

7. Estimate either the accuracy of Machiavelli's know- 
ledge of foreign affairs, or his real appreciation of the 
causes of the weakness of Italy. 

8. Examine the statements made by your authorities 
with regard to the military oi-ganization of the French 
and Italians. 

9. Give a summary of Commines' remarks with regard 
to (a) the projects considered for the recovery of Naples, 
and (6) the quarrels at the French Court after Charles 
VIIFs return from Italy. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Italy (1492-1513). II. 

1. Translate the following passage from Guicciardini, 
with brief explanatory comments : — 

Da questi difetti nasceva, che non pensando nessuno 
di continuo alia citta, si viveva al bujo degli andamenti 
e moti di Italia ; non si cognoscevano i mali nostri prima 
che fussino venuti ; no era alcuno che avvisassi di nulla, 
perch^ ogni cosa subito si publicava ; i principi e poten- 
tati di fuora non tenevano intelligenza o amicizia alcuna 
coUa citta, per non avere con chi confidare ne di chi se 
valere ; i danari, andando per molte mani, e per molte 
spezialita e sanza diligenza di chi gli administrava, erano 
prima spesi che furono posti ; e si penava il piil delle 
volte tanto a conoscere i mali nostri, e dipoi a fare 
provisione di denari, che e' giugnevano tardi ; in modo 
che e' si gittavano via sanza frutto, e quello che si 
sarebbe prima potuto fare con centi ducati non si faceva 
poi con cento mila. Nasceva da questo che bisognando 
ogni di porre provisioni di danari, e provisioni grosse, 
la brigata doppo il corso di molti anni era si stracca che 
non voleva vincere piti provisioni ; in modo che non 
avendo danari, ogni di la Signoria sosteneva i cittadini 
pill ricchi in Palagio, e gli faceva per forza prestare al 
Commune ; e nondimeno non se ne cavava tale prove- 
ditamento che e' non fussino constretti a ultimo lasciare 
trascorrere ogni cosa, stare sanza soldati, tenere sanza 
guardia e munizione alcuna le terre e le fortezze nostre. 

2. Explain not more than/ou?' of the following passages 
from Guicciardini, with reference to the context : — 

(a) La cagione fu, perche il conte vedendo i Viniziani 
avere piti gente di lui assai ed essere in su' terreni sua, 
dubit6, se il re di Francia era rotto, di non remanere a 
discrezione de' Viniziani naturalmente inimici suoi, e che 
per ambizione non tengono conto di lega o di fede. 

(6) Ma la questione e differ enza resta circa la bont^ 
della vita ; in che ^ da notare che se in lui fu vizio, non 
vi fu altro che il simulare, causato da superbia e ambi- 
zione. 

(c) Erasi doppo il 94 posta, per uno magistrato depu- 
tato a cio, una Decima universale a tutti i beni de' 
secolari, ed erasi usata qualche anno, ponendone secondo 
i casi che occorrevano, una, dua o tre per volta. 

3 H 37 [Turn over. 



(d) E per6 dove prima i sua antecessor! solevano, 
e cosi si era osservato continuamente doppo il 94, ragu- 
nare Pratichi de' primi cittadini co' quali si consultavano 
le cose importanti dello Stato, lui chiamo Pratiche rade 
volte, ma le conferiva e consultava co' Collegi, i quali 
quasi tutti e quasi sempre erano uomini spicciolati e di 
poca quality. 

(e) Solo gli Stati di Romagna stavano fermi, ne' 
quali certo, se fussi stato sano, si sarebbe conservato ; 
perche egli aveva messo, a governo di quegli popoli, 
uomini clie gli avevano governati con tanta giustizia e 
integrit^; che era sommamente amato da loro. 

(/) Intesesi poi come lo imperadore aveva insino 
r anno dinnanzi, insino quando il papa parti da Bologna, 
tenuto pratiche di passare in Italia, col papa che era 
adirato col re, e co' Viniziani che temevano della sforza 
che faceva per la impresa di Genova. 

3. Did Venetian policy in this period justify the 
Venetian reputation for political wisdom ? 

4. Illustrate and account for the weak hold of an 
Italian republic upon its subject territories as exemplified 
in Florentine history at this time. 

5. What would you infer from Guicciardini's characters 
of statesmen as to his own political ideas and standard 
of political morality ? 

6. What steps did Piero de' Medici take when expelled 
from Florence to effect his restoration ? Why was he so 
unsuccessful ? 

7. Can any coherent policy be traced in Maximilian's 
relations with the Italian states ? 

8. Draw a map of the Venetian territory to illustrate 
the war of the League of Cambray, and show in what 
respects it was difficult to defend. 

9. Comment on not more than four of the following 
passages from Da Porto, translating those marked * : — 

(a) lo sono de' primi, non certamente per altra 
cagione, che per la incredibile invidia e dissensione ch' 
h tra i capitani dell' esercito nostro, della quale h gran 
motivo la indomita alterigia dell' Alviano. 



3 

(6) Cosi camminando 1' esercito di Francia, va acquis- 
tando senza alcun contrasto tanto di stato, quanto ne 
cavalca ; e gia ebbe anche Bergamo senza botta di arti- 
gliera, o colpo di spada. 

*(c) Alcuni altri affirmando essere del medesimo 
animo, aggiugnevano, com' essi si dolessero di dover 
esser astretti a pagar tante decime et tante affitte, quanto 
s* avrebbono in breve, per mantenere la incominciata 
guerra ; non essendo essi per participare dello Stato, 
come il popolo romano antico soleva fare, e come sarebbe 
parso loro onesto. 

^(d) Onde molti cercandone la cagione, I'attribuiscono 
alia leggerezza di monsignor di Ciamonte ; il che certo non 
h stato, anzi piu tosto fu per gelosia e sdegno cominciati tra 
i] papa Giulio e i Frances! a cagione del sale mandato 
per lo duca di Ferrara nella Lombardia in grande derrata; 
sale, che il papa non vorrebbe che vi mandasse. 

(e) Onde ragunata grande oste di Spagnuoli e d' 
Italiani in Romagna, ha il papa mandato il cardinale de' 
Medici per legato di questo esercito, confidandone poi 
tutta la cura a don Raimondo di Cardona vicere di 
Napoli, il quale, comecch^ di asprissimo verno, venne 
poco fa per combattere Bologna. 

*(/) I Francesi si confidavano assai nel furore de* 
loro uomini d' arme, ch' erano da sedicimila e cinque- 
cento ; gli Spagnuoli nell' animosity de' loro fanti, i quali 
potevano essere dintorno quindici mila. 

(g) ii noto che I'imperatore, comecch^ nella lega fatta 
contro i Francesi non abbia voluto essere nominato, per 
non trovarsi collegato co' Viniziani, egli pero gode sempre 
d' ogni sinistro che tocchi loro. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



The Great Bebellion, 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt questions marked *.] 

1. How far is Clarendon's account of the king's oppo- 
nents prejudiced by considerations of personal friendship 
or dislike ? 

*2. Comment on the following extracts from Claren- 
don : — • 

(a) There cannot be a better instance of the unruly 
and mutinous spirit of the City of London . . . than the 
triumphant entry which some persons at that time made 
into London who had been before seen upon pillories. 

(h) ' By God, not for an hour ! You have asked 
that of me in this was never asked of a king, and with 
which 1 will not trust my wife and children.' 

(c) I must appeal to the consciences of those very 
men, whether they have not been many times, by staying 
there, compelled or terrified to do and submit to many 
acts . . . contrary to their oaths and duties in matters of 
allegiance. 

{d) This was the end of that mushrump-army, 
which grew up and perished so soon that the loss of 
it was scarce apprehended at Oxford. 

{e) And without doubt, if they had then sent (as, if 
the power had been in the two Houses of Parliament, 
they had done) a firm peace had immediately ensued . . . 
but this was too well known to be suffered to pass, and 
. . . the seditious preachers filled all the pulpits with 
alarums of ruin and destruction. 

(/) This is the same Love who some years after, by 
Cromwell's particular prosecution, had his head cut off" 
upon Tower Hill. 

3. Discuss Clarendon's view that a large measure of 
the King's misfortunes in the war was due to the ' folly 
and faction of his own party *. 

H38 [Turnover. 



6 



4. Compare Clarendon's account of Strafford's trial 
with Baillie's. 

5. Summarize, with a sketch-map, the campaign of 
1643. 

6. To what extent was Presbytery ever the established 
religion of England ? Explain its unpopularity in the 
country generally. 

7. Explain the financial expedients adopted by the 
King and Parliament respectively to raise money for 
the war. 

■^8. Comment on the following extracts from Baillie : — 

(a) Poor Canterburie ... is so contemptible that all 
casts him by out of their thoughts as a pendicle at the 
Lieutenant's eare. 

(b) The King complained much of the vile slander 
which Hamilton's needless flight and fear had brought 
upon him. 

(c) The House of Lords was said to be opposite to 
the Commons conclusion of craveing our help. 

(d) ' Our armie oft signified to us, they conceaved 
their want of success flowed most from God's anger at 
the Parliament and Assemblie for their neglect of estab- 
lishing of religion. We oft told them the truth, we had 
no hope of any progresse here till God gave them 
victories.' 

(e) Some say that after Montrose gott the money 
he plundered the towne . . . For my bookes, and all 
I have, I care not much : bot I long much to know 
what is become of my wife and children, my dear col- 
leagues and friends. 

9. Explain carefully the circumstances in which the 
battles of Rowton Heath and Philiphaugh were fought. 
What places were still held by the Royalists in the 
winter of 1645-6 ? 

10. Estimate the effect of the L'ish Rebellion upon 
the course of events in England. 

[T. T. 19n.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY 



The Great Rebellion. 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt questions marked *.] 

1. Illustrate from your books the tendency of con- 
temporary writers to make serious errors in statements 
of fact. 

2. Describe, with a map, the campaign of Cromwell 
in Scotland and England from July, 1650, to September, 
1651. 

3. God hath put the sword into the Parliament's 
hands . . . that God may maintain it in your hands . . . 
is the prayer of your humble servant Oliver Cromwell. 

You say * God hath appointed authorities among the 
nations . . . this resides in England in the Parliament.' 
Authorities and powers are the ordinance of God. This 
or that species is of human institution . . . there are 
cases in which it is lawful to resist. 

I do say undoubtingly what the Parliament settles 
is that which will run. 

Discuss Cromwell's attitude to Parliamentary 
government between 1645 and 1658. 

4. Comment on the following passages from Cromwell's 

Letters and Speeches : — 

(a) A rich city may seem an enticing bait to poor 
hungry soldiers. 

(b) We shall do what becomes us in order to the 
obtaining your garrisons . . . and in the meantime be 
even more tender towards the kingdom of Scotland, in 
the point of charge, than if we were in our own native 
kingdom. 

(c) These being summoned to yield to mercy, refused, 
whereupon I ordered the steeple of St. Peter's Church to 
be fired. 

3 H 39 [Turn over. 



(d) The gentlemen that undertook to frame this 
government did consult divers days together how to 
frame somewhat that might give us settlement. They 
did consult, and that I was not privy to their councils 
they knew it . . . they told me that except I would 
undertake the government, they thought . . . blood and 
confusion would break in upon us. 

(e) I did tell you . . . that I would not undertake it, 
unless there might be some other persons between me 
and the House of Commons who then had the power, to 
prevent tumultuary and popular spirits. 

5. What royalist insurrections took place during the 
Protectorate? Is there any reason for believing that 
Cromwell encouraged any of them ? 

^6. Comment on the following extracts from Ludlow : — 

(a) The blockade of Basing House was also ordered 
to be broken up, after which I returned with those 
under my command into the county of Wilts. 

(h) It was a miserable thing to serve a Parliament, 
to whom let a man be never so faithful, if one prag- 
matical fellow amongst them rise up and asperse him, he 
shall never wipe it off. 

(c) I marched with my horse towards Limerick, and 
came to Gourtenshegore. 

(d) The news of this great alteration of affairs was 
very unwelcome to us in Ireland, because contrary to the 
oaths which had been taken, and especially to the 
engagement, whereby all that took it promised fidelity 
to the Commonwealth. 

(e) He pretended that this assembly was called only 
in order to raise money for the payment of the army 
and fleet, to confirm the authority of the Major- 
Generals, and that of the Instrument of Government. 

7. 'Ludlow's account of the reconquest of Ireland is 
neither a clear nor a coherent narrative of that process.' 
What is the value of Ludlow's Meinoirs to the student 
of Cromwell's Irish campaigns "? 

8. Give some account of the government of Scotland 
between 1651 and 1658. 



9. Compare the aims of the Heads of the Proposals 
with those of the Propositions of Uxbridge. Why did 
the Heads of the Proposals fail to effect a settlement ? 

*10. Comment on the following : — 

(a) We desire that there may be a general synod of 
the most grave pious learned and judicious divines of 
this island. 

(h) ' That the people of England (being at this day 
very unequally distributed by counties, cities, and 
boroughs, for the election of their Representatives), be 
indifferently proportioned.' 

(c) I, Oliver Cromwell, Captain-General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of all the armies and forces raised 
and to be raised within this Commonwealth, and hereby 
summon and require you (being one of the 

said persons nominated) personally to be and appear 
at the Council-Chamber . . . upon the 4th day of July 
next . . . then and there to take upon you the said 
trust unto which you are hereby called and appointed, 
to serve as a member for the county of , 

And hereof you are not to fail. 



[T. 2\ 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The French Revolulion. 



1. Translate and explain the following passages from 
Bailly's MSTnoiren : — 

(a) Mais ce qui faisait forger ces fables, c'^tait le 
d^sir de ridiculiser le tiers-etat ; cette aruie du ridicule 
avait eu de tout temps un grand pouvoii- en France, on 
I'essayait contre la puissance nouvelle. 

(b) Je lui dis que cbaque depute avait sa conscience 
et ^tait maitre de son opinion, mais qu'il ne lui ^tait pas 
permis d'associer son opinion particuli^re a I'opinion de 
I'Assemblee. 

(c) Si le roi eut donnt^, il y a dix ans, une pareille 
dt^claration, n'eut-elle pas M re^ue avec entbousiasme '? 
Oui, sans doute, il y a dix ans. — Que veut done TAs- 
sembl^e ? Elle veut faire et non pas que vous fassiez. 

(d) M. Target avait propose de traiter une grande 
question, celle des mandats impt^ratifs et des pouvoirs 
limit^s. 

(e) Le mare'cbal lui dit : ' Vous avez la tete bien 
vive ! ' II r^pondit : ' Monsieur le marechal, ne vous y 
mdprenez pas, vous en trouverez de plus vives a Paris.' 

2. Comment on the following passages from Arthur 
Young's Travels in France: — 

(a) The political conversation of every company 
I have seen has turned much more on the affairs of 
Holland than on those of France. The preparations 
going on for a war with England are in the mouths of 
all the world. 

(h) We think sometimes that Debrett's or Stockdale's 
shops at London are crowded, but they are mere deserts 
compared to Desein's and some others here, in which one 
can scarcely squeeze from the door to the counter. 

(c) This is the general feeling; they are as nearly 
concerned as Paris ; but they dare not stir, they dare not 
even have an opinion of their own till they know what 
Paris thinks ; so that, if a starving populace were not in 
question, no one would dream of moving. 

3 H 27 [Turn over. 



(d) I forgot to observe that, for a few days past, 
I have been pestered with all the mob of the country 
shooting . . . the shot has fallen five or six times in my 
chaise or about my ears. 

3. Summarize Young's impressions of French provin- 
cial cities. 

4. What conclusions, if any, would you draw from 
Younor's notices of such members of the noblesse as he 
became acquainted with ? 

5. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from Mirabeau's Correspondence: — 

(a) Soyez Richelieu sur la cour pour la nation, et 
vous referez la monarchic, en agrandissant et consolidant 
la liberte publique. 

(6) Administrer, c'est gouverner ; gouverner, c'est 
r^gner ; tout se r^duit la. 

(r) Les assignats-monnaie ay ant une valeur aussi 
r^elle que celle des mt^taux, il faut que bientdt ils obtien- 
nent la meme confiance ; on s'^clairera chaque jour 
davantage sur cette v^rite. 

(d) Si le d^cret est leve, les ministres peuvent etre 
pris indifferemment parmi les Jacobins, ou dans toute 
autre secte. Des Jacobins ministres ne seraient pas des 
ministres jacobins. 

(e) Quant aux destructions, elles sont presque toutes 
dgalement utiles a la nation et au monarque. 

6. Illustrate from the Correspondence the amendments 
of the constitution desired by Mirabeau. 

7. What do you consider to have been the King's 
chance of success had he implicitly followed the advice 
of Mirabeau ? 

8. ' The Revolution was essentially a transfer of pro- 
perty' (Taine). 'Read "an enfranchisement of pro- 
perty " ' (Cherest). What elements of truth are contained 
in these different views ? 

9. Trace the progress of disorganization in the army 
down to the outbreak of the war with Austria. 

[T.T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The French Bevolution. 

II. 

1. Translate and comment briefly upon the following : — 

(a) La guerre au-dehors, provoqu^e, dirig^e par le 
Gouvernement dans les circonstances ou nous sommes, 
est un mouvement a contre-sens, c'est une crise qui peut 
conduire a la mort du corps politique. 

(Robespierre, 2 Jan. 1792.) 

(h) Enfin le Comity Diplomatique n'auraitpas du se 
d^partir da grand moyen que Ton peut tirer de I'acquies- 
cement donne par I'Empereur au conclusuvii de la Di^te. 
Remarquez dans quelle position nous serons si nous ne le 
requ^rons pas de s'expliquer sur son adhesion a cet acte 
de la Diete. (Vergniaud, 18 Jan. 1792.) 

(c) Mais, citoyens, soyons gdn^reux ; la vie de 
Lepeletier t'ut belle, sa mort servira encore la Repu- 
blique. (Danton, 21 Jan. 1793.) 

(d) Tu fus done le complice de Mirabeau, de d'Or- 
l^ans, de Dumouriez, de Brissot. Des lettres de I'em- 
bassadeur d'Espagne a Venise au Due d'Alcudia disent 
qu'on te soupgonnait a Paris d'avoir eu des conferences au 
Temple avec la Reine. (Saint- Just.) 

(e) Jeunes Fran^ais, entendez-vous I'immortel Bara, 
qui du Panth(^on vous appelle k la gloire ? 

(ROBESPIEKRE.) 

2. Criticize the value of the statements made by 
Bertrand de Molleville with regard to de Lessart. 

3. Can you find in Vergniaud's speech of July 3, 1792, 
any explanation of the attitude of the Girondists on 
August 10 ? 

4. Summarize what Bertrand de Molleville tells us 
about the dangers to which Royalists were exposed after 
August 10. 

5. Comment briefly on the following passages : — 

(a) Croyez-moi, laissez la la mdtaphysique ; abandon- 
nez I'histoire et les belles-lettres, jusqu a ce que le danger 
soit passe. 

3H28 [Turnover. 



(b) II s'offrait a mes yeux un certain bomme, dont 
on n'a pas parle, mais que les ^v^nements ont rendu 
important et curieux. C'est Monsieur Saule. 

(c) On a continuellement dispute — sur le droit, et 
jamais sur le fait. 

(d) Hier soir, j'e'tais ... a Tendroit meme ou Ton 
disait que Miazinski . . , devait etre execute. 

6. Do the reports in Schmidt's Tableaux furnish us 
with any adequate explanation of the success of the 
Jacobins over the Girondists ? 

7. Translate and comment upon the following passages 
from Schmidt's Tableaux : — 

(a) Convention : une deputation demandait la Con- 
stitution de 1793, du pain et ^a bas les baionnettes '. 

(b) Dans les cafds on ne parlait pas avantageuse- 
ment de la Constitution ; Ton disait que c'est un fatras 
de systemes obscurs. 

(c) Dans les caf^s, la paix avec I'Espagne ^tait la 
base de toutes les conversations. 

8. Comment on the following statements with reference 
to the insurrection of Prairial: — 

(a) Au Theatre de I'Op^ra Comique, lorsqu'on est 
venu annoncer que I'assassin du repre'sentant Ferraud 
avait ete enleve et port^ en triomphe dans le fbg. Antoine, 
tous les spectateurs se sont levds et ont crie aux armes, en 
disant : ' II faut vaincre ou mourir pour venger la Con- 
stitution.' 

(6) Les femmes, comme des furies, excitaient les 
hommes et s'^criaient : ' II faut soutenir nos freres du 
fbg. Antoine, avoir raison des representants, et ne faire 
aucune grace aux marchands et aiix muscadins.' 

9. What do we learn from Schmidt's Tableaux with 
regard to the situation in Paris after the suppression of 
the insurrection of Vendemiaire? 

10. The Constitution of the year III ' afforded securi- 
ties for order and for liberty such as France had never 
enjoyed '. Criticize this statement. 

[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTORY. 



Brituh India. (1773-1805.) 

I. 

1. ' The ministers were vested with a right of inter- 
ference, but had little, if any, responsibility with respect 
to Indian government ' (Malcolm). Was this the chief 
defect in the Regulating Acf? 

2. What do you learn from your authorities as to the 
reasons for the Rohilla War ? Was there any justification 
for the charges brought against Hastings on this account? 

3. Give some account of any Uuo of the following : — 
the Cossi Jurah case ; the Sudder Diwani Adalat ; the 
Sunderbunds ; the Company's European troops ; the 
Seniassies. 

4. 'The First Mahratta War (1777-82) was quite 
unnecessary and ought to have been avoided.' How far 
do your authorities bear out this statement ? 

5. Estimate the nature of the crisis with which Hastings 
was confronted on the destruction of Colonel Baillie's 
force, and the measures which he took to restore the 
situation. 

6. Estimate the military problems before Cornwallis 
in 1790-2, and illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

7. Comment upon not more than four of the following 
passages from Gleig : — 

(a) It is my earnest wish to bring the superintendency 
of the collections in their detail immediately to Calcutta. 

(b) It is happy for this country and for the Com- 
pany . . . that two persons so mutually well inclined are 
at the head of two departments most admirably adapted 
for hostility. 

(c) By the Northumberland I took the liberty to 
direct to your Lordship a preface to this work, written by 
the translator, Mr. Halhed. 

(d) Their chief, Succaram Babboo, is old and infirm. 
3 H 41 [Turn over. 



(e) He immediately quitted the detested land of 
Bundelcund, and without experiencing or expecting any 
of the many impediments which his predecessor had so 
long complained of. continued his march. 

(/) What followed is too horrid to detail : a con- 
tagious distemper seized the detachment at Gunjam and 
threatened to annihilate it. 

(g) It is now as much a member of their Government 
as the zemindarry of Burdwan and more effectually 
theirs than many parts of Bahar. 

(h) Souffrein has made his appearance off Ganjam. 

(i) I yet believe that in spite of peace he will effect 
the loss of the Carnatic. 



8. Comment on not more than four of the following 
passages from the Cornwallis Correspondence : — 

(a) The orders to recall the Futtyghur brigade . . . 
occasioned some embarrassment. 

{h) I must beg of you, my dear Lord, to state what 
I have said in the strongest but most respectful terms to 
the Prince of Wales. 

(c) If the proposed separation was to take place, not 
a man of character or credit would stay in the Company's 
service if he could avoid it. 

(d) These untoward circumstances did not deprive us 
of any of the solid advantages of our victory, for we are 
in possession of the whole of the enemy's redoubts, of all 
the ground on the north side of the river and of great 
part of the island. 

(e) The value of the produce of the land is well 
known to the proprietor or his officers and to the ryot 
who cultivates it ; and is a standard which can always 
be reverted to by both parties, for fixing equitable rates. 

(/) That he had purchased Cranganore from the 
Dutch. 

((/) B}^ their tardiness in commencing their march . . . 
an opportunity was lost which could not now be recalled. 



9. What does one learn from Wilks as to any three of 
the following subjects ; — Cornwallis's occupation of Gun- 
tore ; Persheram Bhow's conduct ; Tippoo's suppression 
of drunkenness ; the word ' Tippoo ' ; the preparations 
for General Harris's move on Seringapatam ; Flint's 
defence of Wandewash ; the battle of Pollilore ; the 
treatment of prisoners by Tippoo and Hyder ? 

10. Comment briefly on not more than three of the 
following passages from Forrest : — 

[a) I had fixed upon the beginning of last year for 
my departure to England. This event determined me to 
postpone it. 

[b) The public in England have of late years adopted 
very high ideas of the rights of the Zamindars in 
Hindostan. 

[c) The Sunaud and the Cobooleat are counterparts 
of each other. 

(cZ) Mean as its substance may be, its accidental 
properties were equivalent to those which, like the 
magical characters of a talisman in the Arabian mytho- 
logy, formed the essence of the state itself. 

[e) We shall by this measure add strength to our- 
selves in proportion as we diminish that of the Con- 
federacy. 

(/) Bidjeygur . . . lies about 50 miles in a south- 
westerly^ direction from Chunar. It was the depository 
of all his and his father s treasures. 

11. What does one learn from the Report of the Select 
Committee as to the practical eflects on Bengal of the 
new system of internal government ? 

\T. 1\ 1911.] 



(e) He immecliately .iiLtoi tlu 
lelcuml, and witli'.ut eDcnencr' 
B many impediuK nts \iich hii 
complained of, continid his nu 

(/) What followed is oo honi 
.us distemper seized th<dotachiF 
itened to annihilate it. 

(fj) It is now as i ' 

ho zemindarry "i .•...".... 
•8 than many parts of ahar. 

(h) Souffrein has mad^his appi 

(i) I yet belicvf^ '^^ ^ > ""'♦•• 
I0S.S of the Carn;. 



If- 



, Comment on '••■^ ' ''' thaiil 
lages trom the ( 'i'* 

((/)Thc ordiM- *" r.A} tho 
Usionod some ■ •^• 

(h) I must ho^ of v.. tuny d«; 
ivo said in th** ^trniiL'it but 
Prince of Wales. 

(r) If the prop' ' 

lan of character ui ii« it wouj 
vice if he could avoid h 

(d) These m' ' r 

any of tlu' sol 
possession of the 
) ground on the 
rt of the island. 

(c) The vail 
lOwn to the 
10 cultivates 
reverted to 

(/) Th. 
iitch. 

[ opporl 



1 



I 




\ 



T 




SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 

II. 

1. What is Malcolm's view of the relations of the 
British with the Nabobs of the Carnatic from 1792 to 
1801? 

2. *A period of six years' peace, instead of having 
added to the strength, or improved the security, of the 
British dominions in India, had placed them in a situation 
of comparative danger.' Estimate this verdict on the 
administration of Sir John Shore. 

3. What do you learn from your authorities as to 
Zemaun Shah ? What influence did his actions exercise 
over the policy of Lord Wellesley ? 

4. Trace with the aid of a sketch-map Arthur 
Wellesley's operations against the Mahrattas in 1803. 

5. Which was the more formidable enemy of England : 
Tippoo, Dowlut Rao Scindiah or Jeswunt Rao Holkar 1 

6. By what arguments did Lord Wellesley support his 
scheme for the foundation of a college at Fort William 
for the special training of Civil Servants ? 

7. ' The abandonment of Lord Wellesley's system by 
Lord Cornwallis and Sir George Barlow was neither 
expedient nor honourable.' Is this verdict borne out by 
your authorities ? 

8. Comment on not more than four of the following 
passages from Malcolm : — 

(a) Nothing but the great vigilance of Lord Hobart, 
who then presided over the Madras government, pre- 
vented his being joined by a number of these oflicers, who 
were apprehended when just on the point of making 
their escape. 

(5) The delays and evasions of the Nizam and his 
minister had proceeded from fear, and their alarm was 
now greater at the consequences likely to result from the 
non-fulfilment of the article that required the dismissal 
of the French corps than at any which could result from 
its fulfilment. 

3 H 42 [Turn over. 



(c) The territories of the Peishwah having been the 
scene of continual conflict, from the death of Madhoo Row, 
were not able, in their exhausted state, to support even 
for a few months the hordes of banditti which were daily 
pouring in from Malwa and Hindustan, to contend at 
roonah for the sovereignty of the Mahratta empire. 

(d) The extraordinary spectacle of a British army, 
composed chiefly of natives of India, on the shores of the 
Mediterranean. 

(e) The fortunate choice of a Dewan who, to a mind 
of singular vigour added an extensive acquaintance with 
the resources of the country and an intimate knowledge 
of characters. 

(/) It has been created by the generosity of the 
British government. 

(g) It was fordable in several places above Agra, 
even before the 1st October. 

(h) I do not hold this government bound to assist 
either party against Tippoo unless peace were previously 
established between the Mahrattas and the Nizam. 

9. Comment upon not more th&n five of the following 
extracts from the Wellesley Despatches : — 

(a) His ministers were appointed by the Mahrattas ; 
his army was disbanded ; and the only support of his 
authority was a corps of 14,000 men, trained, disciplined, 
and commanded by French officers. 

(6) The premature disclosure of this design may 
perhaps be attributed rather to the policy of M. Malartic, 
than to the imprudence of Tippoo. 

(c) These acquisitions appeared the most eligible, 
not only on account of their intrinsic value in point of 
produce, but as securing an uninterrupted tract of territory 
from the coast of Coromandel to that of Malabar. 

(d) This article is the bond of peace to India. It is 
this which renders the treaty really defensive, and makes 
the Governor- General responsible for every war in which 
the British government may be engaged, 

(e) I was decidedly of opinion that the crushing of 
these political intrigues, and the subversion of his French 
connexion were primary objects, and that nothing would 
be so likely to accomplish the above objects as the 
sudden appearance of the army at the capital of Delhi. 



(/) As soon as this handful of heroes (His Majesty's 
76th Foot) were arrived within reach of the enemy's 
cannon shot, a most tremendous fire was opened upon 
them. 

(g) Without this control the possession of Ceylon . . . 
may become nearly as useless to the common cause as if 
it were in the hands of a neutral power. 

(h) It appears that not less than eight matches were 
run at Chinsurah in one day and that on a Sunday. 

10. Comment on not more than five of the following 
passages from the Wellington Despatches : — 

(a) We have now that iron frontier, the fortresses of 
which we never had in our possession in the last war. 

(b) It will be better to put one of the powers in 
dependence upon the Company on the frontier, who, if 
plundered, are accustomed to it, know how to bear it and 
to retaliate, which we do not. 

(c) All I can do will not save the Soubah's country 
from destruction, if his servants are not true to his cause, 
if they do not exert themselves in his service, if the 
British troops are not treated with confidence as friends. 

(d) The want of this consent, on the part of any one 
of them, in this case, or of power in the head of the Em- 
pire, independent of these chiefs, is the difficulty of this 
case at the present moment. 

(e) The Governor-General has decided that Scindia 
shall be considered guilty of Ghautky's acts, if he retains 
Ghautky in his service. 

(/) I do not think that the Commander in Chief 
and I have carried on the war so well by our deputies as 
we did ourselves. 

(g) It will appear that this branch of the plan is not 
less inefficient than the other, of sending the negroes to 
India. 

(h) In other words the vote of Mr. Tierney or of 
Mr. Fonblanque is of greater importance than the con- 
tinuance of your services as Governor- General. 



[T. T. 1911.] 



< 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self -Government. 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt the questions marked with 

an asterisk'^,'] 

*1. Write notes on five of the following : — 

(a) ' The present Reproach, that our English Justice 
and English Offices are calculated to drain the people of 
the little Substance they have left.' 

(5) ' It never entered into Our Idea to overturn the 
Laws and Customs of Canada, with regard to Property, 
but that Justice should be administered agreeably to 
them, according to the Modes of administering Justice in 
the Courts of Judicature in this Kingdom.' 

(c) ' By the inadvertency of the King's servants in 
the order in which the several instruments passed the 
office . . . the order is inverted, and the last we think 
contrary to and a violation of the first and therefore 
void.' 

(cZ) ' Nothing short (say they) of Power to Tax can 
ever give a spur to Trade . . . the power to raise money 
must be granted to the people in this Province to render 
it of real utility to the Parent State.' 

[e) ' He ' (Pitt) * agreed with the right hon. gentle- 
man ' (Fox) ' in thinking it extremely desirable that the 
inhabitants of Canada should be united, and led univer- 
sally to prefer the English constitution and the English 
laws.' 

(/) 'He* (Pitt) 'was firmly persuaded that the 
aristocracy flowing from the imperial crown of Great 
Britain would tend materially to strengthen the system 
of connexion between the colony and the mother coun- 
try.' 

(g) ' I am well aware the chief object to be depended 
upon to increase the Influence of the Crown, will be by 
means of the Waste Lands ; but . . . this cannot be 
expected to have any immediate effect.' 

3 H 35 [Turn over. 



(h) ' Had not the impolitic division of the late 
Province of Quebec taken place, and had a fit plan of 
Representation been adopted, the British Population 
would now exceed the French.' 

(^) * It shall be lawful for her Majesty . . . to consti- 
tute a special Council for the affairs of Lower Canada.' 

2. Consider Maseres's opinion concerning the taxation 
by Parliament of Canada and of the older American 
colonies. 

3. What modifications were made in the judicial 
arrangements of 1763 to please the French, and in those 
of 1774 to satisfy the English in Canada ? 

4. Sketch the history of local government in Canada 
from 1763 to 1867. 

5. Give an account of any proposals for the union or 
confederation in British North America made before 1839. 

6. * The Assembly used the weapons of Hampden, in 
support of the principles of Wentworth.' Criticize this 
comment by Lord John Russell. 

7. Examine the relative importance of political theories 
and of economic forces in bringing aboutthe constitutional 
changes of 1791 and 1840. 

8. What was ' the Family Compact ' ? Analyse and 
comment on the Report of the Committee of the Upper 
Canadian Council in reply to Lord Durham's criticisms. 

*9. Annotsite five of the following quotations from Lord 
Durham : — 

(a) ' The Province should have been set apart to be 
wholly French, if it was not to be rendered completely 
English.' 

(b) * It was an unhappy consequence of the system . . . 
that it relieved the popular leaders of all the responsi- 
bilities of opposition.' 

(c) * It is melancholy to think of the opportunities 
of good legislation which were sacrificed in this mere 
contest for power.* 



(d) 'But the inhabitants of Lower Canada were 
unhappily initiated into self-government at exactly the 
wrong end.' 

(e) ' If the Lower Canadians had been subjected, or 
rather had been taught to subject themselves to a much 
greater amount of taxation, they would probably have 
been at this time a much wealthier^ a much better- 
governed, a much more civilized, and a much more con- 
tented people.' 

(/) 'It may indeed be fairly said that the real result 
of Sir F. Head's policy was to establish that very adminis- 
trative influence of the leaders of a majority in the 
Legislature which he had so obstinately disputed.' 

(g) ' A certain portion of the land in every township 
was set apart for the maintenance of a Protestant clergy.' 

(h) ' It is by a sound system of colonization that 
we can render these extensive regions available for the 
benefit of the British people.' 

(i) ' I had reason to believe that I was armed with 
all the power which I thought requisite .... I also trusted 
that I should enjoy ... all the strength which the cordial 
and stedfast support of the authorities at home can alone 
give to their distant officers.' 

(Durham's proclamation of 9 Oct., 1838.) 

[T, T. 1911.] 



\ 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Ecohdlun of Canadian Self-Governmeni, 

II. 

*1. Write notes on jive of the following : — 

(a) 'But, it is said, a Colony being part of a groat 
Empire, must be governed by different principles from 
the Metropolitan State . . . Let us fancy that this reason- 
ing were applied to Glasgow or Aberdeen.' 

{h) 'Perhaps the most cruel injury that the system 
inflicts upon the Colonists, arises from the manner in 
which they are compelled to conduct their internal 
improvements.' 

[(') ' The people have got into the habit of talking 
80 much oi separation that they begin to believe in it.' 

(d) 'I maintain, that a general system should be 
adopted, by which the leaders among the majority of 
the Assembly should be included in the executive govern- 
ment.' 

(e) ' That as it is practically always optional with 
such advisers to continue in or retire from otfice at 
pleasure, this House has the constitutional right of 
holding such advisers politically responsible for every 
act of the Provincial Government of a local character, 
sanctioned by such Government while such advisers 
continue in office.' 

(/) ' The future harmonious working of the Consti- 
tution is. I have every reason to believe, assured.' (1841.) 

ig) ' We very much misconstrue the tone adopted 
by the English press and English public in the province 
if they do not find some means of resisting the heavy 
blow and great discouragement which is aimed at them/ 

[h) * Alas for that sting in the tail ! ' 

(i) ' The patron of those larger and higher interests 
. . . which . . . unite instead of dividing the members of 
the body politic' 

2. Criticize the representation of the provinces under 
the Union and under Confederation. 

3 H 36 [Turn over. 



9 



3. How was the Union Act amended between 1841 
and 1867? 

4. Give an outline of the changes in the position of 
the Governor in Canada from 1760 to 1867. Was 
Sydenham's view of his position necessary or justifiable ? 

5. Trace the development of Greater Canada since 1841. 

6. What arguments for and against confederation were 
adduced by G. Brown and Dorion respectively in the 
Canadian Parliament in 1865 ? 

7. Is it true that the constitution of Canada is more 
akin to that of the United States than to that of the 
United Kingdom ? 

8. Distinguish the powers of the Canadian legislature 
from those of (a) the Imperial Parliament, and (6) the 
provincial Assemblies. Compare the corresponding re- 
lations in the case of other self-governing dominions. 

*9. Annot'dte Jive of the following : — 

(a) ' Repjarded as a fiscal expedient, the measure is 
impolitic ; for . . . the diminution of foreign importation 
will probably more than neutralize the additional revenue 
derived from the higher duty.' 

(6) ' It was not without a great deal of difliculty 
and reluctance that that Government was formed.' 

(c) ' There is an infinitely greater chance of a dead- 
lock between tlie two branches of the leo-islature, should 
the elective principle be adopted than with a nominated 
chamber.' 

(d) 'Here we sit to-day seeking amicably to find 
a remedy for constitutional evils and injustice complained 
of^ — by the vanquished 'i No, sir, but complained of by 
the conquerors.' 

(e) ' Then . . . there came what I may call the other 
warning from without — the American warning,* 

(/) ' Before we get it we shall have to pay for the 
elephant — though after we get him, we may find him 
costly and hard to keep.' 



3 



(g) * Neither the people nor the Legislature of Nova 
Scotia have been taken by surprise.' 

(h) ' I say, the time has come when it ouofht to be 
clearly understood that the taxes of England are no 
longer to go across the ocean to defray expenses of any 
kind within the Confederation which is about to be 
formed.' 

(i) 'When any Bill is presented to you for Our 
assent of either of the classes hereinafter specified, you 
shall . . . Reserve the same for the signification of Our 
pleasure thereon.' What were the classes specified ? 



[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy and Economic History, 

[Candidates must ansiuer questions from both 
sections of the paper,'] 

A. 

1. 'A demand for commodities is not a demand for 
labour.' Explain and criticize this statement. 

2. How far is it true to say that the tendency of 
modern industry and commerce is to concentrate capital 
in fewer and fewer hands 1 

3. Criticize Mill's views regarding peasant proprietors 
in the light of more recent experience and observation. 

4. State and criticize Mill's views on the causes 
which determine wages. 

5. Is it true that there can be no such thing as general 
over-production 1 Give reasons for your answer. 

6. What circumstances determine the real advantage 
which a country derives from its foreign trade ? 

7. Is a system of international bimetallism contrary to 
sound economic principle ? 

8. Discuss the economic advantages and disadvantages 
of not more than tivo of the following : — (a) taxation of 
the unearned increment of land, (b) free meals for school- 
children, (c) State insurance of workmen against un- 
employment and sickness. 



B. 

9. Sketch the distribution of wealth and material 
wellbeing in England in the Norman and Angevin 
periods. 

10. Can we trace the growth of a distinct class of 
capitalists in England in the closing period of the 
Middle Ages ? 

11. How far were the aims and methods of the merchant 
gilds and craft gilds conducive to the public interest ? 

3 H 10 [Turn over. 



12. Sketch the history of direct taxation in England 
down to 1688. 

13. Show the importance of joint-stock companies in 
the development of English trade in the seventeenth 
century. 

14. When did agriculture become a progressive art in 
England and why ? 

15. Why was the growth of population in England 
slow until about 1750 and rapid afterwards? Illustrate 
your answer with a sketch-map showing the change in 
its distribution. 

16. Sketch the history of either (a) the cotton, or 
(h) the iron industry. 

17. In what ways was the administration of the poor 
law injurious to wage-earners in the early part of the 
nineteenth century ? 

18. What changes in the character and direction of 
England's trade with her colonies resulted from the 
suppression of the slave-trade and the abolition of 
slavery 1 



[T, T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military History and Strategy, 

I. The Principles of Strategy. 

[Candidates are reminded that they should shoiu a 
knowledge of Clausewltz, Haonley, and von der Goltz.'] 

1. Under what circumstances is it (a) permissible, 
(b) desirable, to make use of detachments 1 

2. ' The usefulness of fortresses has its limitations, but 
there is just as much danger of overlooking their real 
value as of exaggerating it.' Discuss this with reference 
to historical examples. 

3. 'Tactics without strategy resembles a man without 
legs. Strategy without tactics is like a man without 
arms.' Illustrate with examples the relation between 
strategy and tactics. 

4. Summarize the views of Clausewitz on any ttvo of 
the following subjects: — friction in war, military virtue, 
tension and rest, the relation of the three arms, lines of 
communication. 

5. What do you understand by the ' cordon system ' of 
strategy ? Illustrate its disadvantages from any campaign 
you like. 

6. ' The fundamental conception of an advance-guard 
is that its mission is the security of the main body of 
the army ' (Clausewitz). How far is this theory in 
agreement with the use made of advance-guards by 
Napoleon and by Moltke ? 

7. What are the views of von der Goltz upon any two 
of the following subjects : — the value of veterans, the 
drafting of orders, military operations beyond the seas, 
bivouacking, the use of the bayonet. 

8. ' The main principles of strategy never change.' 
Does the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 bear out this 
assertion ? 

9. Comment upon not more than four of the following 
passages from Clausewitz : — 

(a) Amongst uncivilized people we never find a really 
great general. 

3 H 29 [Turn over 



(h) Much more strength of will is required to make 
an important decision in strategy than in tactics. 

(c) Duration is to be regarded to a certain extent as 
a second subordinate success. For the conqueror the 
combat can never be finished too quickly, for the van- 
quished it can never last too long. 

(d) The destructive influence which marches exercise 
upon an army is so great that it may be regarded as an 
active principle of destruction, just as much as the 
combat. 

(e) If war is to be carried on in its real spirit . . . 
then the sustenance of the troops, although an important, 
is but a subordinate affair. 

(/) To infer from the difficulty of marching through 
mountains that the difficulty of attacking them must be 
much greater is a false conclusion. 

(g) One peculiarity in the offensive battle is the 
uncertainty, in most cases, as to the position of the 
enemy : it is a complete groping about amongst things 
that are unknown. 

10. Comment upon not more than /owr of the following- 
passages from von der Goltz : — 

(a) The French Revolution restored to war that 
originality and simplicity which, together with its whole 
nature, it had forfeited in the days of the pig-tail, in 
order to make room for a hybrid composed partly of 
vanity, partly of intellectual poverty. 

(h) There is no harm done even if he be somewhat 
more puffed up with a sense of his own importance than 
circumstances justify. 

(c) His staff is there for the express purpose of 
removing every stone from his path, and his servant 
should, like himself, be a genius in his profession. 

(d) An efficient and numerous cavalry force is still 
the best means of dominating movement. 

(e) A still greater danger lies in the conviction that 
every one is lost immediately one of his neighbours retires 
prematurely. 



8 

(/) Generals who keep fresh troops iii reserve for 
the day following the battle are almost invariably 
defeated. 

(g) The principal arm loses more and more in its 
importance. The artillery comes forward the more 
strikingly. 

11. Comment on not more than /our of the following 
passages from Ham ley : — 

(a) In all countries which admit of the movements 
of great bodies a regular army is immeasurably superior 
to an armed population. 

(b) A right impulse once given to the army it is in 
a position to turn events not calculated on, or miscal- 
culated, to advantage ; and this is probably the true 
secret of the ' divination ' of generals. 

(c) We can then form an idea of the minimum 
distance at which the concentric army can advantageously 
operate in front of the point it covers, namely, such as 
will keep the enemy's forces, as they gradually ap- 
proximate on the converging lines, from uniting. 

(d) When a general, surveying the map, finds direct 
obstacles in the path he must advance by, he sees in 
them, if he be confident in his own skill in manoeuvring, 
increased opportunities for obtaining strategical success. 

(e) When a frontier is unmarked by any natural 
obstacle and has numerous issues it is in vain to attempt 
to close it with fortifications. 

(/) The space required on board ship varies with 
the length of voyage to be undertaken. 

[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military History and Strategy. 
II. The Campaign of Waterloo. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one question 

marked *.] 

1. Compare the elements of strength and weakness in 
the Anglo- Allied and Prussian armies. 

*2. Consider the alternative plans of operation open to 
Napoleon in June 1815 and account for his rejection of 
them in favour of that actually adopted. Illustrate 
your answer with a sketch-map. 

3. ' The Duke acted exactly as the information he had 
received would have led any prudent commander to 
act.' Do you agree with this verdict on Wellington's 
actions on June 15? 

4. ' The whole French army had come to expect 
Napoleon to decide for them how every step should be 
taken. Individual initiative in all the subordinate 
ranks had been gradually destroyed. In the Waterloo 
campaign every circumstance tended to aggravate this 
defect.' Discuss this statement with reference to any 
one of Napoleon's subordinates. 

*5. At what period of the Waterloo campaign do you 
consider that Napoleon's chances of success were best? 
Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

6. Compare the tactical handling of their armies by 
Bliicher, Napoleon, and Wellington. 

7. ' Ropes fails to remember that " in war all is very 
simple, but the simple is very difficult ".' Do you agree 
wath this criticism ? 

8. Comment on not more than four of the following 
passages from Ropes : — 

(a) His treason could not but have a very un- 
fortunate effect on the soldiers, creating a feeling of 
distrust in their officers, particularly in those of high rank. 

3 H 30 [Turn over. 



(6) It would seem that Billow ought to bear the 
largest part of the blame. 

(c) That Marshal Blucher erred in giving SombrefFe 
as the point of concentration of his army seems in 
principle and authority very clear. 

(d) These statements afterwards assumed in the 
mind of General Gneisenau the aspect and dimensions of 
a positive pledge of support. 

(e) Nevertheless this belief does not justify him for 
having neglected to ascertain the facts by a prompt 
exploration of the whole region through which the 
Prussians could have retreated. 

(/) These arrangements do not indicate that deter- 
mination to march with all speed to the support of an 
ally in danger of being defeated before the promised 
support arrives which has usually been attributed to 
Marshal Blucher. 

(g) This movement is conformable to his Majesty's 
arrangements which have been communicated to you. 
Nevertheless the Emperor directs me to tell you that 
you ought always to manoeuvre in our direction. 

(h) It was a critical moment, for, if Halkett had 
been beaten, Donzelot's troops would have flanked Mait- 
land's brigade. 

9. Comment upon not more than five of the following 
passages from Houssaye : — 

(a) II semble que, au moins au point de vue de 
I'effet moral, I'empereur eht 4t4 bien inspire de le pref^rer 
a Soult, car Suchet, lui, ne pouvait ^veiller aucune sus- 
picion. 

(b) Le colonel Forbin-Janson, charg^ de lui trans- 
mettre cet ordre, devait aussi le communiquer au marechal 

Ney. 

(c) Ce pourrait bien etre une bataille d'Espagne, oil 
les Anglais se montreront seulement quand il sera temps. 



(d) La journ^e d'aujoiird'hui est n^cessaire pour 
terminer cette operation et pour completer les munitions, 
rallier les militaires isol^s et faire rentrer les ddtache- 
ments. 

(e) Autrement, il continuerait sa retraite. 

(/) II regrettait que Ton eiit ddtach^ 33,000 avec le 
mardchal Grouchy, quand un seul corps d'infanterie et 
quelques milliers de chevaux eussent suffi a poursuivre 
BlUcher. 

(g) II est done faux de dire avec Muffling * Welling- 
ton ne lan9a ses troupes contre les Fran9ais que pour 
avoir I'air de gagner la bataille sans le secours des 
Prussiens.' 

10. Sketch the part played in the battle of Waterloo 
by the Dutch-Belgian contingent, and illustrate your 
answer with a plan. 

11. Comment on not more than /our of the following 
passages from Siborne. 

(a) Napoleon instantly gave the order for the halt 
of the Imperial Guard and despatched one of his Aides 
de camp to reconnoitre the strength and disposition of 
the column. 

(b) This measure was opposed by the Marshal, as 
also by General Baltus of the artillery who represented 
the difficulties of a march in which this arm might be 
compromised. 

(c) It was considered advisable to wait until the 
ground had, in some degree, resumed its natural con- 
sistency. 

(d) Each brigade presented a thin two-deep line. 
Their united strength did not amount to more than 
about 3,000 men, whilst of the French force the central 
attacking columns alone consisted of 12,000 men. 

(e) The Colonel remarked that he had no confidence 
in his men, that they were volunteers and that their 
horses were their own property. 

(/) The sudden and imposing appearance of the 
four-deep line of the 52nd Regiment caused it to halt. 



12. Comment on not more ih^in four of the following 
passages from the Wellington Dispatches : — 

(a) J'ai adopts comme principe general, pendant 
cette campagne, de diviser mon arm^e en deux ailes et 
une reserve. 

(h) I had occupied that post with a detachment 
from General Byng's brigade of Guards. 

(c) The 7th, 29th, and 43rd Regiments will have 
joined your Grace since the action. 

(d) The Commander-in-Chief has a right to recom- 
mend, and the Prince Regent to appoint, whom they 
please to these situations. 

(e) I shall be very much obliged to your Lordship 
if you will allow Colonel Hardinge to remain. 

(/) There is certainly a serious insurrection in La 
Vend&. 

(g) II se peut que I'ennemi nous tourne par Hal. 



[T. T. 191L] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HlSTOEY. 



Foliticcd Science. 

[Candidates are reminded that they a.re required 
to shoiv a knoiuledge of Aristotle, Hobbes, and 
Maine s Ancient La^L\^^ 

1. ' Political theory is always a reflection of and com- 
mentary upon the political conditions amid which the 
philosopher has been bred, and by which his mind has 
been inevitably moulded. It can therefore never have 
more than a relative validity.' Discuss this with special 
reference to any two political thinkers whose works you 
have studied. 

2. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Aristotle's Politics : — 

(a) We see then that the state is a natural institu- 
tion, and also that it is prior to the individual. 

(b) It is obvious that a polity which rests upon 
written formulae or laws is not the best. 

(c) And now that states have grown to still larger 
dimensions it is perhaps no longer easy to establish any 
other form of polity than democracy. 

(d) If there is anything clearly proved by experience 
it is the difficulty, nay perhaps the impossibility, of good 
law in an over-populous state. 

(e) It is clear, then, that the best political association 
is the one which is controlled by the middle class. 

(/) It is inequality, as we have seen, that is every- 
where the cause of sedition. 

3. What has Aristotle to say about town-planning ? 

4. Compare the doctrines of Aristotle and Hobbes in 
regard to the function of education in the right organiza- 
tion of the state. 

3 H 25 [Turn over. 



2 

5. Comment on four of the following passages from 
the Leviathan : — 

(a) The definition of injustice is no other than the 
not performance of covenants. And whatsoever is not 
unjust is just. 

(h) The Liberty whereof there is so frequent and 
honourable mention in the histories and philosophies of 
the ancient Greeks and Romans ... is not the liberty of 
particular men, but the Liberty of the Commonwealth. 

(c) The propriety which a subject hath in his lands 
consisteth in a right to exclude all other subjects from 
the use of them, and not to exclude their sovereign, be 
it any Assembly or a Monarch. 

{d) These are the rights which make the essence of 
Sovereignty. . . . For these are incommunicable and 
inseparable. 

(e) Another doctrine repugnant to Civil Society is 
that whatever a man doeth against his conscience is sin. 

(/) For the ninth law of nature I put this, that 
every man acknowledge other for his equal. 

6. Compare Aristotle and Hobbes on the duty of a 
citizen in regard to national defence. 

7. Examine Hobbes' conception of a ^ Law of Nature ' 

8. It has been said that Sir Henry Maine ' approached 
the consideration of political problems too much from 
the point of view of a lawyer.' Do you agree with this 1 

9. • The effect of the evidence derived from compara- 
tive jurisprudence is to establish that view of the 
primaeval condition of the human race which is known 
as the Patriarchal Theory.' Summarize Maine's argu- 
ment on this point. How far is it upheld by more 
modern research? 

10. How does Maine define the difierence between the 
primitive and the modern idea of crime ? 

11. 'No one, before Burke, ever dreamt of defending 
organized parties as a permanent instrument of govern- 
ment, or as other than a temporary malady of the State.' 
Discuss this. 



12. Lord Acton held that the gradual increase of in- 
dividual liberty form.s the main clue to the complexity 
of human history. Others have held that human pro- 
gress has essentially consisted in the limitation of the 
individual's freedom to hurt his neighbours. Discuss 
these views. 

13. ' Referendum is the fulfilment of democracy.' 
' Referendum is the destruction of representative govern- 
ment.' Analyse and discuss each of these views. 



[r. r. 1911. 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy. 
A. Foreign Trade. 

1. Examine critically Bastable's contention that the 
conditions of international exchange are ' so peculiar as 
to need a different form of exposition '. 

2. Explain the bearing of the following statements on 
the theory of International Trade : — 

[a) ' The total stock of money material must be 
divided in such a way as to keep up that state of trade 
which would exist under a pure barter system.' 

ih) ' The whole of its exports are what a country 
exchanges against the whole of its imports.' 

(c) 'It is quite possible for a country to have a 
permanently favourable exchange with some nations and 
an unfavourable one with others.' 

3. Discuss Huskisson's views as to the free importa- 
tion of corn and compare them with those expressed by 
Cobden and Peel in 1846. 

4. ' The budget of 1860 completed the work of freeing 
the Statute Eook of the United Kingdom from the vast 
series of tolls which for many hundreds of years had 
cumbered its pages.* (Pittar's Re^wrt.) 

Sketch the history of ' Tariff Reform ' from 1842 to 
1860, and show how far this movement was due to 
(a) theoretical, (b) practical considerations. 

5. Indicate the character and scope of Mr. Strachey's 
report. What general conclusions does he draw as to 
the results of the protective system in Germany ? 

6. Discuss with special reference to foreign tra,de the 
statement made by Giffen that ' the study of statistics 
should undoubtedly form a necessary part of liberal 
education '. 

7. It has been urged that, by negotiating the Treat}^ 
with France in 1860^ Cobden was departing from the 
strict principles of Free Trade. Examine this contention 
with reference to Cobden's own speeches on Free Trade 
and to Gladstone's defence of the Treaty in 1860. 

3H21 [Turnover. 



2 

8. Translate the following passage and distinguish 
between the different systems of protection to which 
reference is made : — 

' Die Schutzzollpolitik wie sie sich infolge des 
handelspolitischen Umschwungs in den siebziger Jahren 
gegenwartig in den meisten europaischen Staaten aus- 
gebildet hat, steht dem oben charakterisierten Soli- 
daritatssystem zwar nabe, weist jedoch im Vergleich mit 
dem letzteren bedeutende Milderungen auf. Auf Ein- 
fuhrverbote mit eigentlich handelspolitischem Zweck, 
auf vollig prohibitive Einfuhrzolle sowie auf Flag- 
genzuschlage hat man verzichtet, die Ausfuhr und 
Durchfuhr sind frei, wirkliche Ausfuhrpramien kommen 
fast nur noch bei Zucker und Branntwein vor. Mit den 
Grundsatzen des List'schen Systems stimmt diese neueste 
Praxis ebensowenig iiberein, als die altere ; vielmehr 
darf man sagen dass der Schutz der Landwirtschaft 
immer mehr der eigentliche Angelpunkt der gegen- 
wartigen europaischen Handelspolitik geworden ist.' 

(Lexis.) 

9. Comment briefly on the following extracts : — 

(a) ' That nothing would more tend to counteract 
the commercial hostility of foreign States than the 
adoption of a more enlightened and more conciliatory 
policy on the part of this country.' 

{Merchants' Petition.) 

(h) * Unless foreign products are completely excluded 
by import duties such duties may partly have the effect 
of levying a tribute on foreign producers, the amount 
and duration of which may in certain special cases be 
considerable/ (SiDawiCK.) 

(c) ' This plan is based on the use of an '* index 
number" such as economists of authority have recom- 
mended.' (GiFFEN.) 

(d) ' Prohibitions, in fact, are a premium to medi- 
ocrity. They destroy the best incentive to excellence, 
the best stimulus to invention and improvement.' 

(HUSKISSON, 1825.) 

(e) 'Thus by the system of 1815 the ports were shut 
when the supply at home was deficient . . . and opened 
when the home market was glutted.' (Canning, 1827.) 



(/) ' I cannot but consider it as most consolatory 
. . . when we see a vast and increasing population 
engaged as their most lucrative employment in turning 
a wilderness into cornfields, and whose numbers double 
every twenty-three years.' (Macaulay, 1842.) 

(g) 1st es aber Uberhaupt moglich, dass ein im 
Ganzen verhaltnissmassig ungunstig ausgestattetes Land 
sich durch klinstliche Mittel, wie Einfuhrverbote und 
Schutzzolle, auf einem hoheren wirtschaftlichen Stand- 
punkte erhalte und eine grossere Bevolkerung behalte, 
als seinen natiirlichen Produktionsbedingungen ent- 
spricht und als es bei freiem Handelsverkehr mit 
anderen Volkern der Fall sein wiirde ? (Lexis.) 

(h) ' In den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika ist 
die Hochschutzzollpolitik, die ihren Ausdruck besonders 
in dem MacKinley'schen Tarif von 1890 erhalten hat, 
durch den Uberwiegenden Einfluss der ungewohnlich 
rasch emporgeschossenen Grossindustrie zur Herrschaft 
gelangt.' (Lexis.) 

[T. T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Political Economy, 
B. Public Finance. 



1. * The extent and limits of the shifting of taxation 
are elements in estimating the expediency of exempting 
the minimum of subsistence, of imposing a progressive 
income tax, or of taxing articles of consumption.' 

(Bastable.) 
Investigate the general principles of the Incidence 
of Taxation and apply them to the solution of the three 
problems referred to in the above quotation. 

2. Examine critically Pitt's policy with regard to the 
National Debt, and more especially (a) his methods of 
obtaining loans, (6) his schemes for reducing debt. 

3. Describe with reference to your authorities : — 

(a) The financial condition of England after the 
Napoleonic War. 

(6) The improvement in English Finances between 
1820 and 1828. 

4. How far does our present system of local rates 
satisfy the principle of * taxation according to ability ' 1 
Would the introduction of a special tax on site values 
be a desirable reform ? 

5. Estimate the importance in the income-tax problem 
of — {a) taxation at the source, (b) graduation by degres- 
sion, (c) discrimination between permanent and precarious 
incomes, {d) a super tax. 

6. ' We have felt we should best maintain our own 
honour, that we should best meet the views of Parlia- 
ment, and best promote the interests of the country, 
by declining to draw any invidious distinction between 
class and class ; by adopting it to ourselves as a sacred 
aim, to diffuse and distribute, burden if we must, benefit 
if we may, with equal and impartial hand.' 

(Gladstone, 1853.) 
Do you consider that Mr. Gladstone's financial policy 
as a whole was in harmony with this declaration 1 

3 H 22 [Turn over. - 



7. Explain the position taken up by Sir William Har- 
court in 1894 with regard to the Death Duties. Can it 
be said that recent changes in these duties are a further 
application of the principles then laid down ? 

8. ' Nach Steuergattungen gestaltete sich die britische 
Besteuerung, welche in der franzosischen Kriegszeit von 
17 auf 67i Mill. Pf. St. (ohne Irland) gewachsen war, so, 
dass am Ende des Kriegs, um 1815, die indirecten Ver- 
brauchssteuern (Accisen und Einfuhrzolle) allein fur sich 
und voUends mit den Stempelabgaben iiber die directen 
Steuern, selbst vor der Aufhebung der Einkommensteuer, 
bei Weitem Uberwogen, nach dem Fortfall der Einkom- 
mensteuer natiirlich nur um so mehr.' (Wagner.) 

Translate the above passage, and illustrate from 
your authorities the changes which occurred between 
1792 and 1815 in the relative importance of direct and 
indirect taxation. 

9. Comment on the followino- extracts : — 

(a) ' The system in use at present affords valuable 
guarantees for the legal issue and due application of the 
revenue that the earning departments bring into the 
Treasury.' (Bastable.) 

(b) ' Payment of the Redemption will not be de- 
manded in money, but will be received in transfer of 
stock to the commissioners for liquidating the National 
Debt.' (Pitt, 1798.) 

(c) 'I am now exhibiting to you the financial 
difficulties and embarrassments in which you are placed.* 

(Peel, March, 1842.) 

(d) ' First and most important of the principles 
that should guide the practical financier is that which 
declares that taxation should be productive.* 

(Bastable.) 

(e) ' That at the time in question it was agreed 
unanimously that the only sinking fund which can be 
efficient is that which is produced by a surplus of 
revenue over expenditure.' (Godertch, 1823.) 

(/) ' Complaint is made on behalf of ratepayers 
that there is thrown on the rates too much of the cost of 
certain National services.' {Final Report.) 



(g) 'I know of no proper exemptions from taxea 
except in those cases where the taxes are not worth col- 
lecting. All persons should be taxed, each according to 
his ability.' (Lowe, 1871.) 

(h) ' Das britische Steuersystem . . . passt sich den 
Interessen der heutigen volkswirthschaftlichen Haupt- 
produktionszweige Grossbritanniens, des Handels und 
der Industrie, unter Preisgebung des landwirthschaft- 
lichen Interesses seit Aufhebung der Schutzzolle, an.' 

(Wagneb.) 

[T. T. 1911.] 



I 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



The reigns of Coiistantius and Julian, ivith special 
reference to the religious revival attempted by the 
latter. 

I. 

The Reigns of Constantius and Julian. 

[You are recommended to attempt Question 1 and of the 
rest not less than three or more than five.] 

1. Translate and comment on the following : — 

(a) * Jf fiiu ye (vlkt]) rju dSaKpv^ iiopov toTs KpaTOvcnu, 
i) B\ ovSe roLS KparrjO^LCTLu rjueyKe SaKpva, dW' dno rov 
prjfiaTOS KarrjXBev 6 Trj^ PaaLXeLasvTroKpLTrj^ dLKaadfievos 
Kal cocnrep ScpXrj/xa ^acrtXelTraTpc^ou dnodov? Tr]u dXovpyiSa. 

(Jul. 77 b, c.) 

(b) UdvTa y€/z€f, irdvia ttoXXov, (Jul. 368 c.) 

(c) *AXX* opyrj TV\bu L(r(os vfids e^rjTrdTrjcre Kal Bvfio^, 
odTT^p ovv €L(o6€ '^ Tcc Seiud TTpdrTety, rd? (ppiva^ /1€T0LKL- 
aas'i €1 Ta Trj9 opp-ij^ dvaaretXavT^^ rots irapa^prjixa 
^efSovXev/jLeuoLS KaXcos vcrrepou eTrrjydy^Te rrju irapa- 
vofitav, ovSk ijO-yyuOriT^ Srjpos ovr^s roXfifjaaL ravrd, €0' 
oh kK^tvovs ipLLcrrjcraTe SiKaico?. (JuL. 378 d-9 a.) 

(d) His auditis ex diuturno angore portis reclusis 
omnes efFusi suscepere laeti pacificum ducem, seque 
purgantes Nigrinum totius furoris auctorem paucosque 
alios obtulerunt. (Amm. xxi. 12. 19.) 

(e) Ursuli vero necem largitionum comitis ipsa mihi 
videtur flesse lustitia. (Amm. xxii. 3. 7.) 

(/) OvTCo TToXv TTpo TavTr](Tl TTJ^ )(Xap,vSos i^ao-LXives 
Kal T^u dpyr^v eT^f ? fpyoi) Kal irpo rov (r^r/fiaTO?. 

(Lib. xiii. 15.) 

3 H 43 [Turn over. 



(g) K(0(TTdvTLos FdWou, oVra tov Oeiov natSa, 
'lovXiauov 8e rod /xera ravra ^acnXevcraPTOs dS^Xcpbv 
djJLOTrdTpLov, Kaiaapa KaOi(TTr}(TL, kol KaxTravTiav avrSt 
Kar^yyvrjo-as rrju dSeXcprjUf eire roTs Ilepa-cou noXefjioL? 

dl^TLCTTTjaO/Xei^OU, €LT€, 0776/3 TjU dXrjB^S, 1Tp6(f)a(JLV TTjS avTOV 

PovX6/x€uo9 evpeii^ dvaipecreco?. (Zos. B. 45.) 

(h) '^AStjXov S' eluat oOeu r) avTov TrXrj^ao'a alxH-h 
Kar eKHvov epepXrjro, eiC7 vtto tlvos tcou avTov, €lo vtto 
TToXe/jLLov, eir' e/c Oeiorepas Svud/x€cos,aS€TaL yap kol Tavra. 
8lo (j>a(rlv avTov eK tov Karappiouros tov Tpavfj,aT09 ai/xa- 
roy, kolXt) Se^d/jteuov Tfj X^^P^ '^^^ "^^^ dipos tovto /cara- 
CTK^BdcravTa, €L7T€Tv, KopicrOrjTL Na^copaU, (ZoN. iii. 23.) 

2. Discuss the character of Constanbius. 

3. Describe Julian's campaigns and administration in 
Gaul. 

4. Who were — Oribasius, Maximus, Ursicinus, Mar- 
doniuS; Nebridius ? 

5. Examine in detail and criticize the events of Julian's 
march against the Persians. 

6. What are the merits and importance of Julian as 
a writer 1 

7. Estimate the value as authorities for this period of 
any tivo of the following : — Zosimus, Socrates, Sozomen, 
Zonaras. 

8. In what respects, if in any, is Gibbon's account of 
Julian open to criticism and revision ? 



[T. 2\ 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The reigns of Constantius and Julian, with special 
reference to the religious revival attempted by the 
latter. 

II. 

The Religious Revival attempted by Julian. 

[You are recommended to attempt Question 1 and of 
the rest not less than three or more than five.] 

1. Translate and comment on the following : — 

(a) AlBoijs oxjv Toh re opaxrL to opdv Toh re opco/iiuois 
rb opdo'daL 8vo <t>v(T€i9 kv^pyda fiia t€\€loT, o-^lv koI 
oparov al 8k TeAetorTyrey ^lSt] re el(Ti Kal ovcria, 

(Jul. 134 d.) 

(6) KaLTOL TovTO d^Lov Bav/idcTaL rrepl tov UavXov. 
rrpb^ yap rvx^^t axnrep xpcora ol TroXvnoSes Trpbs rd? 
Trerpaj, aXXdmL rd irepl dcov Soyfiara. 

(Jul. contra Christ. 106 b.) 

(c) AiTLOP Si, 6tl fjirjSk riXiTLcrav eh tovto d(pL^€cr$ai 
W0T€ 8vvdfjL€(09 v/idr TjyaTTCou ydp, el Bepanatvas e^aTrarrj' 
(TovaL Kal 8ovXov9 Kal Sid tovtcdu rd^ yvvalKa^ dv8pa^ re, 
oLovs Kopv-qXios Kal SipyL09. (JuL. contra Christ. 206 A.) 

(d) Tov 8i, 0ei5 ttj9 evrevdeu i]8'q tS>v ddePSiv aTifiia^ 
rd kKuOev /xapTvpofjiiu7]9, Kal fiiKpoh /jL-quv/iaaL rd fieydXa 
TTpOKTjpvTTOvcrrj^, axnrcp rrju Kd'Cv Bvatav 6 tccv fiapTvpcou 
$€b9 d7r€7rifJLTr€T0. (Greg. Naz. 4. 25.) 

(e) Tivo9 ydp roO *EXXrjvi(€Lv eialu ol Xoyot ; Kal tov 
irm Xeyofi^voVi Kal poov/xivov; IV eyco (tol 8iiX(o ttjv tov 
hvojiaro^ 8vuafiLVy 5 ircpl ray diicoyvfiCa? €)((ou a-v, Kal rd 
87jXov/jL€ua, ?) fxia Trpoa-rjyopta 8Ld(popay rj 8La(j>6poL9 ravrd, 
?) iripais €T€pa' rj ydp ttjs Opr](TKuas elvai tovto ^ija-ei^, 
fj tov Wvovs 87jXa8rj, Kal t5>v rrpciTov €ifpLa-K0/iii/<oi> ttjs 
SiaXiKTov t^v 8vvafLiv. (Greg. Naz. 4. 103.) 

3 H 44 [Turn over. 



(/) A La TavTrjv 8e t7)v airtav Kai Truev fjiaT0fjLd)(0V9 

dTTOKaXoVCTLy aVTOVS ol to O/JLOOVCTLOU (f)p0V0VVT€S' 

(Soc. ii. 45.) 

ig) UdvTOi)? e/c rcou Xdycou rov 'A^tlov yvcopt^ere, Kal 
Toijs nepL TTju al'pea-Lu Tavrrju ecr^oAaAcoras" ol? €u (xovov 
TOVTO 'ipyov icTTL, rh BLacpOup^iv rd TrXriOt]. 

(SOZOM. iv. 14.) 

2. Give a short account of the Church Councils held 
during these reigns. 

3. With what justice can Julian be accused of having 
persecuted the Christian religion ? 

4. Describe the attitude of Julian (a) to the Cynics, 
(b) to the Jews. 

5. Sketch the career of Athanasius during these reigns 
and his relations with the Emperors. 

6. Illustrate the increase of superstition and belief in 
the miraculous at this time. 

7. Explain briefly the principal doctrines of Julian's 
theology. 

8. What were the chief reasons for the failure of 
Julian's religious revival ? 



[T, T. 1911.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Unseen Translations. 



[Two hours are allowed for this paper. Candidates who 
offer more than one language need only attempt one 
of the French passages.'] 

1. Son imagination, qui etait magnifique dans le 
boufFon d'abord, et meme anssi dans la conception de 
grandes scenes humaines ou naturelles, comnie batailles et 
tempetes, n'a pas laiss^ d'etre un pen limit^e par son bon 
sens. Son roman, quoi qii'on ait dit, n'a de gigantesque 
que ses personnages, dont, du reste, il oublie a chaque 
instant les statures anormales. C'est un roman tres r^el 
et tres r^aliste, oil la part de fantaisie est tres restreinte. 
C'est le roman bourgeois du xvi® siecle. L'imagination de 
Rabelais est tellement compagne inseparable de son bon 
sens qii'elle ne va guk-e qu'a inventer des pa^^s dont les 
naturels sont des lanternes, et a donner a des homines 
les noms d'oiseaux. Ce n'est pas la une d^bauche de 
fantaisie. Grand artiste cependant et grand createur, en 
ce que I'incident gai et impr^vu, le detail curieux, 1 'anec- 
dote boufFe, le tableau plaisant abondent dans sa cervelle 
f^conde, et, intarissablement sans monotonie, s'en ^lancent 
en tourbillonnant : grand artiste dans ses portraits, dans 
ses croquis, dans ses vignettes, qui a chaque instant 
arretent les yeux et am u sent le regard : grand artiste 
dans ses larges descriptions de ville populeuse, de foule 
grouillante, de festin copieux, de beiiverie large et 
brujante ; grand artiste enfin dans son style sobre le 
plus sou vent et alerte, pittoresque et infiniment expressif 
quand il le faut, extremement vari^ comme le ton et 
I'accent d'un homme qui cause et qui a naturellement 
Tart de causer, toujours vrai, toujours personnel, toujours 
sonnant la voix humaine, si savant avec cela que toutes 
les formes de style fran^ais trouveraient, ce qu'on ne peut 
dire d'aucun autre de nos vieux auteurs, sinon leur modele, 
du moins leur premier trait, d^ja tres marque, dans 
I'historiographe de Panurge. 

2. Malheureusement pour la renomm^e de Montcalm et 
de son arm^e, ce beau fait d'armes fut terni par I'horrible 
massacre qui suivit I'^vacuation de la place. Le g^n^ral 

3 H 45 [Turn over. 



s'^tait cepenJant entour^ de garanties qui devaient 
paraitre suffisantes ; avant de signer la convention, il 
avait eu soin de r^unir les principaux des sauvages, de 
leur exposei les conditions qu'il se proposait d'accepter, 
d'obtenir leur assentiment et la promesse qu'il n'y serait 
pas fait d'infraction. Les chefs I'assur^rent unanime- 
ment qu'ils approuvaient tout ce qu'il ferait, et qu'ils 
empecheraient leurs jeunes gens de commettre aucun 
d(^sordre. Bougainville qui, sans doute. a cause de sa 
connaissance de la langue anglaise, avait ^t^ choisi pour 
rt^diger et n^gocier la capitulation, fit preuve de pre- 
voyance. 'Avant que de retourner a la tranchee, j'eus, 
suivant les instructions que j'avais re9ues, la plus grande 
attention a faire jeter le vin, I'eau-de-vie, toutes les 
liqueurs enivrantes ; et les Anglais sentirent ais^ment de 
quelle consequence il ^tait pour eux de prendre cette 
precaution. A midi la garnison sortit du fort avec ses 
effets et se retira, ainsi qu'on en ^tait convenu, dans le 
camp retranche dans lequel on fib passer un detachement 
de nos troupes, demand^ par les Anglais memes. M. de 
Montcalm ordonna aussi aux officiers et interpretes 
attaches aux sauvages d'y deraeurer jusqu'au depart des 
Anglais ; M. de Bourlamaque prit possession du fort avec 
les troupes de la trancb^e ; il se contenta de placer des 
gardes a la poudriere et au magasin des vivres. Le reste 
fut abandonne au pillage ; il eut ^t^ impossible de I'em- 
pecber. Malgr^ toutes les precautions qu'on avait prises, 
les sauvages, entr^s dans les retrancbements des Anglais, 
voulaient piller leurs coffi'es ; ceux-ci s'y opposant, il 
etait a craindre qu'il ne s'ensuivit quelque grand d^sordre. 
M. le marquis de Montcalm y accourut sur-le-cbamp ; 
pri^res, menaces, caresses, conseils avec les chefs, entre- 
mise des officiers et interpretes qui ont sur ces barbares 
quelque autorit^ : il em ploy a tout pour les arreter et les 
contenir.' 

3. Am 7. November begannen in Frankfurt am Main, 
v^o die Monarch en ihr Hauptquartier aufschlugen, die 
Beratunoen, die durch die Grundverschiedenheiten der 
Interessen und der dadurch bedingten Auf fassungen un- 
gemein erschwert wurden. Politische Erwagungen traten 
in die erste Linie und blieben es von seiten des Ober- 
kommandos v^ahrend des ganzen Feldzuges, v^ahrend die 
strategischen zuriicktraten. Osterreich fUhlte nicht das 



Bedlirfnis, den Kaiser Napoleon zn vernichten und Frank- 
leich volli^ niederzuwerfen ; ihm fehlte schon jetzt nicbt 
mehr viel an seiner ehemaligen Machtstellung ; daher 
war es nicbt geneigt, sie erneut aufs Spiel zu setzen. 
Ausserdem drohte ein grosser Erfolg das Prestige und die 
Macht des ehrgeizigen Herrschers Russian ds, sowie 
Preussens, des alten Rivalen in Deutschland, unverhalt- 
nismassig zu fordern. Diese politische Zuriickhaltung, 
reprasentiert durch Metternich, fand kein Gegengewicht 
durch treibende militarische Elemente im osterreichiscben 
Hauptquartier. Fiirst Scbwarzenberg selbst war weit 
entfernt, ein Feldberr zu sein, und macbte wobl audi 
kaum den Ansprucb darauf ; er eignete sicb die Gedanken 
seines Generalquartiermeisters, des Generalmajors Baron 
Langenau an, eines ebenso gelebrten wie uopraktiscben 
Metbodikers der alten Scbule, flir welcbe die Erfabruugen 
der nocb nicbt abgelaufenenNapoleoniscbenKriegsperiode 
ofar nicbt vorbanden waren, und welcbe in der Scblacbt 
nur ein robes, ausserstes Hilfsmittel sab, eines gebildeten 
Feldberrn unwiirdio:. Es war aber nocb ein dritter Um- 
stand, welcber einer eneigiscben Kriegfiibrung von oster- 
reicbiscber Seite en tgegen stand, — das war der innere 
Zustand des osterreicbiscben Heeres, der von dem oster- 
reicbiscben Generalstabscbef Feldmarscball-Leutnant 
Radetzky, den man als einwandfreien Beurteiler wird 
gelten lassen miissen, in einer Denkscbrift vom September 
1813 in den diistersten Farben gescbildert wird. Den 
scbrofFsten Gegensatz bierzu bildete die Gedanken- 
ricbtung im Hauptquartier der Scblesiscben Armee : aucb 
bier unterstUtzten sicb die politiscbe und die strategiscbe 
AufFassung, nocb gesteigert durcb ideale Motive. Dieses 
Hauptquartier war tatsacblicb die Verkorperung des nacb 
scbweren Niederlagen wieder erwacbten guten Geistes 
Preussens, — der konnte nur offensiv sein, konnte nicbt 
rasten vor vblliorer Niederwerfuns: des Feindes und Unter- 
driickers ; war dies der naturgemasse Gedankengang so 
impulsiver Naturen wieBliicber und Gneisenau, so konnte 
aucb der weniger entbusiastiscbeMiifFling sicb der Grund- 
ricbtung desselben nicbt entzieben, und aucb der preus- 
siscbe Politiker musste sicb sagen, dass nur grosse ent- 
scbeidende Erfolge geeignet waren, die Verbiindeten 
geneigt zu macben, Preussen seine alte Macbtstellung 
durcb Gewabrung einer entsprecbenden Gebietsgi'Osse 
zuzutjesteben. 



4. Una volta, mentre il treno passava viciiio ad Aci- 
Trezza, voi, afiacciandovi alio sportello del vagone, es- 
clamaste : ' Vorrei starci un mese laggiti ! ' Noi vi 
ritornammo e vi passammo non un mese, ma quarantott'- 
ore ; i terrazzani che spalancavano gli occhi vedendo 
i vostri grossi bauli avranno creduto che ci sareste 
rimasta un par d'anni. La mattina del terzo giorno, 
stanca di vedere eternamente del verde e dell'azzurro, 
e di contare i carri che passavano per via, eravate alia 
stazione, e gingillandovi impaziente colla catenella della 
vostra boccettina da odore, allungavate il collo per scorgere 
nn convoglio che non spuntava mai. In quelle qua- 
rantott' ore facemmo tutto cio che si puo fare ad Aci- 
Trezza : passeggiammo nella polvere della strada e ci 
arrampicammo sugli scogli ; col pretesto d'imparare a 
remare vi faceste sotto il guanto dellc bollicine che 
rubavano i baci ; passammo sul mare una notte romanti- 
cissima, gettando le reti tanto per far qualche cosa che 
a' barcaiuoli potesse parer meritevole di buscare dei 
reumatismi ; e 1' alba ci sorprese nell' alto del fariglione, 
un' alba modesta e pallida, che ho ancora dinanzi agli 
occhi, striata di larghi riflessi violetti, sul mare di un 
verde cupo ; raccolta come una carezza su quel gruppetto 
di casuccie che dormivano quasi raggomitolate sulla riva, 
e in cima alio scoglio, sul cielo trasparente e profondo, 
si stampava netta la vostra figurina, coJle linee sapienti 
che ci metteva la vostra sarta, e il profilo fine ed elegante 
che ci mettevate voi. — Avevate un vestitino grigio che 
sembrarafatto apposta per intonare coi colori dell'alba. — 
Un bel quadretto davvero ! e si indovinava che lo sapevate 
anche voi dal modo col quale vi modellavate nel vostro 
sciallettOj e sorridevate coi grandi occhioni sbarrati e 
stanchi a quello strano spettacolo, e a quell' altra stranezza 
di trovarvici anche voi presente. Che cosa avveniva 
nella vostra testolina mentre contemplavate il sole 
nascente? Gli domandavate forse in qual altro emisfero 
vi avrebbe ritrovata fra un mese ? Diceste soltanto in- 
genuamente : ' Non capisco come si possa viver qui tutta 
la vita.' 



No. 1593 One Shilling net 

» — - 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY 
EXAMINATION PAPEES 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMIMTION 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



TRINITY TERM, 1912 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 

116 HIGH STREET 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Conditutional History, 

I. 

[Candidates are recommended to attempt Question 1.] 

1. Comment on any five of the following passages, 
translating where necessary : — 

{a) If a man be slain, we estimate all equally dear. 
English and Danish, at viii half marks of pure gold ; 
except the * ceorl ' who resides on ' gafol ' land, and their 
liesings ; they also are equally dear, either at OC. 
shillings. (Alfred and Guthriim's Peace,) 

(b) And we will that every free man be brought 
into a hundred and into a tithing. . . . And that every 
one be brought into a hundred and in ' borh ' ; and let 
the borh hold and lead him to every plea. 

[Laivs of Ganute.) 

(c) Si quis baronum regis vel aliorum comitatui 
secundum legem interfuerit, totam terram quam illic in 
dominio suo habet, acquietare poterit. Eodem modo e.st 
si dapifer ejus legitime fuerit. Si uterque necessario 
desit, praepositus et sacerdos et quatuor de melioribus 
villae assint pro omnibus qui nominatim non erunt ad 
placitum submoniti. (Leges Henrlci Primi.) 

(d) Et cives non placitabunt extra muros civitatis 
pro ullo placito ; et sint quieti de schot et de loth, de 
Danegildo, et de murdro, et nullus eorum faciat bellum. 

(Charter of Henry I to London.) 

(e) Et statuit quod illi quinque audirent omnes 
clamores regni, et rectum facerent, et quod a curia regis 
non recederent, sed ibi ad audiendum clamores hominum 
remanerent ; ita ut si aliqua quaestio inter eos veniret, 
quae per eos ad finem duci non posset, auditui regio 
praesentaretur, et sicut ei et sapientioribus regni placeret 
terminaretur. (Benedictus Abbas.) 

(f) Nullus vicecomes, vel ballivus noster, vel aliquis 
alius, capiat equos vel caretas alicujus liberi hominis pro 
cariagio faciendo, nisi de voluntate ipsius liberi hominis. 

(Magna Carta.) 
3K21 [Turnover. 



(g) Si fet a remembre ke le commun eslise xii 
piodes homes, ke vendrunt as parlemenz. . . . E ke le 
commun tendra pur estable ceo ke ces xii frunt. E ceo 
serra fet pur esparnier le cust del commun. 

(Provisions of Oxford.) 

(h) Magnates et proceres tunc in parliamento 
existentes, pro se et communitate totius regni quantum 
in ipsis est, concesserunt domino regi, ad filiam suam 
primogenitam maritandam, quod ipse dominus rex perci- 
piat . . . auxilium. 

(Grant of Aid, a.d. 1290.) 

2. ' There was a time when every freeman of England 
could claim a direct voice in the Councils of his countr}^ 
when he could raise his voice or clash his weapon in the 
Assembly which chose Bishops and Ealdormen and 
Kings, when he could boast that the laws which he 
obeyed were laws of his own making, and that the men 
who bore rule over him were rulers of his own choosinof' 
(Freeman). Discuss this description of the Witena- 
gemot. 

3. Illustrate and account for the complexity of social 
conditions found in England in the time of Edward the 
Confessor. 

4. Estimate the importance of the shire court in the 
period 1066-1272. 

5. What were the main points at issue in the 
Constitutions of Clarendon? Were the Constitutions a 
reasonable settlement ? 

6. Explain the following terms : — Burhbot, mansiones 
murales, port-reeve, firma burgi, burgage tenure, tallage. 

7. Estimate the value of Magna Carta to the following 
classes — (a) mesne lords, (h) merchants and townsmen, 
(c) villeins. 

8. Account for the separation of the Lesser Barons 
from the Greater Barons and for their incorporation in the 
Third Estate. 

9. Describe the processes by which in the time of 
Edward I a criminal could be brought to justice, and 
explain the working of the criminal jury system. 



10. Discuss the ideas of the thirteenth century regarding 
the relative authority of Law and the King. 

11. 'The fourteenth century was pre-eminently an age 
of constitutional adjustmeat.' Discuss and illustrate 
this statement. 

12. Compare the methods by which the armed forces 
of the Crown were recruited under the Norman and under 
the Lancastrian dynasty. 

13. Illustrate the oligarchical tendencies of the 
fifteenth century in borough and county. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History. 

II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt Question 15.] 

1. Give some account of the financial system under 
Henry VII, and explain the methods by which he 
accumulated so large a treasure. 

2. How far does the legislation of Henry VIII refute 
the Stuart doctrine that the English constitution was 
an absolute and hereditary monarchy ? 

3. Compare the arrangements for a regency (a) during 
the minority of Edward VI, (6) during the absences of 
George II, (c) during the insanity of George III from 
1810-1820. 

4. Give some account of, and explain, the legislation 
against Roman Catholics between 1570 and 1610. 

5. To what extent can (a) the Court of Star Chamber 
and (6) the Court of High Commission be justly described 
as instruments of tyranny ? 

6. Compare the provisions affecting (a) the summons 
and (b) the duration of Parliament in the Triennial Act, 
1641 ; the Instrument of Government ; the Triennial Act, 
1664 ; the Triennial Act, 1695 ; the Septennial Act, 1716; 
the Parliament Act, 1911. 

7. Give some account of the various proposals for a 
union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland between 
1603 and 1707. 

8. What developments do you find in the conception 
of a constitutional monarchy between the accession of 
George I and the death of George IV ? 

9. Illustrate the methods of municipal government 
and the system of parliamentary representation in either 
the English or the Scottish burghs before the Reform 
Act of 1832. 

10. On what occasions in the eighteenth century did 
the House of Commons assert unconstitutional claims ? 

3 K 22 [Turn over. 



11. Trace the history of the Parliamentary regulation 
of the government of India up to the Act of 1784, or 
analyse the system of government established in Canada 
(a) by the Quebec Act (1774), (h) the Canada Act (1791). 

12. Give some account of (a) the constitution, and (h) 
the powers of the Irish Parliament after 1782. 

13. ' Any nation which cannot acquiesce in the finality 
of possibly mistaken [legal] judgments is hardly fit to 
form part of a federal state.' Discuss. 

14. Trace the rise of democratic control over local 
government since the Reform Act of 1832. 

15. Comment on five of the following passages : — 

(a) ^ . . . by reason of which Act of Repeal your 
said humble subjects were eftsoons brought under an 
usurped foreign power and authority, and yet do remain 
in that bondage, to the intolerable charges of your 
loving subjects, if some redress by the authority of this 
your High Court of Parliament, with the assent of your 
Highness, be not had and provided.' 

{Act of Supremacy, 1559.) 

(h) We, the ministers of the gospel in this land, 
neither as factious men affecting a popular parity in the 
church, nor as schismatics aiming at the dissolution of 
the state ecclesiastical . . . could do no less . . . then 
acquaint your princely majesty with our particular 
griefs. {Millenary Petition, 1603.) 

(c) That our making of request in the entrance of 
parliament to enjoy our privilege is an act only of 
manners. {Apology of the House of Commons, 1604.) 

{d) Assuring themselves that your Majesty is re- 
solved to observe that your royal answer which you 
have lately made to the Petition of Right of both Houses 
of Parliament ; yet doubting lest your Majesty may be 
misinformed concerning this particular case, as if you 
might continue to take those subsidies of Tonnage and 
Poundage . . . they are forced ... to declare that there 
ought not any imposition to be laid upon the goods of 
merchants . . . without common consent by Act of Par- 
liament. 

{Remonstrance against Tonnage and Poundage^ 1628.) 



(e) An Act to be passed to take away all coercive 
power, authority, and jurisdiction of Bishops and all 
other Ecclesiastical OflBcers whatsoever. 

(Heads of the Proposals, 1647.) 

(/) That those persons who are legally chosen by 
a free election of the people to serve in Parliament, may 
not be excluded from sitting in Parliament to do their 
duties, but by judgment and consent of that House 
whereof they are members. 

{Humble Petition and Advice.) 

(g) That no Person who has an Office or Place of 
Profit under the King or receives a Pension from the 
Crown shall be capable of serving as a Member of the 
House of Commons. (Act of Settlement.) 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



English Political History. 

I. 

[Candidates are expected to answer questions from all 
three sections of the paper, including at least one 
of the questions marked tulth an asterisk.'] 

A. 

■^1. Discuss, with a map or maps, the influence of geo- 
graphical conditions on the Germanic invasion of Britain. 

2. Sketch the history of monasticism in England from 
the seventh to the tenth century. 

*3. Trace, with a sketch-map, the encroachment of the 
English upon the Britons between a.d. 613 and a.d. 825. 

4. What foreign influences contributed most to Anglo- 
Saxon civilization ? 

5. Compare the circumstances and conditions of the 
Danish invasions in the reign of Alfred and in the reign 
of Ethelred the Kedeless. 

*6. Trace the formation of the permanent frontier 
between England and Scotland. Illustrate your answer 
with a sketch-map. 

7. What inferences may be drawn from our authorities 
as to the prevalence of lawlessness in England in the 
tenth and eleventh centuries ? 

B. 

8. Account for the failure of all the English attempts 
at resistance to William after the battle of Hastings. 

9. What indications are there of the increased im- 
portance of towns in the Norman period ? 

10. Sketch the career of John before his accession to 
the throne. 

"^11. At what period were the Lords of the Welsh March 
of most importance in the general history of England ? 
Indicate their policy with reference (a) to the Crown, 
(b) to the Welsh princes. Illustrate with a sketch-map. 

• 

3 K 28 [Turn over. 



12. In what ways did John's surrender of his kingdom 
to the Pope affect the subsequent relations of Church and 
State to Rome ? 

13. At what periods in the twelfth, thirteenth, and 
fourteenth centuries were the relations of England with 
Germany important ? 

14. Trace the development of military architecture 
from the Conquest to the reign of Edward I. 

C. 

*15. Trace and account for the decline of the English 
power in Ireland in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
Illustrate with a sketch-map. 

16. How would you explain the apparent return under 
Edward II of the political conditions prevailing under 
Henry III? 

^17. What help did England receive in the course of 
the Hundred Years' War from lands technically subject 
to the French Crown 1 Illustrate j^our answer with a 
sketch-map. 

18. What inferences regarding the condition of the 
higher clergy in England at the close of the Middle Ages 
may be drawn from the lives of (a) William of Wykeham, 
(h) Archbishop Arundel, (c) Cardinal Beaufort? 

19. Compare Edward III and Henry V as strategists. 

20. What are the chief points of resemblance and of 
difference in the relations of (a) the Percies with Henry 
IV, and (h) of the Nevilles with Edward IV? 

21. Are there any reasons for thinking that the evils 
caused by want of governance and by civil war in the 
fifteenth century have been exaggerated ? 

22. Compare the general character of the authorities 
for English history in the eleventh and in the fourteenth 
centuries. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



English Political History. 
11. 

[Candidates are expected to anaiver queations from all 
three sections of the pajjer, including at least one of 
those marked ivith an asterisk, and to avoid questions 
on their S2)ecial Stdfjects.'] 

A. 

1. Sketch the relations between England and Scotland 
from the accession of Henry Vll to the Battle of Pinkie. 
Did the early Tudors follow a consistent policy in 
regard to Scotland 1 

2. What do you consider to liave heen Wolsey's 
personal views (a) on Church (juestions, [h) on the part 
which England should play in European politics 1 

3. Illustrate from the last half of Henry VIII's reign 
the methods and consequences of his control over Parlia- 
ment. 

4. How far did the legislative settlement of the 
Church of England represent the real state of English 
public opinion (a) in 1559, (h) in 1603 1 

■^5. What is conveyed by the phrase * the Tudor con- 
quest of Ireland ' "? How far was it effective by the end 
of Elizabeth's reign ? Illustrate your answer with a 
map or maps. 

6. Describe, and discuss the policy of, Elizabeth's inter- 
ventions in France and the Netherlands. How far were 
they effective '^ 

7. Show the importance of the enterprises of English 
seamen before 1585. 

B. 

8. How far is it true to say that the English Parlia- 
ment from 1603 to 1629 dealt unfairly with James I 
and Charles I because it failed to appreciate the political 
situation in Europe 1 

3 K 29 [Turn over. 



9. Sketch the causes and the course of the mercantile 
and colonial rivalry of the English and Dutch in the 
seventeenth century. 

*10. Describe with a map the Cromwellian conquest 
of either Scotland or Ireland, and discuss Cromwell's 
policy in regard to the country you select. 

11. Discuss either Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel 
as a political satire, or Swift's Coadxict of the Allies as a 
piece of advocacy. 

*12. Describe the geographical position, and indicate 
the historical importance of any nix of the following :- 
Pularoon, lie de Re, Winceby, Philiphaugh, Dunkirk, 
Drumclog, Limerick, Namur, La Hogue, Torbay, Tortuga, 
Almanza, Wynendael, Acadia. 

13. Discuss (a) the attitude of the English people 
towards William III, {h) the attitude of William III 
towards English political and religious parties. 

14. Account for the vioour of the revival of the 
High Church Party in the reign of Queen Anne. 



C. 

15. Disraeli described the government of England in 
the first half of the eighteenth century as ' a Venetian 
oligarchy'. Is the description just? By what means 
was the political ascendancy of the Whig aristocracy 
established ? 

16. How do you account for the long interval of peace 
between England and France which followed the Spanish 
Succession War ? Why was it broken ? 

*17. Draw a map of that part of the North American 
continent which formed the field of conflict between the 
English and the French, showing the main physical 
features which were of strategic importance, and also 
the following: — Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg, Ticon- 
deroga, Oswego, Frontenac, Albany, the L'oquois country, 
Fort Duquesne. Explain the strategic importance of 
the Hudson Valley and Lake Champlain. 



18. What do you know of the movement for Parlia- 
mentary Reform in England before ISIS? What was 
the attitude towards the movement of (a) Chatham, (6) 
Burke, (c) the younger Pitt, {d) Charles Fox ? 

19. Trace the discussion on revolutionary ideas in 
English prose and poetry during the years 1789-1801. 

■^20. Describe with a map or maps either the naval 
campaign of 1797 or the campaign of Torres Vedras. 
In either case, bring out the influence of the campaign 
upon the general course of the war. 

*21. ' Wellesley transformed the British Empire in 
India into the British Empire of India.' Expand this 
statement. Add a map. 

22. Give some account of the condition of England in 
the years 1815-20, and of the attitude of government 
during these years towards popular discontents. What 
signs of a change of attitude are perceptible in the decade 
1820-30? 

23. Discuss the line taken by Peel on the question of 
Catholic Emancipation. What is meant by the statement 
that Peel was the founder of nineteenth-century Con- 
servatism ? 



[2\ T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period II, (476-919.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 

attempted.^ 

1 . Illustrate from the career and writinn^s of Boethius 
the transitional character of the age in which he lived. 

*2. Give some account of the history either of the 
Ostrogoths or of the Lombards before they invaded 
Italy ; and illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

3. ' Whatever Gothic kingship, or any other Germanic 
kingship may have meant in the days of Tacitus or to 
the minds of Whig historians of the nineteenth century, 
to its contemporaries in the fifth and sixth it seems to 
have meant absolute power after the model of the later 
Roman Empire.' Discuss this statement. 

4. Estimate the wisdom of Justinian's policy in Africa 
and in Italy. 

5. Compare the relative importance of cavalry and of 
infantry in the warfare of the sixth century. 

*6. Show, with a sketch-map, the expansion of the 
Prankish kingdom in the fifty years that followed the 
death of Clovis. 

7. What light is thrown on the character of Gregory 
the Great by (a) his early life, and (b) his relations with 
Maurice and Phocas ? Do you infer that his character 
changed after he became Pope ? 

8. Discuss the credibility of the History of Paulus 
Diaconus. 

9. Narrate the story of the attempts made by the 
Saracens to capture Constantinople. 

10. Account for the feeble resistance to Islam made 
by the Christians in Egypt and in Spain. 

3 K 3 [Turn over. 



11. Illustrate from the careers of the Mayors of the 
palace down to the death of Pippin the Younger (a.d. 714) 
the bases on which their power rested. 

*12. Show with a sketch-no ap the conquests of King 
Liutprand. Did he make the most of his opportunities ? 

13. Trace the history of any one of the following 
towns during the Dark Ages: — Jerusalem, Paris, Ravenna, 
Venice. 



[T.T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period II. (476-919.) 

II. 

\_At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 

attempted.^ 

1. Examine the religious policy of Constantine V 
(Copronymus) and the motives by which it was dictated. 

2. Trace the relations of Charles the Great with the 
Papacy down to the Imperial Coronation. 

3. Compare and illustrate the methods of conversion 
practised by the Frank and by the Saracen. 

*4. Show with a map the distribution of the Slavonic 
peoples about a.d. 800 and account for their political 
impotence. 

5. Do the constitutional reforms, of Charles the Great 
prove him to have been lacking in constructive states- 
manship 1 

6. How far is it possible to reconstruct the history 
either of Denmark or of Norway in this period ? 

*7. What principles, if any, guided the Carolingians 
in their partitions of the Empire ? Illustrate your 
answer with a sketch-map. 

8. Discuss the authorship and the importance of the 
False Decretals. 

9. 'The hope of a united Ital}^ was buried in the 
grave of Lewis II.' Why was this ? 

10. Describe and account for the revival of the Eastern 
Empire after the accession of Basil I. 

*11. Show with a map the political divisions of 
Germany at the close of this period, and consider how 
far they were the creation of the ninth century. 

12. Bring out the importance of any tivo of the follow- 
ing: — Alfonso II King of Asturias, Fulco of Bheims, 
Hrotswitha, John the Scot, Photius. 

13. Sketch the history of the church architecture of 
this period. 

3K4 [T. r. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



General History, Period III. (919-1273.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked tvith an asterisk* 
should be attempted.'] 

1 . What were the methods of Otto the Great in the 
government of Germany ? How far had there been any 
advance in efficiency b}^ the end of the reign of 
Henry IH ? 

2. Is there any truth in the assertion that the royal 
title was a source of weakness rather than of strength to 
the Capetian house down to the reign of Louis VI i 

3. Bring out the main features of the relations be- 
tween the Saxon Emperors and the Papacy 

*4. Discuss with the aid of a rough sketch-map the 
main routes followed by European trade before the 
First Crusade. 

5. What attempts did the Church make during the 
tenth and eleventh centuries to mitigate the disorders of 
feudal society, and with what effect ? 

*6. Describe the condition of the Eastern Empire and 
its relations with neighbouring powers at the end of the 
reign of Basil II (1025). Illustrate your answer with 
a map. 

7. Estimate the influence of the minority of Henry IV 

(a) upon the position of the monarchy in Germany, 

(b) upon the papacy. 

8. ' There was always an influential party among the 
clergy which was opposed at once to the ideals and to 
the policy of the extreme Hildebrandine party.' Discuss 
this. 

*9. Describe the political distribution of Italy at the 
death of Robert Guiscard (1085). Illustrate your answer 
with a map. 

3 K 6 [Turn over. 



2 



10. Describe, and compare the organization and 
the activities (a) of a Cluniac house, (b) of a Cistercian 
house, (c) of a Praemonstratensian house. 

11. Sketch the state of civilization attained in Hun- 
gary, Bohemia, and Poland at the beginning of the 
twelfth century, and summarize the general character of 
the relations between these States and Germany during 
the period of the Salian Emperors. 

*12. Describe with a map the condition and organi- 
zation of the Latin States in Syria during the first half 
of the twelfth century. 

13. Trace in outline the development down to the 
beginning of the twelfth century either of European 
arcliitecture, or of educational methods. 



[T. T. 1912. 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General Ristory. Period III. (919-1273.) 

II. 

\^At least ONE of the quest ions marked ^ should he 

attempted.] 

1. Trace the history of the House of Hohenstaufen up 
to the election of the Emperor Frederick I. 

2. Give some account of the republican movement in 
the City of Rome in the twelfth century and of the career 
of Arnold of Brescia. 

*3. Draw a map to show the position and the extent of 
the kingdom of Aries, and indicate its importance in the 
history of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

*4. Estimate the importance of the reigns of Isaac II and 
Alexius III in the history of the Eastern Empire, and 
show by a map the loss of territory in these reigns. 

5. Discuss the attitude adopted by Venice in the 
Fourth Crusade. 

*6. Show on a map (a) the position of the great Lombard 
towns, and (h) the Papal territories in the time of 
Innocent III. 

7. ' Never was an Emperor stronger since the days of 
Charlemagne.' Discuss this estimate of the reign of 
Henry VI. 

8. 'It is the cardinal principle of the law of the 
Roman Empire that the succession depends not upon 
hereditary right, but on the election of the princes.' — Otto 
of Freising. 

' The Apostolic See confers the imperial crown.' 
— Innocent III. 

Discuss these statements in connexion with disputed 
successions in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

9. Sketch the part played by France in the Crusading 
movement after the Fourth Crusade. 

3 K 6 [Turn over. 



■^10. Draw a map of Spain at the beginniDg of the 
thirteenth century and give some account of the career 
either of James I of Aragon or of Alfonso X of Castile. 

11. Illustrate and discuss the attitude of the Papacy 
towards the Universities. 

12. Give an account of any book which influenced 
European history in the later part of your period. 

13. What circumstances helped to prolong the existence 
of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 1 3th century 



[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

I. 

[At least one of the questions marked ^ should be 

attempted.^ 

1. What were the chief causes which reduced Italy 
into a small number of comparatively large states ? 

2. Why was Aragon, although so much smaller, of 
so much greater consequence than Castile in the general 
affairs of Europe ? 

*3. Describe the Byzantine Empire as it was left by 
Michael Palaeologus and explain the chief dangers by 
which it was threatened. Illustrate your answer with a 
sketch-map. 

4. Are there sufficient grounds for regarding Philip 
the Fair as a statesman of creative ability ? 

*5. Sketch the growth and constitution of the Hanseatic 
League. When did its power culminate? Illustrate 
your answer with a sketch-map. 

6. Describe the chief features of the Venetian constitu- 
tion and account for the admiration which it excited. 

7. Trace the conflict of parties in Florence from the 
enactment of the Ordinances of Justice to the rebellion 
of the Ciompi. 

8. In what respects was the policy of the Popes 
modified by their residence at Avignon ? 

9. Explain fully the importance of the reign of Louis 
the Great in the history of Hungary. 

10. What events led up to the Union of Calmar 1 
How far was it an organic union ? 

*11. Trace the growth of the Lithuanian state and 
show the importance of its connexion with Poland. 
Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

3 K 7 [Turn over. 



12. Show how the disorganization of the Empire led 
to the decline of German influence in Europe in the 
fourteenth century. 

13. What is meant by the doctrine of Evangelical 
Poverty ? What was its origin and what were its eflfects 
on the religious thought of Europe ? 

14. Did the disasters of the fourteenth century check 
the development of French monarchical institutions ? 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HLSTOKY. 



General History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

11. 

l^At least ONE of the questions marked * should be 

attempted.^ 

1. ' Sigismond could find no middle course between 
fantastic schemes for the regeneration of the world and 
selfish plans for the aggrandizement of his own house.' 

Discuss this statement. 

2. How far must Eugenius IV be held responsible for 
the calamities that befell the Papacy at the beginning of 
his reign ? 

3. Estimate the importance of the middle classes in 
France in the fifteenth century. 

4. To what extent did Cosimo de' Medici depart in his 
interna] government of Florence from the principles and 
policy of the Albizzil 

*5. Draw a sketch-map showing the possessions of the 
House of Burgundy (a) at the accession of Philip the 
Good (a.d. 1419), (6) at the death of Charles the Bold. 

6. Explain the aims and estimate the success either of 
George Podiebrad of Bohemia, or of Ivan III of Russia. 

7. ' Louis XI est de ceux qui n'oublient jamais et 
apprennent toujours.' Illustrate this statement. 

8. Can you detect in the history of the Hohenzollerns 
during the fifteenth century the seeds of their futui-e 
greatness ? 

9. Discuss and illustrate the attitude of the Italian 
Humanists to Christianity. 

*10. Account for the growth of the territories and power 
of the Swiss Confederation between 1415 and 1513. 
Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

[r. T. 1912.] 

S K 8 [Turn over. 



11. Why did the Portuguese so long outstrip the 
Spaniards in maritime discovery ? 

*12. Show, by a sketch-map, the river system of 
Lombardy and Venetia, and illustrate its influence on 
the politics and the campaigns of the period 1450-92. 

13. Was any real progress in constitutional reform 
achieved by Germany during the reign of Maximilian 1 ? 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V, (1414-1598.) 

I. 

\^At least ONE of the questions marked * should be 

attempted.^ 

1 . ' Sigisinond could find no middle course between 
fantastic schemes for the regeneration of the world and 
selfish plans for the aggrandizement of his own house.' 

Discuss this statement. 

2. How far must Eugenius IV be held responsible for 
the calamities that befell the Papacy at the beginning of 
his reign ? 

3. Estimate the importance of the middle classes in 
France in the fifteenth century. 

4. To what extent did Cosimo de^ Medici depart in his 
internal government of Florence from the principles and 
policy of the Albizzi 1 

*5. Draw a sketch-map showing the possessions of the 
House of Burgundy (a) at the accession of Philip the 
Good (a. d. 1419), [h) at the death of Charles the Bold. 

6. Explain the aims and estimate the success either of 
George Podiebrad of Bohemia, or of Ivan III of Russia. 

7. ' Louis XI est de ceux qui n'oublient jamais et 
appr.eunent toujours.' Illustrate this statement. 

8. Can you detect in the history of the Hohenzollerns 
during the fifteenth century the seeds of their future 

greatness 1 

9. Discuss and illustrate the attitude of the Italian 
Humanists to Christianity. 

*10. Account for the growth of the territories and 
power of the Swiss Confederation between 1415 and 
1513. Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

[T, T, 1912.] 

3 K 9 [Turn over. 



11. Why did the Portuguese so long outytrip the 
Spaniards in maritime discovery ? 

^12. Show, by a sketch-map, the river system of 
Lombardy and Venetia, and illustrate its influence on 
the politics and the campaigns of the period 1450-92. 

13 Was any real progress in constitutional reform 
achieved by Germany during the reign of Maximilian I ? 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V. (1414-1598.) 

II. 

[At least ONE of the quedlons marked lulth an asterisk* 
should he attempted.] 

1. Examine the statement that the two greatest evils 
in Germany on the eve of the Reformation Avere Roman 
materialism and political anarchy. 

2. ' Among the worst kings of France, Francis I . . . 
occupies the unenviable primacy ' (Stubbs). 

* Avec un grand savoir, une grande perspicacity, il 
manqua toujours d'esprit de suite' (Voltaire). 
Discuss these two estimates of Francis I. 

3. Describe the constitutions of the Spanish kingdoms 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century and show how 
they were changed during that century. 

4. Account for the failure of the French to retain their 
Italian conquests. 

*5. Sketch the history of Hungary from 1526 and show 
its influence on the fortunes of the Habsburo^s. Illustrate 
with a map. 

6. Estimate the value of Zwingli's services to Switzer- 
land. What permanent results had they ? 

*7. What were the terms of the religious peace of 
Augsburg 1 Show on a sketch-map the geographical 
distribution of the religious forces in Germany, and point 
out what openings the treaty left for future troubles. 

*8. Describe with a map any one of the campaigns in 
the French religious wars. 

9. * The battle of Lepanto proved the superiority of 
Christian arms, its results that of Turkish diplomacy. 
It made clear also the fact that the Ottoman State was 
still at the height of its power.' Discuss. 

3 K 10 [Turn over. 



10. Indicate the importance in the history of the 
Netherlands of («) the introduction of Alva's new taxes 
in 1569, (6) the capture of Mons (1572), (<") the Perpetual 
Edict (1577). 

11. Estimate the importance of foreign intervention 
in the French religious ^Yars. 

12. Discuss the policy of Sixlus V. Would you 
regard him as one of the greatest Popes of the century 1 

13. Show from an examination of the chief political 
writers the directions in which political thought ad- 
vanced in the sixteenth century. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

I. 

[At least one of the questions marked * should he 

attemjjted.] 

*1. Draw a map of France to indicate the geographical 
distribution of the Huguenots. At what periods between 
15 59 and 1630 did they constitute a serious danger to 
the unity of France '^ 

*2. Trace the progress of the Counter Keformation in 
Germany up to 1618 and illustrate your answer with a 
sketch-map. 

3. ' The battle of Lepanto proved the superiority of 
Christian arms, its results that of Turkish diplomacy. It 
made clear also the fact that the Ottoman State was still 
at the height of its power.' Discuss. 

4. Indicate the importance, in the history of the Kevolt 
of the Netherlands of (a) the introduction of Alva's new 
taxes in 1669, (h) the capture of Mons (1572), (c) the 
Perpetual Edict. 

5. Estimate the importance of the House of Savoy in 
the first half of your period. 

6. Criticize the foreign and domestic policy of Philip 
III. 

7. Indicate the improvements in the internal adminis- 
tration of France in the reign of Henry IV. 

8. Discuss the different views of the relations of Church 
and State which were held at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, with special reference to the writings 
of Calvin, Hooker, and Erastus. 

*9. Explain carefully the attitude of John George of 
Saxony in the Thirty Years' War, and draw a map to 
show the effect designed by the Edict of Restitution. 

3 K 11 [Turn over. 



10. How far was Richelieu's foreign policy rendered 
necessary by the situation (both foreign and domestic) 
with which he had to deal ? 

11. Estimate the services of the House of Vasa to 
Sweden up to the intervention of Gustavus Adolphus in 
the Thirty Years' War. 

12. I'o what extent were the wars of this period con- 
nected with considerations of trade and commerce ? 



[7'. T. 1912. 1 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

II. 

[At least one of the questions iniarhed * should be 

attempted.] 

1. Can you trace any connecting thread in the foreign 
policy of the Great Elector ? 

2. It is said that John de Witt was essentially an 
advocate of peace ; how then do you account for the 
Dutch wars against England, Portugal, Sweden, and 
France ? 

*3. Show on a sketch-map, or maps, the political changes 
in Italy during your period. 

4. Describe the French fiscal system under Colbert, 
and show what reforms he introduced. 

*5. How did the Austrian Habsburgs increase their 
strength and prestige between 1660 and 1714? Illustrate 
with a map. 

6. Trace carefully the relations between France and 
Bavaria from 1648 to 1715. 

7. * In the seventeenth century war was the most 
lucrative of Swedish industries.' Examine the truth of 
this statement during the second half of this period. 

8. Trace the causes which during the years 1679 to 
1688 led to a European combination against France. 

9. ' By far the ablest man who was born in modern 
times on the steps of a throne ' (Lord Acton). 

' II avait Tame plus grande que I'esprit ' (Mon- 
tesquieu). 

Which do you think the better estimate of Louis XIV ? 

*10. Describe with the help of a map either Turenne's 
campaign in the Vosges, or, the campaign of Ramillies. 

3Kl2 [Turnover. 



11. Which was the more important^ the home or 
foreign policy of Peter the Great ? 

12. Is it true of the period 1660 to 1715 that Poland 
was the weakest link in France's outer system ? 

13. How far did the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt 
give effect to the intentions of William III and those 
who formed the Grand Alliance ? 



[T, T. I9I2.1 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the 
questions marked *.] 

*1. Illustrate, with the help of a sketch map, the im- 
portance of the Dutch Barrier, and trace the gradual 
decline of its value. 

2. Discuss the effects of the Regency on the internal 
condition of France. 

3. Explain the causes of the Alliance of Vienna, and of 
the League of Hanover. Why did they not result 
in war 1 

4. What justification is there for regarding Frederick 
William I as Prussia's greatest king ? 

*5. Trace on a sketch-map the expansion of Russia 
down to 1795. 

6. Compare the advantages and disadvantages to 
France and Spain from the Family Compacts. 

7. Trace the gradual decline of Papal power during the 
eighteenth century. 

8. Illustrate the value attached to tropical trade by 
the European states in the eighteenth century. 

^9. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, that one 
of the campaigns of Frederick the Great which you think 
will best illustrate his merits at once as a strategist, 
and as a tactician. 

10. Compare the policy towards Russia and Turkey 
of Charles VI, and of Joseph 11. 

11. ' Liberalism is apt to be absolutist.' Discuss this 
statement with reference to the history of the eighteenth 
century. 

12. Show, from a careful examination of the French 
fiscal system, the burdens on agriculture, industry, and 
commerce in the reign of Louis XV. 

13. Would you agree that Gustavus III was one of the 
greatest sovereigns of the eighteenth century? 

3K13 [r. r. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

11. 

[^At least one of the questions marked * should be 
attertvpted.'] 

1. 'Mirabeau was only an adventurer of genius in 
a dissolving society.' Can you justify this estimate? 

2. What were the political and social circumstances 
which laid Western Germany open to French aggression 
in 17921 

*3. Show carefully the importance of naval power in 
the Mediterranean from the outbreak of war to the with- 
drawal of the British fleet. Illustrate with a map. 

4. Explain and criticize the main features of the Con- 
stitution of the Year III. 

*5. Describe carefully tlie condition of political affairs 
in Italy in 1796, and show the nature of the difficulties 
which hampered Bonaparte's adversaries. Illustrate your 
answer with a sketch-map. 

6. 'The Egyptian expedition was a melodramatic 
enterprise : and as such was an unqualified success.* 
Discuss this statement. 

7. Discuss the prudence and honesty of the Prussian 
foreign policy from the peace of Basle to the outbreak 
of war with Napoleon. 

8. Estimate the value of Turkish intervention in the 
wars from 1789 to 1815. 

9. Trace Alexander's relations with Napoleon down to 
the Congress of Erfurt. How far was his policy in the 
best interests of Russia ? 

10. Examine the reforms in Prussia carried out on the 
initiation of Stein and estimate the share of Frederick 
William III in them. 

3 K 14 [Turn over. 



11. Consider the effects of the Continental s^^stem 
(a) upon France and (6) upon French dependencies and 
allies. 

■^12. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, either the 
campaign of Austerlitz o?' Sir John Moore's campaign in 
Spain or the autumn campaign of 1813. 

13. Sketch the part played by Talleyrand at the 
Congress of Vienna and account for its prominence. 



\T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VIII. (1789-1878.) 

I. 

Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

onarked *.] 

1. ' Mirabeau was only an adventurer of genius in 
a dissolving society.' Can you justify this estimate? 

2. What were the political and social circumstances 
which laid Western Germany open to French aggression 
in 1.792? 

*3. Show carefully the importance of naval power in 
the Mediterranean from the outbreak of war to the with- 
drawal of the British fleet. Illustrate with a map. 

4. Explain and criticize the main features of the Con- 
stitution of the Year III. 

*5. Describe carefully the condition of political affairs 
in Italy in 1796, and show the nature of the difficulties 
which hampered Bonaparte's adversaries. Illustrate your 
answer with a sketch-map. 

6. 'The Egyptian expedition was a melodramatic 
enterprise: and as such was an unqualified success.' 
Discuss this statement. 

7. Discuss the prudence and honesty of the Prussian 
foreign policy from the peace of Basle to the outbreak 
of war with Napoleon. 

8. Estimate the value of Turkish intervention in the 
wars from 1789 to 1815. 

9. Trace Alexander's relations with Napoleon down to 
the Congress of Erfurt. How far was his policy in the 
best interests of Russia ? 

10. Examine the reforms in Prussia carried out on the 
initiation of Stein and estimate the share of Frederick 
William III in them. 

3K15 [Turn over. 



11. Consider the effects of the Continental system 
(a) upon France and (b) upon French dependencies and 
allies. 

*12. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, either the 
campaign of Austerlitz or Sir John Moore's campaign in 
Spain or the autumn campaign of 1813. 

13. Sketch the part played by Talleyrand at the 
Congress of Vienna and account for its prominence. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VIII, (1789-1878.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the 
questions marked tvith an asterisk.] 

1. Discuss the policy of Metternich. At what period do 
you consider that his influence was at its highest point ? 

2. Trace the attempts of France to secure the confidence 
and recognition of the other Great Powers from 1815 to 
1830. 

3. What was the meaning of Canning's boast that he 
had ' called a new world into existence to redress the 
balance of the old ' ? Was it mere magniloquence 1 

4. Trace in outline the Greek struggle for independence 
from 1821 to 1827. 

*5. Sketch the career of Mehemet Ali, and show with 
a map the widest extent of his power. 

6. ' Europe from 1830 to 1854 w^as dominated by the 
rivalry between Nicholas and Palmers ton, symbols of 
the absolutist East and the liberal West.' Discuss this. 

7. At what points, and for what reatons, were events 
in Spain of importance to general European politics 
during your period 1 

8. Describe the constitution of France during the reign 
of Louis Philippe. How^ do you account for the rapidity 
and ease with which the system collapsed ? 

9. Trace the career of Cavour down to the interview of 
Plombieres. What were the chief difficulties with which 
he had to contend ? 

*10. Describe with a map either the campaign of 
Magenta and Solferino or Garibaldi's attack on Sicily 
and Naples. 

*11. Explain with a map the condition of the Turkish 
empire in Europe on the eve of the Crimean war. 

3 K 16 [Turn over 



*12. Illustrate the policy and methods of Bismarck from 
the events of the years 1862-6. Show, by means of 
a sketch-map, the acquisitions of territory made by Prussia 
in 1866. 

13. Sketch the development of the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy from 1866 to the end of your period. 

14. Discuss the economic policy of Germany during 
the years following the Franco-German war. 

15. ' The little states of Europe, such as Switzerland, 
Belgium, and Sweden, are perfectly secure from aggres- 
sion, and are saved from the crushing burden of arma- 
ments.' How far does the history of the nineteenth 
century bear out this view ? 



[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Saxon Emperors (936-1002). 
I. 

1. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked with an asterisk * : — 

*(a) Rex autem meliori consilio usus noluit viros 
nobiles ac senes populi inhoneste tractari, sed magis rem 
inter gladiatores discerni iussit. Vicit igitur pars, qui 
filios filiorum computabant inter filios, et firmatum est, 
ut aequaliter cum patruis haereditatem dividerent pacto 
sempiterno. (Widukind.) 

{h) Veritus autem singularis prudentiae reginae vir- 
tutem, a Hluthovico rege relictae, in multis eam afflixit, 
quo tanti decus splendoris extingueret vel certe obscu- 
raret. (Widukind.) 

*(c) Audiens autem Wichmannus urbem captam so- 
ciosque afflictos ad orientem versus iterum se paganis 
inmersit, egitque cum Sclavis qui dicuntur Vuloini, quo- 
modo Misacam amicum imperatoris bello lascesserent. 

(Widukind.) 

{dy Ludovicus rex a suis regno expulsus auxilium 
petens regem Othonem adiit et, ut desideraverat, obti- 
nuit. (Continuatio Reginonis.) 

(e) Papa quoque multa ilium secum caritate detinuit 
et diebus vitae suae nunquam se ab eo defecturum pro- 
misit; quae tamen promissio longe dissimilem quam 
praetendebatur efFectum obtinuit. 

(Continuatio Reginonis.) 

2. Had the German kingdom any definite constitution 
in the time of the Saxon dynasty 1 

3. Do you find in your authorities any trace (a) of 
national feeling, (6) of the desire for communal indepen- 
dence, among the Italians of this period ? 

4. What do you gather from your authorities as to 
the relations between Germany and Denmark ? 

5. Illustrate from your authorities the relations be- 
tween Otto I and the German bishops. 

3 K 34 [Turn over. 



6. Compare the military strength of the Western and 
the Byzantine Empires at this period. 

7. Wiiich of your authorities would you place highest, 
(a) for political insight, (b) for literary merit? Give 
reasons for your answer. 

8. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
latino- those marked with an asterisk "^ : — 

*(a) Heinricus itaque rex, ut erat Dei timens totius- 
que religionis amator, audito Rodulfum tam inestimabile 
donum habere caeleste, nuntiis directis temptavit, si 
praemiis aliquibus id posset adquirere. (Luitprand.) 

(b) Dum haec aguntur, Constantinopolitanus im- 
perator cum regis Hugonis nuntiis suos pariter dirigit, 
mandans naves et omnia quae desideraret se ei daturum, 
si nepoti sue parvulo, sibi omonimo, Constantini filio, 
filiam suam coniugem daret. (Luitprand.) 

*(<:) Tercio itaque pronus imperatorem adorans, ca- 
put sustuli, et quern prius moderata mensura a terra 
elevatum sedere vidi, mox aliis indutum vestibus poenes 
domus laquear sedere prospexi. (Luitprand.) 

{d) Vero quia tam excellentem rem petitis, si datis 
quod decet, accipietis quod libet ; Ravennam scilicet et 
Romam cum his omnibus continuatis, quae ab his sunt 
usque ad nos. (Luitprand.) 

(e) Et die constituta rex et dux conveniunt; ac 
secus fluvium Matronam conlocuti, principibus praedictis 
internuntiis, in sum mam concordiam benignissime re- 
dierunt. (Richer.) 

(/) Lotharius, considerans Ottonem neque dolis falli, 
neque viribus posse devinci, sepe et multum apud se 
quaerebat, utrum potius foret stare contra hostem an 
reconciliari hosti. (Richer.) 



[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Saxon Emperors, 
II. 



1. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked with an asterisk * : — 

(a) Arnulfus comes Willelmum, Nordmannorum 
principem, ad colloquium evocatum dolo perimi fecit. 

(Flodoard.) 

(b) Tertia tandem die, insistente praecipue Liud- 
dulfo, legato et capellano regis Othonis, quoniam idem 
rex id omnino fieri praecipiebat, excommunicatur Hugo 
comes. (Flodoard.) 

*(c) Nato siquidem regi filio ex moderna coniuge, 
ferebatur eidem puero regnum suum promittere, quod 
olim, prius quam Italiam peteret, Liudolfo delegaverat. 

(Flodoard.) 

(d) Nam vir sanctus litteratusque fuisse dicitur, et 
qui dignus apostolicae sedi videretur, a populo Romano 
nisi quod per tumultum electus est, expulso eo, quem 
ordinari iussit imperator. (Adam.) 

*(e) Civitas ipsa novem portas habet, undique lacu 
profundo inclusa, pons ligneus transitum praebet, per 
quem tantum sacrificantibus aut responsa petentibus via 
conceditur. (Adam.) 

(/) Et haec nobis iunior Suein recitavit in avo suo 
contigisse, iusto Dei iudicio, quoniam eum dereliquit, 
quem pater eius bonum defensorem habuit. (Adam.) 

2. Describe with a map the duchy of Lorraine and 
show its importance in the history of this period. 

3. Sketch the life of Gerbert and estimate his histori- 
cal significance. 

4. 'The wonder of the world for wisdom, eloquence, 
prudence, and high enterprise.' Are there any solid 
grounds for such an estimate of Otto III ? 

5. What do you gather from your authorities con- 
cerning the growth of German towns, industry, and 
commerce under the Saxon Emperors ? 

3 K 35 [Turn over. 



*7 



6. Explain the manner in which the Chronicle of 
Thietmar was composed and estimate its historical value. 

7. What conception of the Byzantine Empire and its 
people would you infer from your authorities to have 
prevailed in Germany ? 

8. Comment briefly on the following passages, trans- 
lating those marked with an asterisk ^ : — 

(a) Unde patris gratia sibi in tantum arrisit, ut 
hunc communi totius senatus electione honoris consortem 
atque laboris decerneret successoremque firmaret. 

(Thietmar.) 

(b) Quern protinus elevatum imperator osculatur 
singulaque sagaciter perquirens et de susceptione ducis, 
quomodo in medio episcoporum ad mensam loco im- 
peratoris sederet lectoque dormiret, perdidicit. 

(Thietmar.) 

*(c) Post haec imperator omni studio ordinavit ex- 
peditionem suam adversus (Lutharium) regem Kare- 
lingorum, qui in Aquisgrani palacium et aedem regiam, 
nostrum semper respicientem dominium, valido exercitu 
praesumsit invadere sibique verso aquila designare. 

(Thietmar.) 

(d) Imperator antiquam Romanorum consuetudinem 
iam ex parte deletam suis cupiens renovare temporibus 
multa faciebat, quae diversi diverse sentiebant. 

(Thietmar.) 

(e) Dico equidem quod spoliatus amplissimis rebus 
imperiali dono coUatis, apostolica benedictione confir- 
matis, nee una saltem villula ob fidem retentam vel reti- 
nendam donatus sum. (Gerbert.) 

*(/) Hinc fide promissa regibus Francorum urge- 
mur. Hinc potestati principis K., regnum ad se revo- 
cantis addicti, permutare dominos, aut exules fieri 
cogimur. (Gerbert.) 

(g) Auget curas Scythicus axis, Italia multiplica.t. 
Si Scythas relinquimus, metuo. Si Italos non adimus, 
reformido. (Gerbert.) 



[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The First Three Crusades. 

I. 

1. Comment briefly on four of the following passages 
from the Gesta Francorum, translating that marked * : — 

^(a) Petrus vero supradictus primus venit Constan- 
tinopolim Kpiendis Augusti, et cum eo maxima gens 
Alamannorum. Illic in venit Lombardos et Longobardos 
et alios plures congregatos, quibus imperator iusserat 
dari mercatum, sicuti erat in civitate, dixitque illis : 
Nolite transmeare Brachium donee veniat maxima 
Christianorum virtus , . . Ipsique Christiani necjuiter 
deducebant se. quia palatia urbis sternebant et ardebant 
et auferebant plumbum quo ecclesiae erant coopertae . . . 
unde imperator iratus est iussitque eos transmeare 
Brachium. 

(b) Erat autem numerus Turcorum, Persarum, Publi- 
canorum, Saracenorum, Angulanorum, aliorumque pagan- 
orum CCOLX milia extra Arabes quorum numerum nemo 
scit nisi solus Deus. 

(c) In Hermeniorum intraverunt terram . . . Erat 
autem ibi homo quidam nomine Simeon qui in ilia ortus 
fuit regione, quique banc petiit terram quo earn de manibus 
defenderet inimicorum Turcorum. 

(d) lam iam omnes semitae paene prohibitae et 
incisae undique erant Turcis nisi ex ilia parte flurainis 
ubi erat castrum et quoddam monaster ium 

(e) Videns autem vir venerabilis Boamundus quia 
nullatenus posset conducere gentes sursum in caste! Ium 
ad bellum . . . iratus est valde iussitque confestim 
mitti ignem per urbem in ilia parte in qua erat Cassiani 
palatium. 

(/) Pactus est vero cum illis quia si bellum quod 
eis admiralius Babyloniae parabat possent devincere et 
Hierusalem apprehendere, ille Christianus efficeretur ter- 
ramque ab eis recognosceret. 

3 K 24 [Turn over. 



(g) Robertas naraque Normannus earn obsedit a 
septentrione iuxta Sancti Stepbani protomartyris 
ecclesiam . . . iuxta eum Robertus Flandrensis comes. 
Ab occidente vero obsedit earn dux Godefridus et Tan- 
credus. A meridie obsedit earn comes Sancti Egidii, 
scilicet in monte Sion, circa ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae 
matris Domini. 

2. Comment briefly on four of tbe following passages 
from Raymond, translating that marked "^ : — 

(a) Nam ante et retro, dextrorsum et sinistrorsum, 
Turci, Comani, Husi et Tenaces, Pincenati et Bulgari 
nobis insidiabantur. 

^(h) Inter haec Turci de Calep quoddam castrum 
obsederunt. Afflicti igitur Turci qui intus erant man- 
daverunt duci qui in illis regionibus erat ut castrum 
ipsorum reciperet . . . Ob hoc itaque dux Antiochiam 
reversus comitem, qui iam convaluerat ex iniirmitate, et 
milites et pedites suos ... in unum evocaverat ut in 
Hispaniam depraedatum eos deduceret, nmltum rogavit 
ut Turcis qui Deum reclamabant . . . succurreret. 

(c) Habeant qui volunt aurum imperatoris et qui 
volunt redditus Antiochiae habeant. Nos autem, Christo 
pro quo venimus duce, iter nostrum aggrediamur. 

(cZ) Venit hie ad nos legatus quidam a rege Babylo- 
niae ; et remiiserat ad nos legatos nostros cum ipso quos 
tenuerat captos per annum. Dubitaverat enim an faceret 
nobiscum amicitiam an cum Turcis. 

(e) Sunt enim ibi montana Libani in quibus ad 
sexaginta millia habitabant Christianorum, et terram 
illam et montana multo tempore Christiani possederunt 
qui propter civitatem Tyri quae vulgariter nunc Sur 
appellatur Suriani vocantur. 

(/) Inter haec venerunt nuntii quod novem naves 
de nostris applicuerant loppen et mandabant nautae ut 
praesidium mitteretur illuc quo et turris loppe custodire- 
tur et ipsisecuri in portu esseut. 

3. Comment briefly on four of the following passages 
from Fulcher, translating that marked * : — 

(a) Huic celebritati patriarcha Daibertus non inter- 
fuit quia de quibusdam apud Balduinum erat insimulatus 
et discordes ad invicem habebantur. 



(b) Illic perdidit comes Pictaviensis quaecunque 
habebat, familiam atque pecuniam suam. . . . Quiautem 
evaserunt Hierusalem venire non distulerunt excepto 
Hiigone Magno quern in Tharso Ciliciae defunctum sepe- 
lierunti 

^(c) Tunc dassis admiraldi Babylonii in Tyrio portu 
latitabat qua Sarraceni ritu piratico Christianis nostris 
peregrinis persaepe oberant et civitates maritimas quas 
adhuc rex Babylonis possidebat munientes vegetebant. 
Cum autem de Noroensibus murmurare audissent, nee 
de portu Tyrio egredi neque cum eis congredi ausi sunt. 
Cumque ad Sidonem ventum est, obsedit earn rex a terra 
Noroenses vero a mari. 

(c/) Erat Maledoctus dives valde et magnipotens, 
inter Turcos nominatissimus, et in actibus suis astutissi- 
uius. 

(e) Rex autem in Antiochia remansit quia necessitas 
hoc poscebat quatenus mortuorum procerum terras vivis 
sub ratiocinio daturus locaret et viduas quas invenit illic 
multas maritis pio afFectu coniungeret. . . . Sicat enim 
hue usque Hierosolymorum rex singulariter exstiterat, 
ita mortuo principe Antiocheno Rogerio Antiochenorum 
rex addito altero regno efficitur. 

(/) Borsequinus autem humilem Syriam proculcans 
et quid ei magis sit commodum sollicite exquirens Sar- 
danaium castrum obsedit. Sed nihil illic proficiens ad 
municipium Hasar nominatum exercitum suum convertit. 

(g) Quoties autem legati hoc anno vel peregrini 
Boamundi adolescentis adventum nobis annuntiaverunt 
et allegaverunt ? 

4. Describe with a map the political condition of 
Western Asia on the eve of the first Crusade. 

5. Sketch the relations between the Latin states and 
the emirate of Damascus down to the Second Crusade. 

6. Give an account of the origin and development of 
the military orders down to the Third Crusade. 

7. Compare the character and historical value of the 
Gesta and Raymond. 

8. Discuss the attitude of the Crusaders towards the 
Eastern Emperor. Were there any reasonable grounds 
for their distrust of him ? 

[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



The First Three Crusades. 
TI. 

1. Comment briefly on three of the following passages 
from William of Tyre, translating that marked * : — 

*(a) Domina autem regina, quae regni moderabatur 
imperium, communicato cum proceribus consilio, Ma- 
nassem regium constabularium consanguineum suum, 
Philippum Neapolitanum, Elinandum Tiberiadensem, 
una cum militari multitudine illuc sub omni celeritate 
dirigit ut optatum domino comiti et afflictis civibus 
ministrent solatium. 

(6) Erat autem hie idem Ainardus vir prudentissimus 
et populi nostri amator, qui cum haberet tres filias unam 
illarum dederat praedicto Damascenorum regi, alteram 
Noradino sanguini Alio, tertiam cuidam egregio militi 
Manguarth nomine. 

(c) Postmodum autem idem Radulphus, favente sibi 
domino Adriano papa qui eius compatriota erat. ad 
ecclesiam assumptus Bethlehemiticam episcopus eius 
ordinatus est loci. 

{d) Conceperat autem multo ante, audito eius 
adventu, quod per eius aux ilium Antiochenum princi- 
patum ampliare posset : unde et eidem in Franciam 
antequam etiam iter arriperet honesta praemiserat 
donaria, et exenia multi pretii ut eius sibi conciliaret 
gratiam largitus fuerat. 

(e) Hi ergo datis et pollicitis corrupti ... in id 
sceleris descenderunt ut regibus et peregrinis principibus 
. . . persuaderent ut relictis pomeriis in oppositam civitatis 
partem transferrent expeditiones. 

2. Comment briefly on five of the following passages 
from the Jtinerarium, translating that marked^: — 

(a) Ne minime legitimum videamur gerere bellum 
a capite Novembris evoluto anni spatio terminum 
praefigimus ad experiendam belli fortunam in Campo 
Taneos in virtute vivificae crucis et in nomine veri 
Joseph. 

3 K 25 [Turn over. 



(b) Fuit autem qui assereret Marchisum a Soldano 
sexaginta millia Bizantioruin eo suscepissc obtentu ut 
duci ab Aiitiochenis partibus discederc persuaderet. 
Dux itaque Achon veniens dissensionis exstitit semi- 
navium. 

(c) Rex Kicardus uno impetu citius iure belli 
occupaverat Messanam quam quilibet presbyter cantasset 
matutinas. 

*(c/) Denique median tibus principibus et populi 
uiaioribus interveniente tali conditione pacilicati sunt ; 
ut Marchiso qui regni videbatur in matrimonio sortitus 
haeredeni etiam in recompensationem praestiti adiutorii 
exercitui in obsidione cederet in possessionem haeredi- 
tariam comitatus Tyri, videlicet Tyri et Sidonis et Baruth; 
Gaufrido vero de Lisiniaco fratri regis Guidonis in laboris 
sui et opei'ae remunerationem cederet comitatus loppensis, 
scilicet loppa et Ascalon. 

(e) Die Veneris proxima post Assumptionem Beatae 
Mariae a civitate iussit educi Turcorum obsidum vinctos 
duo millia et septingentos ad decollandum. 

(/) Quod si ita fuisset observatum universi illi 
Turci fuissent intercepti et confusi ; praedictorum vero 
militum nimia properatio universitatis non observato 
decreto cedebat in detrimentum successui communis 
negotii. 

(g) Tunc quidem si rex recedea-et non invenirctur 
qui remaneret quoniam inter Ascalonitas et Tyrios zelus 
esset et contentio. 

(h) Electi sunt igitur ad id decernendum de 
Templariis quinque, de Hospitalariis quinque, de Syrianis 
terrae illius indigenis quinque, de proceribus Francorum 
quinque. Hi viginti . . . potioris responderunt procul- 
dubio fore commoditatis Babyloniam obsidendam adire. 

3. Comment briefly on four of the following passages 
from Michaud:— 

(a) Celui qui nous gouverne est un enfant i il nous 
faut de ndcessit^ un homme ferme et habile a la guerre., 
qui puisse repousser j'ennemi. Nous te faisons connaitre 
r^tat des choses, afin qu'il n'arrive rien de facheux a 
I'islamisme et aux niusulmans ; car c'est nous qui serions 
coupables aux yeux de Dieu, et qui encourrions les re- 
proches du sultan. 



(b) Quand je serai mort, prenez mon fils Ismael avec 
vous, et menez-le danb Alep ; c'est la seule ville qui lui 
restera de toutes mes provinces. 

(c) Pour lui, il quitta Damas au commencement de 
cette ann^e (mois de mai) avec sa garde particuliere, et 
se rendit du cot^ de Carac, pour prot^ger la marche des 
pelei'ins qui se rendaient du nord de la Syrie a la Mecque 
et a Mddine ; ensuite il forma le si^ge de Carac. . 

(d) Nous avons abattu les forces des intid^les ; uous 
avons dcras^ leur puissance, ralenti leur impetuosity, 
eteint leur ardeur, tu^ leurs vaillants guerriers. Si nous 
les laissions maintenant tranquilles, ils reprendraient 
courage. Attaquons-les sans relache, et des demain 
achevons leur d^faite. 

(e) Le lendemain nous re9"ilmes une nouvelle lettre 
de la garnison ainsi con9ue : Nous avons tous jur^ de 
mourir ; nous nous ferons tuer plutdt que de nous rendre ; 
ils n'entreront pas tant que nous serons en vie ; seulement 
faites diversion, et einpecliez Tennemi de nous attaquer. 

(/) Si Ton me cede Ascalon, je m'en irai content. Tout 
ce que je desire, c'est de sauver mon honneur chez les 
Francs. 

4. Describe with a map either the advance of 
Frederick Barbarossa from Germany to the Cydnus, or 
the siege of Acre. 

5. Write a critical account of William of Tyre and his 
work. 

6. Sketch the career and character of Conrad of 
Montferrat. 

7. Give some account of the principal fiefs of the 
Kingdom of Jerusalem (other than Antioch, Tripoli, and 
Edessa) and the conditions on which they were held. 

8. Discuss the change in the attitude of the Syrian 
Franks towards their Mohammedan subjects and neigh- 
bours between the first and the third crusades. 

9. '• Vehem enter extimuerunt ut si rex in illo formidi- 
nis ipsorum articulo processisset cum universo exercitu 
profecto deseruissent civitatem Jerusalem Turci." Do you 
consider that there was any chance of capturing 
Jerusalem by a bold attack after the battle of Arsuf ? 

[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



History of Land Tenure. 

I. 

1. Comment on the following passages from the Black 
Book of Peterborough : — 

(a) In Pihtesle sunt hidae v. et dimidia ad geldum 
Regis et doniinus adquietat dimidiam et villani dimidiam. 
Et sunt ibi ix. pleni villani et ix. dimidii villani et v. 
cotsetes. 

(b) Et homines Rodherti de la Haie habent dimidiam 
caiTucatam, unde solebant reddere iiij. solidos : set modo 
nichil inde faciunt pro vi domini sui. 

(c) Abbas Turoldus dedit Viviano dimidiam hidam 
in Circafeld unde Rex misit in foresta medietatem. 
Eidem dedit in Undele sextam partem j. hidae, ct in 
Wermintona quartam partem j. hidae in sergentaria, 
unde debet esse miles in exercitu cum ij. equis et suis 
armis, et abbas inveniet ei alia necessaria. 

2. What does the term ' Manor ' denote in the twelfth 
century ? 

3. How far was the law relating to land tenure modi- 
fied during the reign of Henry II ? 

4. Write short notes on the following passages : — 

(a) Solent autem placita in curiis dominorum . . . 
deduci, secundum rationabiles consuetudines ipsarum 
curiarum : quae tot et tarn variae sunt, ut in scriptum 
de facili reduci non possunt. [Glanvill.] 

(6) Potest autem quis plura homagia diversis domi- 
nis facere de feodis diversis diversorum dominorum. Sed 
unum eorum oportet esse praecipuum^ et cum ligeancia 
factum. [Glanvill.] 

(c) Sin autem ex parte matris haereditas ipsa de- 
scenderit tunc ad consanguineos paternos custodia 
pertinet. [Glanvill.] 

(d) Breve quod vocatur 'praecipe' de cetero non 
fiat alicui de aliquo tenemento unde liber homo amittere 
possit curiam- suam. [Magna Carta.] 

3 K 26 [Turn over 



5. What were the precise objects of the Statute ' De 
Donis ' 1 How was it proposed to secure these objects, 
and in what way were existing remedies supplemented ? 

6. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from the Domesday of /St. Paul's : — 

(a) Galfr mariot vi acras quas emit de hede er 
noldi p XXV. d. % debet bis met'e in autup 
no % j. gallina. % vj ova. falcare % fenu le 
vare. It iij . acras de^no vo essarto ^ ij . sot. 
p R. de Stapelford. It parva placiap j. capone. 

(h) Memorand' q'd tota villata debet panagiu 
fodere tram ad linu. % linu collig'e % i aq^ 
mitte % extrahere. % ad domu portare % nuces 
collig'e p tres dies festos. 

(c) Helias de viliers ij. hidas p xx. sol', de antiq* 
heditate. Iste due sut Geldabiles ad auxiliu 
regis cu aliis hidis. 

(d) Primo quidem anno pro Iviij. s. et iiij. d. et pro 
j. parva firma panis et cervisiae cum vij. d. elemosine. 
Deinceps vero singulis annis pro ij. firmis brevibus panis 
et cervisiae cum vij. d. elemosine. 

7. What light do your authorities throw on the history 
of Knight-service 1 

8. Translate and comment on the following pas- 
sages : — 

(a) Quandoqu© enim nominantur forinseca, large 
sumpto vocabulo, quoad servitium domini regis, quando- 
que scutagium, quandoque servitium domini regis, et 
ideo forinsecum dici potest, quia sit et capitur foris sive 
extra servitium quod sit domino capitali. [Braoton.] 

(6) Item inquirendum est de pastura forinseca quae 
est communis, et quot et quas bestias et quot animalia 
et quae dominus habere possit in eadem. 

[EXTENTA MaNERII.] 

(c) Et ita pertinent servitutes alicui fundo ex con- 
stitutione sive ex impositione de voluntate dominorum. 
Item pertinere poterunt sine constitutione per longum 
usum continuum et pacificum et non interruptum per 
aliquod impeditum contrarium ex patientia inter prae- 
sentes, quae trahitur ad consensum. [Bracton.] 



(d) Et si compertum fuerit quod petens jus habet in 
sua petitione, procedatur ad judicium pro petenti, et 
recuperet seisinam suam. Et si jus non habuerit incur- 
ratur tenementum proximo domino I'eodi, si iJlud petat 
infra annum a tempore inquisitionis captae. 

[13 Edw. i. c. 32.] 

9. What can be gathered from the Inquisition of the 
St. Paul's estates in 1222 as to the relations of the 
firmarii and the tenants on the various manors ? 

10. Sketch the growth of copyhold tenures within the 
limits of the period covered by your authorities. 



[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



History of Land Tenure. 

11. 

1. Translate and comment on the following extracts 
from the Ramsey Cartulary : — 

(a) Et auxi demaunde del dit abbe homage, fealte e 
seute a sa court de la Bertone de Ely, et autre services 
pour soun manor qil ad en Chateriz. 

(6) Et praecipio, ut ipse admensuret servitia vava- 
sorum suorum ad proficuum ecclesiae, sicut vavasores 
aliorum abbatum regni mei admensurati sunt. 

(c) Et quod habeant imperpetuum omnes fines pro 
transgressionibus, concelamentis, et aliis delictis quibus- 
cunque, et etiam fines pro licentia concordandi, et omnia 
amerciamenta, redemptiones, et exitus forisfactos, ac 
annum, diem, et vastum, et murdra. 

(d) Et omnes bidentes extraneorum et aliorum de 
villa terram non habentium, pascentes pasturam, debent 
jacere in falda Abbatis, et non alibi. 

{e) Licet de communi consilio regni nostri statu tum 
sit, quod non liceat viris religiosis, seu aliis, ingredi 
feodum alicujus, ita quod ad manum mortuam deveniat, 
sine licentia nostra, et capitalis domini, de quo res ilia 
immediate tenetur, per finem tamen quem dilectus nobis 
in Christo Abbas de Rameseye fecit nobiscum, concessi- 
mus et licentiam dedimus . . . 

2. * The Statute of Gloucester, 1278, condemned the 
court baron to become in course of time a petty court.' 
Explain this statement. 

3. Write short notes on : — capitales plegii, replevin, 
essonia, sellio, leyrwitum, hydagium, fissilver, wether- 
silver, calumnia nayuitatis. 

3 K 27 [Turn over. 



4. Annotate the following passages from the King's 
Ripton Rolls : — 

(a) Convictum est per vicinos jurat' quod una sus 
et quinque purcelli Johannis filii Willelmi intraverunt 
in curiam Bartholomei Sweyn et dampnum fecerunt in 
porett' et in olleribus dicti Bartholomei ad dampnum 
suum ij. d. 

(6) Qua de causa dictus Dominus Rogerus subtraxit 
tres (ann)os de termino suo de ecclesia de Ripton' Regis 
quam habet ad firmam de dicto domino Rogero ad 
detrimentum suum triginta solidorum et ad grave damp- 
num suum viginti solidorum^ et quod hoc sit verum 
duxit sectam. 

(c) Matildis relicta Hugonis Grayling venit et tulit 
breve de recto per quod peciit dotem suam de sexaginta 
et quatuor acris terre. . . . 

(d) Et ponunt se in juratam patrie loco magne 
assise domini Regis secundum consuetudinem manerii. 

5. What explanation can you offer of the exercise of 
criminal jurisdiction by manorial lords in the late 
thirteenth century ? 

6. Describe the organization of the manor of Bright- 
waltham. 

7. Translate and comment on the following extracts 
from the BrightwalthaTn Rolls : — 

(a) Praeterea concessum est predicto Hugoni totum 
bladum existens in terra seminata et heriettum prove- 
nientem ad ingressum pro dimidia marca ad solvend* ad 
festum S. Michaelis proximo sequens per plegg' pre- 
dictorum. 

(6) Presentant eciam quod Thomas Molendarius 
manus violentas injecit in Aliciam . . . que levavit 
huthesium. Et quia Galfridus decenarius de nulla vio- 
lencia presentat set quod ludendo hoc faciebant quod 
taraen non est verisimile cum huthesium fuisset levatum, 
ideo idem dicen' in misericordia, et predictus Thomas 
Molendarius in misericordia pro transgressione. 

(c) Johannes ate Grene electus per omnes virgar' ad 
custodiendum boscum et porcos domini et manucapit 
pro ... 



8. Classify the various obligations of villein tenants 
on the Ramsey manors, and illustrate the disadvantages 
of such services to the lords. 

9. What light can you gather from the Court Rolls as 
to the distinction between freehold and customary 
tenure 1 

10. Translate and comment on the following extracts 
from the Littleport Court Rolls : — 

(a) Gwido filius Henrici Gys sursum reddit in 
manum domini reversionem unius mesuagii et dim. 
virgate cum pert, de villenagio domini ipsum contin- 
gentem post mortem Agnetis Abbot. 

(b) Et quod Johannes Piscator posuit fimum suum 
in communi venella et illam ita perforavit quod nemo 
fere ibidem potest meare. 

(c) Compertum est per totum homagium quod Hugo 
Belde tunc prepositus fecit quoddam tassum frumenti 
super tassum melior' ordei in grangia domini per quod 
predictum tassum ordei non poterit eicere humores et erat 
putre factum et minus conveniens ad fundendum inde 
brasiam suam. 

(d) Robertus le Cartere et Johannes Typeto faciunt 
finem pro tota villata pro licencia habendi viam cum 
carettis suis super terram domini juxta cunicularium. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Italy (1492-1513). 

I. 

1. Do you gather from your authorities that at the 
time of Charles's invasion of Italy its people were 
seriously oppressed by their rulers 1 

2. Draw a sketch-map to illustrate the advance of 
Charles from Asti to Siena on his way to Naples, and his 
retreat through the same country. Give a short 
summary of the incidents that occurred on either march. 

3. Explain the alhisions in and comment on not more 
than four of the following, translating those marked * : — 

*(a) Et premierement se alya des Veniciens^ a la 
preservation de leurs estatz, desquelz il estoit grant amy, 
au prejudice de son beau pere, a qui les Veniciens avoient 
ost^ poy paravant ung petit pais appell^ le Poulesan. 

ih) Don Federic tint la mer avecques quelque peu de 
galdes et vint deux fois parler au Roy a seuretd Requist 
au Roy que quelque portion du royaulme peust demourer 
a son nepveu, avec nom de roy. 

(c) . . . me dist le due que je ne devoye point croyre 
tout ce que Ton me disoit par la ville ; . . . qu'ilz n'avoient 
jamais pensd faire ligue contre le Roy, ne jamais oy parler, 
mais au contraire qu'ilz ddsiroient faire ligue entre le 
Roy et ces aultres deux roys et toute I'Yttalie, et qu'elle 
fust contre le Turc. 

{d) Stradiotz sont gens comme Genetaires. 

*(6) . . . et se print a crier : ' Petillano, Petillano/ et 
alia apr^s ceulx qui fuyoient ; car quant il y arry va, ilz 
chargeoient en leur ost les tantes, et y avoit grant 
nombre de mulletz charges. 

(/) Plusieurs de Savonne s'estoient adressds au 
cardinal de Sainct Pierre a vincula, asseurant de luy 
pouvoir bailler ladite ville de Savonne, esperant estre 
en liberty : car elle est soubz Gennes, et paient les 
gabelles. 

4. Explain the attitude to Savonarola taken by 
P. Capponi, the Compagnacci, F. Valori, F. Guicciardini, 
Commines. 

3 K 36 [Turn over. 



5. • The father of modern history.' In what sense 
and with what ju.stice is this title applied to Commines? 

C). Translate and shortly annotate : 

E perch^ in luogo di Giovanni Manetti, niorto, era 
suto eletto de' Dieci Piero Guicciardini che si trovava 
Commessario in quello di Pisa, dubitando che lui mosso 
o dal bene della citta, o da essere amico di Paolo, non 
guastassi questa pratica, sollecitorono la conclusione, in 
niodo che la feciono la sera che Piero torno in Firenze ; 
ed essendo egli ito alia Signoria, e dipoi a pigliare TUfficio, 
e in ultimo non avendo notizia di questa materia, preso 
licenza de' compagni per essere stracco e itosene a casa, 
non gli dissono quello volessino fare ; ma come fu partito, 
ne feciono il partito. II che intendendo Pagolo, ne fece 
fare da messer Currado suo cancelliere molte dogiienze, in 
modo che per posarlo fu necessario accrescere la condotta 
ancora a lui al pari di quella del conte Kinuccio. E cosi 
la citta si trovo con tanto numero d' uomini d' arme 
addosso, che non poteva sopportare tanta spesa, benche 
piu volte si fussi fatto il calculo di quegli dovessino 
tenere e non gli passare ; e lo Uficio de' Dieci ne acquisto 
tanto caricOj e cosi i primi cittadini, parendo alio uni- 
versale che e' governassino secondo le loro spezialita, 
non secondo la utilita della citta. 

7. Did Louis XII in the invasion of 1499-1500 display 
greater military and political capacity than he had shown 
as the lieutenant of Charles VIII in 1494-5 ? 

8. Sketch the relations between Florence and the 
League in the jesiv 1496. 

9. How far did the Life Gonfalonierate in the first four 
years of its existence achieve the objects for which it had 
been created ? 

10. Make short notes on not more than four of the 
following, translating those marked ^ : — 

(a) Fu certo cosa mirabile che lo Stato de' Medici 
che con tanta autorita aveva governato sessant' anni, e 
che si riputava appoggiato dal favore di quasi tutti i 
primi cittadini, si subitamente si alterassi per le mani di 
Messer Luca Corsini e Jacopo de' Nerli. 



*(6) Lo effetto fu che si facessi uno Consiglio nel 
quale intervenissino tutti i cittadini, netti di specchio e 
che fiissino di eta di anni 29 finiti, e che loro, o padri, 
avoli, o bisavoli fussino stati de* tre raaggiori ; elegges- 
sinsi in quelle Consiglio tutti gli uficii e magistrati della 
citta e di fuori, eccetto la Signoria, la quale s'avessi a 
eleggere da' Venti per quelle anno, e finito Fuficio loro, 
nel Consiglio Grande. 

(c) E pero lui sequitando i loro conforti, ragunato 
buono esercito, accompagnato da Ascanio e gli altri che 
r avevano sequitato, ne venne alia volta di Milano, e non 
trovando contradizione alcuna, riebbe pacificamente, da 
il Castelletto in fuora, tutto quello tenevano i Franzesi di 
suo. 

(d) Anzi ributtati sempre con modi villani dal re, 
dal Eoano e da tutta la Corte, e fatto in presenza loro 
carezze e date lunghe audienze a Giuliano de' Medici, il 
quale prometteva loro danari assai, e aveva per la via 
di Roma faculta di dare loro sicurt^ di banchi. 

*(e) . . . il primo di che entrorono, comandorono a* 
capitani di parte guelfa vendessino certe mulina; e 
perch^ e' bisognava il partito de' loro Collegi, de' quali la 
maggiore parte non era in Firenze, mandorono a dire a' 
capitani che cassassino gli assenti e traessino gli scambi. 

(/) La citta desiderava lo accordo, massime gli 
uomini prudenti, perche e' si cognosceva che levandosi 
a' Pisani I'ajuto de' Lucchesi, rimanevano privati di uno 
potente sussidio, e che era atto a tenergli vivi ; e cosi come 
pareva quasi impossibile avergli per fame, mentre che 
Lucca gli ajutava, cosi pareva facile, privandogli di 
quello favore e essendo chiusa la via di mare, a domargli. 

[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HTSTOllY. 



Italy (1492-1513). II. 

1. Discuss, with reference to Machiavelli's account of 
Caesar Borgia, that author's capacity for judging (a) 
human character, (b) a political situation. 

2. ' E puossi discorrere questa parte cosi : quel principe 
che ha piu paura de' popoli che de' forestieri, deve far le 
fortezze ; ma quello che ha piu paura de' forestieri che 
de' popoli, deve lasciarle indietro.' 

How does Machiavelli attempt to prove this prin- 
ciple ? To what extent does it tally with the facts 
narrated in your other authorities 'I 

3. Estimate the value of the Principe as a contribu- 
tion to Political Science. 

4. Explain briefly Machiavelli's teaching regarding 
(a) * crudelta male usata ' ; (6) ' due generazioni di com- 
battere : I'una con le leggi, I'altra con la forza ' ; (c) the 
cause of Italian defeats, 1495-1513; (d) ' principati misti '. 

5. Explain briefly the historical allusions in the 
following : — 

(a) A tenere indietro i Viniziani, bisognava I'unione 
di tutti gli altri, come fu nella difesa di Ferrara. 

(6) I Fiorentini, essendo al tutto disarmati, condus- 
sero diecimila Francesi a Pisa per espugnarla, 

(c) Avendo indizio come in Firenze era uno nato de' 
Bentivogli che si teneva fino allora figlio di un fabbro, 
vennero i Bolognesi per quello in Firenze, e gli dettero 
il governo di quella citta. 

(d) Costui si puo chiamare quasi principe nuovo, 
perch^ d'un re debile e diventato per fama o per gloria 
il prime re de' Cristiani. 

6. What light is thrown by the letters of Da Porto on 
the character and patriotism of the Venetian aristocracy ? 

3 K37 [Turn over 



7. What traces are there in the Letters of Da Porto 
of (a) the author's artistic temperament, (6) of his 
classical education, and (c) of his unconscious Machia- 
vellism ? 

8. What reasons can be found in your authorities for 
((() the adherence of Julius II to the League of Cambray, 
and (b) his change of sides in 1510 ? Discuss the wisdom 
of his policy. 

9. Illustrate from the campaign in Romagna in 1512 
the characteristics of the warfare of the period. 

10. Comment on not more than four of the following, 
and translate those marked with an ■^. 

(a) Al re di Spagna concedono il poter riavere le 
terre che i detti nostri signori ottennero dal re Ferdi- 
nando d'Aragona nella Puglia per la molta quautita di 
denari che gli prestarono in grandissimo suo bisogno, 
e per I'ajuto che contra i Frances! gli dettero in ricupera- 
zione del reame di Napoli. 

(6) I Francesi hanno fino a quest' ora tolta tutta 
la Ghiara d'Adda, salvo la rocca di Cremona, nella quale 
si sono ritirati i rettori della citta. 

■^(c) Quel tali che non perdevano molte possession!, 
temendo le future spese, non consentivano alia rinnova- 
zione della guerra : poiche i Vinizian! non hanno erario, 
ma dispensano quasi tutte le loro soprabbondanti pub- 
bliche entrate negli uffici a' magistrat! loro ; e quando 
vogliono denar!, pongono tasse, decime, fitti sulle case, 
ed altre simili angarie, le qual! toccano universalmente 
agl! abitanti tutti della citta. 

^(d) Pose po! negli spazzi de! burchi grandissima 
quantity di artiglieria grossa e minuta, e quant! fanti vi 
capivano ; e poscia che quest! burchi, cone! in tal guisa, 
ebbe condotti alia Punta si chetamente, che ! Vinizian! 
non lo seppero, use! una notte di Ferrara insieme con il 
cardinale e con grandissima copia d'ogni sorte di arti- 
glieria. 



^(e) Tengono molto le gonti di questa Patria, massi- 
mamente quelle piu verso le Alpi, de' costumi tedeschi 
nel vestire, ed assai anche ne' loro contratti. . . . Usano 
una loro lingua composta di varie, che a mio giudizio 
riesce graziosa ed elegante. 

(/) Quando il Gritti vide di cestui Taltissimo valore, 
pianse di sdegno, e disse : ' Baldassare, . . . non combat- 
tete oramai piti, che la vostra fatica e vana, dacche la 
terra h perduta ; riducetevi meco, e cedete all' avversa 
fortuna e al volere del nemico cielo.' 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 

The Great Bebellion. 
I. 

[Candidates should attem'pt quedions ma^^ked] *. 

1. How far was Clarendon an eye-witness of the events 
he describes ? 

*2. Comment on the following extracts from Claren- 
don : — 

(a) Mr. Pimm one day informed the House of 
Commons that he had great cause to fear there was at 
that time as desperate a design and conspiracy against 
the Parliament as had been in any age. 

(b) He seemed to have made that progress into 
Scotland only that he might make a perfect deed of gift 
of that kingdom. 

(c) I have heard many knowing men, and some who 
were then in the city regiments, say, that if the king had 
advanced and charged that massy body, it had presently 
given ground, and that the king had so great a party in 
every regiment that it would have made no resistance. 

(d) When this Parliament began (being returned 
knight of the shire for the county where he lived), the 
eyes of all men were fixed on him as their Patriae imter, 
and the pilot that must steer their vessel through the 
tempests and rocks which threatened it. 

{e) This was the woful tragedy of those two unhappy 
gentlemen ; in which there were so many circumstances 
of an unusual nature, that the immediate hand of Almighty 
God could not but appear to all men who knew their 
natures, humours, and transactions. 

(/) Certain it is that the king never thought of 
going to the Isle of Wight. 

3. Show, on a sketch-map, the campaign of Marston 
Moor, and estimate the help rendered by the Scots to the 
Parliamentary armies in the campaign. 

4. Clarendon tells us that the king ' would often say 
of what moment the preservation of his life was to the 
rebels, and how much they were concerned to preserve it.' 
How far was he justified in this view, and when and why 
did it cease to be a true estimate of the situation ? 

3K19 [Turn over. 



5. Criticize Clarendon's account of the Second Civil 
War. 

6. ' In the seventeenth century, toleration was generally 
regarded as in itself a sin.' Illustrate this from your 
authorities, and from the history of the time. 

*7. Comment on the following extracts from Baillie : — 

(a) He made ane generall answer and almost in every 
article repeated it . . . that ane hundred misdemeanours 
would not make one fellonie, and ane hundred fellonies 
not one treason. 

(h) They were, more nor we could assent to, for 
keeping of a doore open in England to Independencie. 
Against this we were peremptor. 

(c) This people here, exhaust with exactions, can 
find no means for any considerable soumes ; their navie 
cannot be put out ; their Generall cannot be gotten 
recruited . . . their publick faith is gone. 

(d) The Directorie is so farr from being cryed downe, 
as fooles say thei'e, that there is an ordinance of Parlia- 
ment coming out for the practise of it. 

(e) Yesternight, at our thanksgiving for Chester, the 
news come of the routing of Hopton. 

8. On what occasions between January 1642 and 
December 1648 did the City of London exercise an im- 
portant or decisive influence upon the course of events ? 

9. ' We declare before God and man that we have no 
intention or desire to attempt anything that may turn 
to . . . the diminution of the king's greatness and authority; 
but on the contrary we promise and swear that we shall 
to the utmost of our power, with our means and lives, 
stand to the defence of our dread Sovereign the King's 
Majesty, his person and authority, in the defence and 
preservation of the aforesaid true religion, liberties, and 
Laws of the Kingdom ' — the Scottish National Covenant, 
1638. 

How far did the Scots, between 1642 and 1648, 
carry out this promise ? 

10. Give some account, with references to your authori- 
ties, of the main tendencies of the legislation (or proposed 
legislation) of the Long Parliament up to the outbreak of 
the war. 

[T, T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



^Fhe Great llebeUion, 
II. 

[Gandlilatefi are recoinnue tided to attempt quettiona 

marked *.] 

1. Estimate the importance in Enijlinh history of 
Irish affairs in the years 1641 and 1649. 

*2. Comment on the following passages from Ludlow: — 

{a) Another party of the forces from Ireland landed 
in the west, and marched as far as Hinden towards 
Warder Castle in order to besiege it, but being informed 
that the person whom they were to dispossess was a 
Protestant, and he into whose hands they were to put it 
was a Papist, they mutinied against their officers and 
refused to be employed against us. 

(6) For my own part, I am inclined to believe that 
his son Ireton never intended to close with the King, 
but only to lay his party asleep, whilst they were 
contesting with the Presbyterian interest in Parliament. 

(c) He replied, that men's private affairs must give 
place to those of the publick ; that he had seriously 
considered the matter, and that he could not find a 
person so tit for those employments as myself, desiring 
mc therefore to acquiesce. 

{d) Cromwell having acted this treacherous and 
impious part, ordered the guard to see the House clear 'd 
of all the members, and then seized upon the records 
that were there, and at Mr. Scobell's house. 

(e) Cromwell . . . was vehemently desirous to be a 
king. 

3. Criticize Ludlow as a military historian. 

4. Illustrate from Ludlow and from Cromwell's Letters 
and Speeches the financial difficulties of the Protectorate. 

*5. Comment on the following passages from Cromwell's 
Letters and Speeches : — 

{a) Honest men served you faithfully in this action. 
Sir, they are trusty ; I beseech you in the name of God 
not to discourage them. 

3 K 20 [Turn over. 



(b) I humbly crave that some course may be taken 
to dispose of tlie prisoners ... 1 think they would not 
go home if they might, without a convoy, they are so 
fearful of the country, from whom they have deserved 
BO ill. 

(c) We come to break the power of a company of 
lawless rebels, who having cast off the authority of 
England, live as enemies to human society ; whose 
principles (the world hath experience of) are to destroy 
and subjugate all men not complying with them. 

(d) It may be supposed we might have kept the 
enemy from this, by interposing between him and 
England ; which truly I believe we might ; but how to 
remove him out of this place, without doing what we 
have done, unless we had had a commanding army on 
both sides of the Forth, is not clear to us. 

(e) Consider the circumstances by which you are 
called hither ; through what strivings, through what 
blood you are come hither — where neitlier you nor I, nor 
no man living, three months ago, had a thought to have 
seen such a company taking upon them, or rather being 
called to take, the supreme authority of this nation, 
therefore, own your call. 

(/) Why, truly, your great enemy is the Spaniard. 
He is. He is a natural enemy. He is naturally so ; he 
is naturally so throughout ... 

6. Compare the circumstances, and the speeches, in 
which Cromwell dissolved the two Protectorate Parlia- 
ments. 

7. Trace the history of the proposal for a Parlia- 
mentary union between England and Scotland between 
the battle of Dunbar and the death of Cromwell. 

8. Explain and discuss Cromwell's attitude towards 
(a) the sovereignty of Parliament, (b) the extension of the 
franchise. 

9. Distinguish the various meanings of — (a) ' Ordi- 
nance' and (6) 'Council of State' between 1642 and 
1658. 

*10. What do you learn from your authorities about 
the Dutch War *? Illustrate your answer with a map. 



3 

*11. Comment on the following passages from Gardiner's 
documents : — 

(a) The Lords and Commons . . . declare that neither 
the statute 7 Edward I . . . nor any other law of this 
kingdom doth restrain or make void the Ordinance . . . 
for the ordering and disposing the militia of the kingdom 
in this time of extreme and imminent danger^, nor 
expose His Majesty's subjects to any punishment for 
obeying the same. 

(b) 8. An Act of Parliament for education of the 
children of Papists by Protestants in the Protestant 
religion. 

To the 8th proposition His Majesty will consent. 

(c) Be it further enacted . . . that no person that 
shall hereafter be made a Peer, or his heirs, shall sit and 
vote in the Parliament of England without consent of 
both Houses of Parliament. 

(d) The arms I took up were only to defend the 
fundamental laws of this kinordom ao-aiust those who 
have supposed my power hath totally changed the 
ancient government. 

(e) That such titles of honour as shall be hereafter 
conferred in this Commonwealth shall be derived from 
the Lord Protector, and that no title of honour hereafter 
to be conferred by the said Protector shall be hereditary 
without consent in Parliament. 



[T. 1\ 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOKY. 



The French Revolution. 
I. 

1. Translate and explain the following passages from 
Bailly's Memoires : — 

(a) J'avoue que je n'etais point d'avis de cette 
prorogation de I'assemblee ; elle ^tait illegale ; Tassemblde 
n'avait point ce droit, ses pouvoirs ^taient consommes par 
la redaction des cahiers et la nomination des d^putds. 

(b) Je trouvai tres-in decent qu'on enlevat ainsi les 
sieges des d^putds des communes que Ton forcerait a se 
tenir debout, et je signiiiai que je ne le soufFrirais pas. 

(c) On me disait bien qu'au moins il ne fallait 
admettre que des personnes choisies, et donner des 
billets. Mais n'^tions-nous pas les mandataires de la 
nation? ^tait-il convenable, avions-nous le droit, le 
pouvoir de nous cacher ? 

(d) II a ajout^ que nul ne pouvait rester dans 
TAssembl^e des ^tats-g^n^raux, s'il n'en reconnaissait 
pas la souverainetd, qu'on ne pouvait pas meme d^lib^rer 
en presence de quiconque se croirait le droit de pro- 
tester. 

(e) II est certain, par le t^moignage de la deputation, 
qu'on a arbore le drapeau blanc, qu'on a renvers^ les 
fusils, et que cependant ces signes de paix ont 4i4 bient6t 
suivis d'une decharge. 

2. Comment on the following passages from Arthur 
Young's Travels in France : — 

(a) The last ten miles I was eagerly on the watch 
for that throng of carriages which near London impede 
the traveller. I watched in vain ; for the road, quite to 
the gates, is, on comparison, a perfect desert. 

(6) In the streets and in the church of St. Louis, 
such anxiety was in every face, that the importance of 
the moment was written in the physiognomy ; and all the 
common forms and salutations of habitual civility lost 
in attention ; but amongst a class so much higher as 
those I dined with, I was struck with the difference. 

3K32 [Turnover. 



(c) Of such consequence is it to a country, and 
indeed to every country, to have a good police of corn ; 
a police that shall by securing a high price to the farmer 
encourage his culture enough to secure the people at the 
same time from famine. 

(d) The loss of the droits honorifiques is much more 
than has been apparent, and is an utter loss of all 
influence ; it was natural to look for some plain and 
simple mode of compensation ; but the declaration of the 
National Assembly allows none; and it is feelingly 
known in this chateau, that the solid payments which 
the Assembly have declared to be rachetahle are every 
hour falling to nothing, without a shadow of recom- 
pense. 

3. Can any conclusions be drawn from what Young 
tells of his own intercourse with French people of the 
lower class ? 

4. What were Young's views regarding — (a) the 
mStayer tenure ; (b) French gentlemen as agricultural 
improvers 1 

5. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from Mirabeau's Correspondence: — 

(a) Un corps de noblesse n'est point une arm^e qui 
puisse combattre ; ce n'est point une province qui puisse 
se retrancher. 

(h) Get homme, quoique sans demagogic, sera done 
redoutable au pouvoir royal aussi longtemps que I'opinion 
publique de Paris, dont il ne peut §tre que I'instrument, 
lui en imposera la loi. 

(c) Par la, toutes les mesures actives du corps 
l^gislatif ne paraitraient que les mesures du pouvoir 
ex^cutif ; on ne pr^senterait plus deux buts opposes au 
respect des peuples ; il y aurait unite d'action dans 
I'autorit^, TAssembl^e nationale augmenterait sa veritable 
force, et le roi conserverait sa prerogative. 

(d) Parce que nous avons la fievre, nous nous 
croyons une grande vigueur ; parce que nous sommes 
malades, les strangers nous croient mourants. 

(e) C'est sous une infinite de rapports que je con- 
sid^re la garde nationale de Paris com me un obstacle au 
rdtablissement de I'ordre. 



6. What would you infer from Bailly's M4moires as to 
the political ideas of the upper middle class at the 
beginning of the French Revolution ? 

7. Summarize Mirabeau^s impressions as to political 
feeling in the provinces. Were they justified by the 
course of events after his death ? 

8. How far had the National Assembly real freedom 
of action in the most momentous changes which it 
effected ? 

9. What arguments might be advanced for and against 
the Assembly's suppression of ancient local divisions and 
establishment of new ones ? 



\T, T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Frencli Revoliition. 
II. 

1. Translate and comment on the following : — 

{a) Je me dis encore : Le choix des bons ministres 
est-il si facile qu'on ne doive pas craindre de borner le 
nombre de ceux parmi lesquels un tel choix pent etre 
fait? (MiRABEAU, 7 Nov. 1789.) 

{h) Cependant, s'il est vrai que Louis ne peut se 
prevaloir de I'inviolabilite qui lui a ^t^ promise centre 
le peuple qu'il a trahi, il n'est pas moins certain que le 
peuple seul peut punir Louis sans avoir ^gard a Finviola- 
bilit^ dont lui-meme Tavait investi. 

(Vergniaud, 31 Dec. 1792.) 

(c) Le f^d^ralisme et la superstition parlent Bas- 
Breton ; I'dmigTation et la haine de la Republique parlent 
Allemand ; la contre-rdvolution parle I'ltalien et le 
fanatisme parle le Basque. Brisons ces instruments de 
dommage et d'erreur. (Barere, 27 Jan. 1794.) 

{d) Roland, ayant et^ expos^ ^ une poui-suite, 
Roland, ayant craint d'etre frappd d'un mandat d'arret 
dans des jours trop fameux, depuis cet instant n'a vu 
Paris qu'en noir ; il a tout confondu alors qu'il a cru 
avoir tout a craindre. (Danton, 21 Jan. 1793.) 

{e) Que faisaient les premiers conjures ? Hubert, 
Chaumette et Ronsin s'appliquaient a rendre le gouverne- 
ment revolutionnaire insupportable et ridicule, tandis 
que Camille Desmoulins I'attaquait dans des ecrits 
satiriques, et que Fabre et Danton intriguaient pour le 
d^fendre. (Robespierre, 26 July 1794.) 

2. Can you discover in your authorities any real 
difference of principle between the Girondins and the 
Jacobins ? 

3. ' Ce que je sais parfaitement, c'est que nous n'avons 
le droit ni de modifier la constitution, ni d'en faire une 
nouvelle. Notre devoir est de I'ex^cuter, precisdment 
comme elle est/ 

Do you consider that Bertrand de Molleville was 
sincere in this policy ? Had it any chance of success ? 

3 K 33 I Turn over. 



4. How far do the speeches of Danton which you have 
read justify his reputation as the ablest statesman among 
the Jacobins 1 

5. Describe fully the machinery of the Terror. 

6. (.'omment briefly on the following passages from 
Bertrand de Molleville, Ale moires : — 

(a) Des ce moment, le due d' Orleans s'abandonnait 
tout entier a une haine implacable, et jura de se venger 
(lu roi et de la reine. 

(b) Ceci ressemblerait beaucoup, dit-il, k I'afFaire de 
TAm^rique, a laquelle je ne pense jamais sans regrets. 

(c) On recommanda particulierement a M. Mallet du 
Pau d'inviter les puissances ^trang^res a ne jamais placer 
les dmigr^s dans les premiers rangs des armies, et de les 
employer autant qu'il serait possible dans les garnisons. 

(d) La fete des gal^riens de Chateauvieux, invent^e 
par les Jacobins pour irriter le peuple contre la pr^tendue 
tyrannie du roi, eut tout le succ^s qu'ils pouvaient de- 
sirer. 

7. Describe the parties in the Convention after the 
fall of Robespierre. Had the Thermidorian government 
any coherent policy ? 

8. Account for the revival of the military power of 
France in 1793 and 1794. 

9. Translate and comment upon the following passages 
fiom Schmidt's Tableaux : — 

(a) La Convention menace de quitter Paris ! Autre- 
fois nous avions la cour, les grands ; a present nous 
n'avons plus personne ... Si la Convention quitte 
Paris, nous sommes tous perdus . . . Tuons-nous tons, il 
ne vous reste plus qu'a ^gorger vos enfans. 

(b) Je ne m'attacherai point a vous prouver que la 
Convention doit, non seulement ne pas s^vir plus ample- 
ment sur Mons. Hubert, mais qu'elle doit le remettre en 
liberty, a la moindre approche d'un projet quelconque de 
violation de la loi, d un rassemblement etc. 

(c) J'ai entendu des aristocrates se rejouir beaucoup 
de la taxation du bois et du charbon : ' Cela ira bien, 
disaient-ils, le premier mois, mais nous verrons apres.' 



(d) Le buste de Marat renvers^ et bris^ dans les 
caf^s de la maison figalit^ ; la proposition de se porter a 
la place du Carrousel pour d^truire le monument ^leve 
a Marat n'a pas eu de suite. 

(e) 11 parait que la grande majority veut la Consti- 
tution, la re-election forc^e des deux tiers parait d^plaire 
assez g^neralement ; beaucoup de personnes pr^tendent 
que le d^cret qui I'ordonne aurait du etre discut^ long- 
temps, pour foi'mer I'opinion publique. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOO]. OF MODERN HISTORY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 

I. 

1. Analyse the system of judicial administration in 
Bengal as it was left by Warren Hastings. What 
changes were introduced by Lord Cornwall is ? 

2. ' The Company's servants are certainly the most 
fit persons for members of Council, but from what I 
have seen ... I am convinced that it could never answer 
to appoint any of them to the government.' Discuss 
the validity of this judgment with reference to the 
events of your period. 

3. Illustrate from your authorities the nature of the 
relations between Hastings and the Courts of Directors 
and Propiietors. 

4. Write an account of the character and career either 
of Nana Farnavis or of Mahadaji Sindhia. 

5. Sketch in outline, with a map, the course of the 
first Mysore War. 

6. Describe the trading methods of the East India 
Company in the time of Warren Hastings. 

7. ' The Mahrattas possess alone, of all the people of 
Hindostan and Deccan, a principle of national attach- 
ment.' Discuss this. 

8. Comment briefly on five of the following passages 
from Gleig : — 

(a) If the abolition of the office of Naib Dewan and 
stepping forth as principals should in your view alarm 
your European neighbours, we rely on your prudence. 

(b) As the king had forfeited his right to Corah and 
Allahabad by giving them to the Mahrattas ... I agreed 
to restore this country to the Vizier on condition of his 
paying to the Company forty-five lacs of rupees. 

3 K 38 [Turn over. 



(c) The present government . . . have made their own 
power uncontrolled, and continued to preclude its opera- 
tion from the public view, by the pretended independency 
granted to Mahomed Reza Khan. 

(d) The resolution taken by me to dissolve the 
meetino"S of the Board (or rather, to declare them dis- 
solved) on the 13th, 14th, and 17th of this month, and 
the orders given by me to Cantoo to disobey their 
summons, will, I hope, be thought as regular, as justified 
by the occasion. 

(e) The judges gave a decided and unanimous opinion 
against the pretensions of General Clavering. 

(/') In May 1777 the Chevalier St. Lubin arrived at 
Poonah with a letter and presents from the King of 
France to the Peshwar. 

{[/) Unless it is clearly proved that the Court may 
lawfully exercise such a powder as they claim over the 
zemindars, this government will never abet them in the 
practice of it . . . and for these proofs I shall . . . have 
I'ecourse to a second reading of the charter. 

(h) Colonel Carnac's campaign . . . has fulfilled its 
professed object by drawing the whole of Scindia's atten- 
tion from the new conquests in Guzerat and from General 
Goddard. 

9. Comment briefly on Jive of the following passages 
from Forrest : — 

(a) Period ! an unhappy word, the grammatical 
construction of which occupied a large portion of the 
correspondence which passed between the Select Com- 
mittee of Fort St. George and the Marquis de Bussy, and 
yet remains unresolved. 

(h) The Board of Trade, in the provision of the 
investment, are constituted independent of the Governor- 
General and Council. 

(c) His father, Bulwant Sing, derived the degree of 
independency which he possessed during the latter part 
of his life from the protection and intervention of the 
Company. His son, Cheit Sing, obtained from our in- 
fluence, exerted by myself, the first legal title that his 
family ever possessed of property in the land of which 
till then he was only the Aumil. 



(d) After my return to Banaris, Beneram again re- 
peated the offer. I accepted it, and received the whole 
amount on the instant, giving him a note in the Com- 
pany's name and in the usual form for the same. 

(e) The fortress of Bidjeygur surrendered by capitu- 
lation on the 10th of November, yielding to Major 
Popham the peculiar credit of having surmounted all 
the obstacles which nature and art had opposed to the 
conquest of two of the fortresses of Hindostan which 
had been before universally deemed impregnable. 

(/) Mr. Anderson, having received these instruc- 
tions, proceeded on his journey towards Cuttack. On 
his arrival at Ballasore he found that Chimnajee had 
marched with his army against the fort of Dheckanall. 

(g) The Board . . . resolved to require that I should 
produce the whole correspondence between me and 
Mr. Nathaniel Middleton . . . and Colonel Champion, both 
official and private ... I offered the first and refused the 
second, for reasons which appear in my minutes. 

10. Comment briefly on Jive of the following passages 
from the Cornwallis Correspondence : — 

(a) Nothing will be so easy as to find a Governor- 
General of Bengal who will serve without a salary. 

(b) From the authority which seems to have been 
delegated by the Peshwa's government to Ali Behauder 
and Tookojee Holkar to interfere with Scindia in the 
management of the Maratta interests in Hindostan it 
appears to be more than probable that he may resolve 
to relinquish that scene altogether, and either return to 
his own territories or repair to Poona. 

(c) I am much obliged to you for your friendly hint 
about William Burke. 

(d) The death of the Nabob's second son, and your 
opinion in consequence thereof that the Carnatick should 
be administered under an assignment similar to that 
which took place under Lord Macartney. 

(e) I trust, however, that the due enforcement of the 
regulations for obliging the zemindars to grant pottahs to 
their ryots, as proposed by Mr. Shore, will soon remove 
this objection to a permanent settlement. 



(/) It appeared nearly, if not utterly, impracticable 
to pass our heaviest guns over at any ford that could be 
discovered below Seringapatam. 

(g) With the warm approbation of Hurry Punt and 
Azeem ul Omrah I told him that 1 should insist upon 
his executing the capitulation of Coimbatooi* as a pre- 
liminary to all negotiation. 

(h) I shall therefore recommend a lower establish- 
ment for each of the companies of the Bengal troops 
during peace than for those of Madras and Bombay. 



[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

British India. (1773-1805.) 
II. 

1. Describe the dominion of Mysore at its widest 
extent, and the methods of government adopted by 
Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sahib. Did Tippoo in any 
important respects depart from the methods of his 
father ? 

2. Draw a map of Southern India to show the terri- 
torial readjustments brought about by Wellesley, and 
add full explanatory notes. 

3. Discuss the policy of subsidiary alliances. How 
was the system regarded (a) by Cornwallis, (6) by 
Wellington ? Illustrate the variation of the decjree of 
dependence involved in these treaties under Wellesley. 

4. Analyse carefully the question of the Nabob of 
Arcot's debts. 

5. Narrate with a map the campaign of Lake in 1803. 

6. Summarize either Wellesley's controversy with 
Castlereagh on the treat}' of Bassein, or his discussion 
with Dundas on the size and nature of the forces neces- 
sary for the adequate defence of India. 

7. Comment briefly on five of the following passages 
from Malcolm : — 

{a) Another part of this engagement calculated to 
excite apprehension in the mind of Tippoo was the 
stipulations regarding the employment of the subsidiary 
force granted to the Nizam. 

{h) Subsequently to the arrival of Lord Cornwallis 
in India Sir Archibald Campbell . . . negotiated a treaty 
with the Nabob of the Carnatic. ... It was considered, 
at the period of its conclusion, a great improvement of 
the political relations subsisting between the company 
and the Nabob of the Carnatic. 

{c) Lord Cornwallis . . . was too well aware of the 
private character of the Vizier not to be sensible of the 
indispensable necessity which existed for giving a decided 
support to the minister Hyder Beg Khan. 

3 K 39 [Turn over. 



((J) The primary question as regards the ol:)ligations 
of the treaty ... is resolvable into this statement — 
whether the treaty of Paungul is to be deemed a separate 
independent agreement between us and the Nizam, or 
connecting in all its obligations him and the Mahrattas. 

(e) In the event of hostilities with the Mahrattas, 
I think it probable that an useful alliance might be 
formed with the northern Rajahs, and perhaps even 
with some of the Seik chiefs. 

(/) To these conditions were added one still more 
disgraceful, the delivery of his prime minister, Azeem ul 
Omrah, into the hands of the Mahrattas, as a hostage 
for the faithful performance of his engagements. 

(g) The flight [of Ali Jah] which took place on 
June 28 may be truly said to have saved the British 
government from the very serious evils to which it was 
at this crisis exposed. 

(h) The governor-general, after the army had 
marched for that purpose under the command of General 
Sir Robert Abercromby, resolved to carry this punish- 
ment to the extent of depriving the family of Fyzullah 
Khan of their jagheer. 

(i) No dependence could be placed upon the Mah- 
rattas as an efficient barrier against danger to which 
the territories of the English government cind its allies 
might be eventually exposed from any future invasion 
of the Afghan monarch. 

8. Comment briefly on five of the following passages 
from the Wellesley Despatches : — 

(a) These pacific sentiments have been most particu- 
larly manifested in the Governor-General's recent decision 
on Tippoo Sidtaun's claim to the district of Wynaad and 
in the negotiation opened by his lordship with regard to 
the districts of Amerah and Souleah. 

(6) It is with the deepest concern that the Governor 
in Council is compelled to declare that these ancient 
allies of the Company, the Nabobs Mahomet Ali and 
Omdut ul Omra, have been found not only deficient in 
every active duty of the alliance but unfaithful to its 
fundamental principles and untrue to its vital spirit. 



8 

(r) In the month of November 1799 his Excellency 
. . . signified to me in the most formal manner his 
deliberate determination to descend from the Musnud. 

(d) To these considerations it is important to add 
that M. Perron is in possession of the person of the un- 
fortunate Shah Allum and consequently is master of the 
nominal authority of that unfortunate prince. 

(e) No principle of justice or policy requires the 
acknowledgement of Holkar among the states of India. 

(/) He likewise cedes to the honourable Company 
and their allies ... all the territories of which he has 
collected the revenues in participation with the Soubahdar 
of the Deccan. and those of which he may have posses- 
sion which are to the westward of the river Wurdah. 

(g) The hostile conduct of the Rajah of Bhurtpore 
in the battle of Deig . . . had precluded the practicability 
of continuing on terms of amity with that chief. 

(h) The possession of Guzerat would give us a new 
bulwark against Zemaun Shah. 

(i) The separation of the government of Ceylon from 
the control of the general government of India always 
appeared to me to be a measure of the utmost danger to 
the Empire. 

(j) The principles of the plan of October 5, 1798 
combine the requisite indulgence to the private trade 
with the indispensable precautions necessary for securing 
your interests in India. 

9. Comment briefly on five of the following passages 
from the Wellington Despatches : — 

(a) For six years I have been concerned in the 
affairs of the Mysore government, and I have contem- 
plated with the greatest satisfaction its increasing- 
prosperity under your administration. 

(b) It appears to me that Dhoondiah's power and 
former success are to be attributed originally to the 
weakness of the government at Poonah, but immediately 
to the contests between the different Jaghirerlars and 
chiefs upon the frontier. 

(c) The advantageous situation of Ahmednuggur, 
on the frontier of his Highness the Nizam, covering 
Poonah, and as an important point of support to all our 
future operations to the northward. 



(d) At this distance from Guzerat, and with such 
imperfect and so long a communication, I could not take 
upon me to conduct a machine so complicated and dis- 
jointed as the military commands of the Committee of 
Surat and the Eesident of Baroda, and I therefore re- 
signed the whole concern. 

(e) However, by one of these unlucky accidents 
which frequently happen, the officer commanding the 
piquets, which were upon the right, led immediately up 
to the village of Assye. 

(/) If the Peshwah and the Soubah of the Deccan 
are not to entertain armies for the support of their own 
authority, the number of troops supplied to each ought 
to be doubled. 

(g) By the bye, does the Governor-Genei-al know 
that the peshcush paid by the Rajpoots does not belong 
to Seindiah only, but to the Peshwah and the Holkar 
family ? 

(h) I rejoice to hear that he intends to go home . . . 
if the ministers do not give him security that he shall 
not again be liable to the corrupt and vulgar interference 
of Leadenhall Street. 

[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTOEY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self-Government, 

I. 

[Answei' Questions 1 and 8 and at least three others.] 

1. Write notes on five of the following quotations : — 
(a) These people shall be obliged by the English 

Government to pay to the priests, who shall have the 
oversight over them, the tithes and all the dues they 
were accustomed to pay under the government of his 
Most Christian Majesty. 

(6) Having arrayed the strength of his Majesty's 
old and new subjects and shown the great superiority of 
the latter, it may not be amiss to observe that there is 
not the least probability this present superiority should 
ever diminish. 

(c) His Lordship objects to the granting of any 
lands in the province in free and common soccage. 

(d) The measure carries in its breast something that 
squints and looks dangerous to the inhabitants of our 
other colonies in that country. 

(e) If the King^s ancient subjects (comprehending 
the loyalists) can but have English Law for the rule of 
decision in English causes, as laid down in his Majesty's 
1 2th instruction, they'll be contented and happy. 

(/) He thought there was something in the habits, 
customs and manners of Canada, that peculiarly fitted it 
for the reception of hereditaiy honours. 

(g) It belonged to the administrations of the dajs 
of our fathers to have found the cure in the erection of 
a power upon the Continent itself to control all its own 
little republics. 

(h) Whereas in the present state of the province of 
Lower Canada, the House of Assembly . .. cannot be called 
together without serious detriment to the interests of 
the said province. . . . 

2. Give an account of the object of the proclamation 
of Oct. 7, 1763, and of its efiects in Canada. 

3. Why was no act for the government of Quebec 
passed until 1774 ? 

3 K 17 [Turn Qver. 



4. Describe and comment on H. Fin lay's opinions 
about the establishment of an Assembly in Canada in 
1784 and 1789. 

5. What course do you consider would have tended 
most to denationalize and assimilate the French Cana- 
dians'? Was this attempted in 1774, 1791, or 1840? 
Where the answer is in the negative, give the reasons 
against such a course. 

6. Write short notes on — The Jesuit Estates, Seignorial 
tenures, Le Canadien, the Canada Trade Act, the Family 
Compact, Lord John Russell's Ten Resolutions (1837). 

7. Describe the character and aims of (a) L. J. Papineau, 
and (6) Sir F. B. Head. 

8. Annotate five of the following extracts from Lord 
Durham's Report: — 

(a) The sympathies of the friends of reform are 
naturally enlisted on the side of sound amelioration,, 
which the English minority in vain attempted to intro- 
duce into the antiquated laws of the province. 

(h) The institutions of France, during the period of 
the colonization of Canada, were, perhaps more than 
those of any other European nation, calculated to repress 
the intelligence and freedom of the great mass of the 
people. These institutions followed the Canadian colo- 
nist across the Atlantic. 

(c) Lower Canada must be English at the expense, 
if necessary, of not being British. 

(d) The colonial demagogue bids high for popularity 
without the fear of future exposure. 

(e) The fact is that, according to the present system, 
there is no real representative of the Crown in the 
province. 

(/) Those who were not trusted with the manage- 
ment of a parish were enabled by their votes to influence 
the destinies of a State. 

(g) They [Upper Canada reformers] concentrated 
their powers, therefore, for the purpose of obtaining the 
responsibility of the Executive Council. . . . The Assembly 
of Lower Canada attacked the Legislative Council. 

(h) The union of the two provinces would secure 
to Upper Canada the present great objects of its desire. 

[2\ T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self -Government, 

II. 

[Anstuer Questions 1 and 8 and at least three others. 1 

1 . Annotate five of the following extracts : — 

(a) The Cabinet in a colony is an official party. . . 
The Houses of Lords in the colonies have been created 
by all the administrations which the people never could 
influence or control. 

(b) It is said, if this principle had been in operation 
Papineau and Mackenzie would have been ministers in 
the respective provinces they disturbed ! 

(c) The last of the reserved bills of the late session 
has reference to the long controverted subject of the 
Clergy Reserves. 

(d) If you mean that the patronage of the Crown is 
to be surrendered, for exclusive party purposes, to the 
Council . . . then we are again at issue. 

(e) When we can stand tyranny no longer, it will be 
seen whether good bayonets in Saxon hands will not be 
more than a match for a mace and a majority. 

(/ ) You talk somewhat lightly of the check of the 
Crown. . . . But is it indeed so light a matter, even as our 
constitution now works ? 

(g) Amongst all classes there is a strong prevailing 
conviction that a political revolution in this country is 
at hand. 

[h) In the imposition of taxation, it is so plainly 
necessary that the administration and the people should 
be in accord, that the former cannot admit responsibility 
or require approval beyond that of the local Legislature. 

2. What criticisms of Durham's plan of ' responsible 
government ' were made in 1839 by the Committee of the 
Upper Canada Council ? 

3. How and when was local government introduced 
into Canada 1 When did it become representative 1 

3 K 18 [Turn over. 



4. Account for Sydenham's success as Governor of 
Canada. 

5. Define briefly Elgin's conceptions of (a) the position 
of a colonial Governor, and (6) the future of the Empire. 

6. How far does the Canadian Constitution show signs 
of attraction to, and of repulsion from, American models ? 

7. On what grounds was the Confederation Act criti- 
cized in the Imperial Parliament "? 

8. Comment on Jive of the following passages : — 

(a) There is no fear of a deadlock between the two 
houses. 

(b) Fancy the celebrated Institut Canadien of 
Montreal . . . taking religion under their protection ! 

(c) It is not to be denied that such a coalition de- 
manded no ordinary justification. 

(d) The carrying of merchandise into that country 
and bringing down the bales of pelts ought to be ours, 
and must ere long be ours, as in the days of yore. 

(e) It is folly to suppose that this Intercolonial 
Railway will in the least degree be conducive to the 
defence of the country. 

(/) It will be none too easy a task ... to form an 
Executive Council with its three members for Lower 
Canada and satisfy the somewhat pressing exigencies of 
her creeds and races. 

(g) Whereas the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, 
and New Brunswick have expressed their desire to be 
federally united into one Dominion under the Crown . . . 
with a constitution similar in principle to that of the 
United Kingdom. . . . 

(h) Until the Parliament of Canada otherwise pro- 
vides, all laws in force in the several provinces at the 
Union [for regulating elections] shall respectively apply 
to elections of members to serve in the House of Commons 
for the same several provinces, 

[T, T. 1912,] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HTSTOEY. 



Political Economy and Economic Histoy^y. 

[Candidates must answer questions from Jtoth 
sections of the paper J] 

A. 

1. ' Every one has a notion, sufficiently correct for 
common purposes, of what is meant by wealth.' Is this 
notion adequate for the purposes of Political Economy ? 
Point out the chief difficulties in giving a scientific 
definition of wealth. 

2. What elements would you consider in estimating 
the progress of the working classes during any con- 
siderable period ? 

3. ' Labour is the sole cause of value.' What is the 
importance of this statement ? Discuss its truth. 

4. Is Mill's exposition of the Ricardian theory of Rent 
satisfactory, and did he reply adequately to the various 
criticisms of that theory ? 

5. How far is an 'unfavourable balance of trade' 
really unfavourable ? 

6. From which has labour most to hope — {a) legislation, 
(6) the action of trade unions, or (c) the extension of 
co-operation ? 

7. What are the principal advantages and disad- 
vantages of indirect taxation ? Illustrate your answer 
from the English system of taxation. 

8. Comment on any two of the following extracts from 
Mill's Political Economy : — 

(a) There is a distinction more important to the 
wealth of the community than even that between pro- 
ductive and unproductive labour: viz. that between 
labour for the supply of productive and for the supply of 
unproductive consumption. 

(6) The distribution of wealth is a matter of human 
institution solely. 

(c) The quantity demanded is not a fixed quantity, 
but in general varies according to the value. 

3 K 30 [Turn over. 



(c?) The value of money (other 'things being the 
same) varies inversely as its quantity. 

(e) Supply and demand are but another expression 
for reciprocal demand. 

(/) To tax the larger incomes at a higher percentage 
than the smaller is to lay a tax on industry and economy. 



B. 

9. What light does Domesday Book throw on the 
early history of the rural community ? 

10. ' The Peasant Revolt was an uprising against the 
tyrannous system of villeinage — an uprising which 
ostensibly failed in a cause which triumphed in spite of 
that failure.' Discuss. 

11. Sketch the history of the woollen trade and in- 
dustry to the end of the sixteenth century. 

12. What were the economic effects of either (a) the 
Discovery of the New World, or (b) the Dissolution of 
the Monasteries, or (c) the Act of Union with Scotland? 

13. How far was the improvement in the condition of 
the labouring classes during the Elizabethan period due 
to State intervention ? 

14. ' Mercantilism broke down, not because its aim 
was a wrong one, but just so far as its method was 
false.' Discuss this statement. 

15. How far had the main economic results of the 
Industrial Revolution become apparent before the end 
of the eighteenth century ? 

16. How far does a modern trade union resemble a 
craft gild ? 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military History and Strategy. 

I. l^he Principles of Strategy. 

[Candidates are reminded that they should shoiu a 
knoiuledge of Clauseivitz, Hamley, and von der Goltz.] 

1. What do you consider the chief merits and defects 
of Hamley 's Operations of War ? 

2. * The concentric form of attack leads to more bril- 
liant results, the advantages of the eccentric are more 
secure.* Discuss this statement, giving historical 
examples. 

3. Give the substance of Clausewitz's views on any 
two of the following subjects : the connexion between 
war and country : methodicism : night fighting : the 
defence of mountains : limited war. 

4. ' La manoeuvre initiale d'une campagne offensive est 
contenue en germe dans le rassemblement.' Discuss this 
statement, with special reference to the possibility of 
framing plans of campaign in peace. 

5. 'It is open to question if Clausewitz would not 
have altered his views as to the superiority of the 
defence over the attack, if he had had the opportunity 
of carefully revising the original text' (von der Goltz). 
What reasons can be brought forward in support of this 
view? 

6. Compare the views of von der Goltz and Hamley on 
the proper use of fortresses. 

7. The principles of strategy can never change, though 
the methods may vary.' How far is this assertion 
borne out by the wars of the French Revolution (1792- 
1801)? 

8. Comment briefly upon not more than four of the 
following passages from Hamley : — 

(a) It is sometimes argued that very large armies 
may become so unwieldy that they may be defeated by 
smaller and more mobile forces. 

3 K 40 [Turn over. 



(b) When an army is extended over a space beyond 
its strength, the most fatal way of attacking it is on the 
centre. 

(c) Telegraphs will not remedy, in an appreciable 
degree, the ignorance of what is passing behind an 
enemy's front, and its consequences. 

(d) The true uses of obstacles are not merely to 
increase the means of passive resistance. 

(e) The first efforts of an invader from over seas 
on getting a force ashore will almost always be directed 
towards securing a suitable harbour for his future 
operations. 

(/) Failure far more often results from faulty execu- 
tion of a plan of campaign than from want of perfection 
in the plan itself. 

9. Comment briefly on not more than four of the 
following passages from von der Goltz : — 

(a) Superior position in the state is of necessity the 
natural due of officers as a class. 

(b) The commander-in-chief . . . ought to think rather 
than wield the pen. 

(c) The soldier's fatigue on the march is caused less 
by the fact of his having travelled a certain distance, 
than by the length of time he is kept under arms, fully 
accoutred. 

(d) Nevertheless^ the legendary bayonet charge re- 
tains still a deep significance. 

(e) It lies in the nature of the modern battle that 
the immediate pursuit will, as a rule, be absent. 

(f) Initiative must not be confused, as is so often 
done, with the simple ' go at them ', 

10. Comment briefly on not more than four of the 
following passages from Clausewitz, 

(a) The destruction of the enemy's armed force 
appears, therefore, always as the superior and more 
effectual means, to which all others must give way. 

(h) Activity in war is movement in a resistant 
medium. 



(c) There is no more imperative and no simpler law 
for strategy than to keep the forces concentrated. 

(d) The victory mostly gains bodily substance after 
it is already decided. 

(e) The fundamental conception of an advance- 
guard is that its mission is the security of the main 
body. 

(/) All positions of the cordon kind have always 
this property, that they can be easily broken through. 

(g) The less a great decision is looked forward to in 
war the more will diversions be allowable. 

11. Is it true to say that the great defect of von der 
Goltz is his neglect of the importance of sea-power ? 

[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military History and Strategy. 
II. The Campaign of Waterloo. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one question 

m^arked *.] 

1. Give some account of the non-British contingents in 
Wellington's army, and sketch the part played by any 
one of them in the campaign. 

2. What light do your authorities throw on the poli- 
tical relations between the British and the Prussians, 
Did these in any way influence the course of the cam- 
paign ? 

^3. Show on a sketch-plan the distribution of Welling- 
ton's forces (a) on the morning of June 15, (6) their 
approximate positions at noon on June 16. Discuss the 
reasons for the comparative slowness of their movements. 

4. Compare Napoleon's chances of success at daybreak 
on June 17, and at daybreak on June 18, and account 
for the difference. 

*5. Discuss the principles underlying Wellington's 
tactical dispositions at Waterloo, and illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map of the position occupied by his 
army. 

6. * BlUcher was a born leader of men, but he was 
neither a tactician nor a strategist.' Can you justify 
this verdict ? 

7. Comment briefly upon not more than four of the 
following passages from Houssaye : — 

(a) ' Gerard rdpond de Bourmont sur sa tete ', dit 
I'empereur. ' Gdrard a tort', rdpliqua le prince d'Eck- 
muhl. ' Moi, je ne reponds de personne, je ne rdponds 
que de moi.' 

(b) Chez lui, les pr^somptions se changaient vite en 
certitudes. Quand il avait suppose une chose, cette chose 
devait etre telle qu'il I'avait suppose. 

3 K 41 [Turn over. 



(c) C'^tait une inconsequence de I'empereur d'avoir 
confi^ un ordre d'une telle importance a un officier d'dtat- 
majoraussi inexperimentd que le comte de Forbin-Janson. 

(d) Le rnouvement n'^tait pas si audacieux que les 
Allemands I'ont prt^tendu. 

(e) L'arm^e anglaise est moins agile, moins souple, 
raoins manoeuvrik*e que la ndtre. Si Ton ne peut la 
vaincre par une attaque directe, on peut le faire par des 
manoeuvres. 

(/) L'intention de I'empereur dtait d'ordonner ce 
mouvement, mais une heure plus tard. 

(g) Le colonel Colborne, que les soldats appelaient 
en Espagne * le mangeur du feu ', entraine le 52*. 

8. Comment briefly on not more than four of the 
following passages from Ropes : — 

(a) The Duke himself always maintained that this 
would have been Napoleon's best move. 

(b) Bonaparte chose the direction between the two 
armies, not in order to separate them by wedging himself 
between. 

(c) His recent arrival at the army and his lack of a 
proper staff exonerate him completely from any blame 
for this unfortunate delay. 

(d) We are asked to believe that Bliicher would 
have retreated if Wellington had told him that he could 
not bring him an}^ aid. 

(e) In all cases, keep constantly your two corps of 
infantry united in a league of ground and occupy every 
evening a good military position, having several avenues 
of retreat. 

(/) Hougoumont should have been attacked, un- 
doubtedly, but only by a moderate force. 

9. Comment briefly on not more than four of the 
following passages from Siborne : — 

(a) The despatch, moreover, did not require him to 
establish his head-quarters at Hannut, but merely sug- 
gested that the latter appeared the most suitable for the 
purpose. 

(b) Picton exclaimed, '28th! Remember Egypt.' 



3 

(c) Never perhaps did a defeated army extricate 
itself from its difficulties with so much adroitness and 
order. 

(d) No exertions on the part of Grouchy, after he 
broke up from Gembloux on the morning of the 18th, 
could have effectually prevented the junction of Wel- 
lington and Blucher. 

(e) The supply of ammunition, of which Baring stood 
in so much need, was not forthcoming. 

(/) The force which Lobau had at his disposal was 
greatly inferior to that of the corps he was sent to 
oppose. 

10. 'If the Prussian despatches to Wellington's head- 
quarteis are compared with the details of their execution, 
it will be seen that Gneisenau's conduct on June 18 is 
open to the same criticism which his biographers have 
brought against Wellington for the events of the 16th.' 
Discuss this. 

11. Comment briefly on not more than four of the 
following passages from Wellington's Despatches : — 

(a) 1 doubt that the Saxons would ever have served 
well witli the Prussian army. 

(b) I feel your partiality for the old number, which 
also shall be gratified, if I can do it without hurting the 
feelings of others who have already got your number. 

(r) C'est pour cela que je prie . . . Sa Majesty de 
partir pour Anvers, non sur les faux bruits, mais sur la 
nouvelle certaine que I'ennemi est entr^ a Bruxelles, 
maigr^ moi, en me tournant par Hal. 

(d) Even if I had not found myself in a situation to 
make the attack which produced the final result, it would 
have forced the enemy to retire if his attacks should have 
failed. 

(e) La Garde formera la reserve et je me porterai 
sur I'une ou sur I'autre aile, selon les circonstances. 

(/) Major General Sir J. Lambert's arrival to the 
support was most fortunate 

ig) La division du Lieutenant-G^ndral Chass^ est ar- 
riv^e tard au feu . . . et j'ai re9u avis que cette division 
a combattu vaillamment. 

[T. T, 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Political Science. 

[Candidates are reminded that they are required to shoiu 
a hnouiedge of the 'prescribed texts^ 

1. 'There are many good reasons why a political 
philosopher should concern himself with duties and not 
with rights.' Discuss. 

3. Comment on the following passages from Aristotle : — 

(a) In Domestic Economy more attention is devoted 
to human beings than to inanimate objects. 

(h) There is an unspeakable advantage in the sense 
of private property. 

(c) The virtue of all the citizens can no more be one 
and the same than the virtue of a leader and of a sub- 
ordinate member of a chorus. 

{d) Learning does not mean amusing ourselves, as 
it necessarily involves a painful effort. 

{e) One who is excessively wealthy or excessively 
poor cannot easily live a life conformable to reason. 

3. Does the mediaeval or the modern conception of the 
state more nearly approximate to the ideals of Aristotle? 

4. 'To make political economy a part of morals is a 
mistake.' Discuss this maxim from the standpoint of 
the Politics. 

5. Comment on the following passages from Hobbes : — 
{a) This pretence of Covenant with God is so evident 

a lye, even in the pretenders own consciences, that it is 
not only an act of an unjust, but also of a vilcj and un- 
manly disposition. 

{J)) We will he as all other nations, and our King 
shall judge our causes, and go before us to conduct our 
rears. Here is confirmed the right that sovereigns have, 
both to the Militia and to all Judicature. 

(c) That Law can never be against Reason, our 
Lawyers are agreed. 

(d) It is of the nature of Punishment to have for 
end the disposing of men to obey the Law. 

3 K 23 [Turn over. 



6. ' In political regulations, good cannot be complete, 
it can only be predominant.' Discuss this dictum of 
Dr. Johnson, with special reference to the views of 
Hobbes. 

7. How far has Maine's view of the origin and de- 
velopment of the lus gent him been modified by subse- 
quent criticism ? 

8. ' Nothing in law springs entirely from a sense of 
convenience. There are always certain ideas existing 
antecedently on which the sense of convenience works, 
and of which it can do no more than form some new 
combination.' Illustrate this remark from Maine's dis- 
cussion of the development of ancient law. 

9. What considerations, in Maine's opinion, led ancient 
societies to ' the formation of a true criminal juris- 
prudence ' ? 

10. What importance attaches, in modern problems, 
to the question of the nature of sovereignty ? 

11. 'The General Strike is the most powerful weapon 
of social amelioration yet discovered.' ' The General 
Strike is the negation of democracy, and must bring 
ruin upon any society which permits it to exist.' Dis- 
cuss these statements. 

12. ' Democracy is no heaven-born institution. There 
is no right divine about it. Darwin has dismissed the 
fatal poisonous absurdities of Rousseau to the limbo of 
lost rubbish.' Discuss. 



[T, T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Political Economy. 

A. Foreign Trade. 

1. In what, according to Bastable and Sidgwick, does 
the distinction between home and foreign trade consist ? 
Can you accept the conclusions of these writers as to the 
peculiar character of International Ti-ade ? 

2. ' This Review of the Corn T^aws shows that so lono- 
as the system of restraining importation and encouraging 
exportation was persevered in, Great Britain not only 
supplied herself but exported a considerable quantity of 
corn ; also that the prices were steady and moderate.' 

(Corn Trade Report, 1813.) 

Why was this system altered ? Were the results of 
the corn-law policy, 1765-1815. equally satisfactory? 

3. Of what practical importance was the Merchant's 
Petition of 1820 ? Would you gather from Peel's speeches 
in 1842, 1846, 1849, that he accepted the Free Trade 
principles as stated in that Petition ? 

4. ' Figures can be made to prove anything.' Discuss 
this statement with special reference to the use of 
statistics in problems connected with Foreign Trade. 

5. Explain the nature of the Tariff changes proposed 
by Mr. McGregor in 1840. What effect did he consider 
these changes would have on (a) British agriculture, 
(6) the employment of labour in this country ? 

6. Mr. Gladstone said : ' I wish to show more particu- 
larly the connexion that subsists between commercial 
reforms, as affecting trade and industry, and the power 
to pay the high taxes you have imposed.' 

Illustrate by reference to Strachey's report, and any 
others of your authorities, the effects on national pros- 
perity of the fiscal policy of a country. 

3 K 42 [Turn over. 



7. Examine critically the economic arguments which 
may be brought forward in support of — 

(a) Imperial Preference. 

(b) Commercial reciprocity between two countries. 

8. ' Der Irrtum der merkantilistischen Handelspolitik 
bestand zunachst darin, dass sie, durch die machtige 
wirtschaftliche Entwicklung Hollands und Englands 
bestochcn, den auswartigen Handel fiir die einzige oder 
doch hauptsachlichste Quelle des Reichtums hielt. Sie 
irrte ferner mit der Meinung, dass der Handelsgewinn 
durch die Einfuhr von Edelmetall dem Lande dauernder 
als Reichtumsvermehrung erhalten bleibe als durch die 
Einfuhr eines Wertiiberschusses in Verbrauchsgiitern. 
Denn wenn mehr an solchen GUtern eingefUhrt wird, so 
braucbt man im Inlande desto w^eniger an Aequivalenten 
derselben zu erzeugen und es bleibt daher um so mehr 
Kapital und Arbeit verfiigbar zum Bau von Hausern, 
von Fabriken, zu Strassenanlagen, Bodenverbesserungen, 
iiberhaupt zur Schaffung von dauernden Elementen des 
Nationalreichtums.' (Lexis.) 

Translate, and examine critically the trade policy 
here described. 

9. Comment on the following extracts ; — 

(a) ' The scale of prices existing in any country 
is . . . the result of well-defined causes.' (Bastable.) 

(b) ' Resolved, 

That it is expedient that no foreign flour or 
meal be allowed to be imported into Great Britain.' 

{Corn Trade Report, 1813.) 

(c) ' Capital and skill could not be compelled to 
remain in this country : they were certain to emigrate, 
if they were impeded by burthens which they were 
unable to bear.' (Huskisson, 1825.) 

{d) ' The tarift* often aims at incompatible ends ; 
the duties are sometimes meant to be both productive of 
revenue and for protective objects.' 

(Import Duties Report, 1840.) 

(e) ' The two Governments will be free, for example, 
to extend to all countries the concessions they engage 
to make to one another.' 

[Correspondence respecting the Cobden Treaty.) 



(/) 'Owing to the check suffered by Lyons during 
the war of 1870, to the rapid industrial development of 
Germany after the peace, and to other causes, Crefeld 
made a rapid start forward.' (Stbachey's Report.) 

(g) ' It is true, however, that to the strict rules 
of tlie navigation laws there were numerous exceptions.' 

(Pittar's Report.) 

(h) ' In Deutschland sind besonders die ortlichen 
PreisdifFerenzen zwischen den westlichen und den ost- 
lichen Landesteilen von Wichtigkeit, die haufig fast den 
Weizenzoll in seiner jetzigen Hohe erreichen.' (Lexis.) 



[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOBY. 



Foliticul Evonomii. 
B. Public Fl nance. 

1. What difficulties attend the practical application 
of Adam Smith's first Canon of Taxation ? How far 
does our present fiscal system conform to this Canon ? 

2. With what propriety may the income tax be de- 
scribed as a ' colossal engine of finance ' ? Discuss Glad- 
stone's objections to [a) ' breaking up ' the income tax, 
(6) making the tax a permanent one. 

3. What would you gather from Pitt's speech in 
February, 1792, as to England's financial position at that 
time? Compare the state of the finances in 1792 with 
that as described by Huskisson in 1817. 

4. ' Dagegen hat eine Ausbildung der Erbschaftssteuern 
besonders durch Ausdehnung derselben auf das Immo- 
biliarvermogen (Gladstone, 1853) und durch weitere 
Reformen stattgefunden, wodurch diese Steuern in ihrer 
Ergiebigkeit stark gesteigert worden sind. Sie bilden 
so eine vermogenssteuerartige Erganzung der Einkom- 
mensteuer, einigermassen eine hohere Besteuerung des 
fundirten Einkommens, dessen Quelle eben den Erb- 
schaftssteuern unterliegt, und eine principiell beachtens- 
werthe, auch practisch ins Gewicht fallende Besteuerung 
der Mittelclassen und der reicheren Bevblkerung.' 

(Wagner.) 

Translate, and discuss the part played in the English 
tax system by the taxes here referred to. 

5. (a) ' There can be no doubt whatever that a portion 
of the rates does ultimately fall upon the owner.' 

(GosoHEN, Draft Report, 18 70.) 

(6) ' It is expedient to make owners as well as 

occupiers directly liable for a certain proportion of the 

rates.' (Report of Committee in 1870.) 

Discuss the importance of these two propositions. 
How far are they in harmony with the recommendations 
of the Select Committee on Town Holdings ? 

6. Investigate the advantages and disadvantages of 
state-controlled industry with special reference to the 
nationalization of — (a) coal-mines, {h) telephones, (c) 
railways. 

3 K 43 [Turn over. 



7. Would you agree with Gladstone that legislation 
for the benefit of a class is a mistake of the worst order? 
On what grounds, if any, is it possible to justifj'^ taxation 
for other than revenue purposes 1 

8. Is it an indication of good or bad finance when the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer finds him.sell' at the end of 
the financial year in possession of a considerable surplus ? 
What do your authorities say about the ' disposal of the 
surplus ' ? 

9. Comment on the following extracts : — 

(a) ' The use of a single tax would remove the 
advantage that is obtained at present by reaching the 
diflferent forms of taxable capacity.' (Bastable.) 

(b) 'The measures which have been taken for the 
prevention of smuggling have, in a great degree at least, 
been successful.' (Finance Committee, 1819.) 

(c) ' There is no subject upon which a minister is 
more bound to be clear^ explicit and intelligible than 
when he is called upon to explain to Parliament the 
state of the finances of the country.' (Robinson, 1823.) 

(d) * The abolition of the Malt Duty . . . would be 
the death-warrant of the whole of our system of indirect 
taxation.' (Gladstone, 1865.) 

(e) ' The state is to take its share from the corpus of 
the whole property passing on the death of the deceased.' 

(Harcouet, 1894.) 
(/) ' If the capital taken in loans is abstracted from 
funds either engaged in production, or destined to be 
employed in it, their diversion from that purpose is 
equivalent to taking the amount from the wages of the 
labouring classes.' (J. S. Mill.) 

(g) ' Land is not the only class of rateable property 
the value of which may be enhanced by circumstances 
beyond the influence or control of its owners.' 

{Final Report on Local Taxation.) 

(h) ' Zugleich wird iibrigens in der dauernd bei- 

behaltenen Einkommensteuer doch auch wohl ein Mittel 

gesehen, um im Sinne gerechterer Steuervertheilung die 

wohlhabenderen Classen angemessener mitzubelasten.' 

(Wagner.) 

[T. T. 1912.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOHY. 



The Mamlule Period, 
I. 



1. What causes led to the Ottoman conquest of Egypt ? 

2. Describe the eursus honornm (series of offices) at 
the Mamluke court. Whence was the system derived ? 

3. In what ways did the judicial system inaugurated 
by Baibars I differ from those of other Mohammedan 
states? Quote examples illustrating its effectiveness. 

4. Compare the financial system of the Mamluke 
Sultans with that of modern Egypt. 

5. Estimate the services to the Egyptian empire of 
Kilawun and al-Nasir. 

6. ' Palestine was more prosperous under the Franks 
than in the preceding or the. subsequent centuries.' 
Criticize this opinion. 

7. Describe and account for the sjrowth of the religious 
orders during this period. 

8. What is known of the duties and emoluments of 
the Caliphs? Notice any occasions on which they 
played a prominent part in Mamluke history. 

9. At what period did the territories of the Egyptian 
Sultans attain their greatest extent? Illustrate your 
answer with a map. 

10. Which of Ibn Khaldun's generalizations are based 
on a study of Egyptian history ? 



[T. T. 1912.] 
3 K 44 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Texts, 
II. 

1. Translate and comment on the following inscrip- 
tions : — 

\i^ j^\ JUll ^::.^\ j^\ i5^LU a-^aU sJla ^LioU^J (a) 

J d,U1 J^Jl ']j.ij1 ^l^ c^^Ul jClU i^llJl ^^5)1 ^l::-.] (^j^j^)] 

♦ *),>J^ H-'^y JuJla. ^J^« 

2. Translate : — 

j^jfli-ifc j^»-*>. ^_/2s^*' *j4>5 Sf^s."^ i__ftiO Ja>^-aO (jlWl^i .-ol s^» (a) 

— ys? ^_^^*»yLflJl c:a)1)j ^^]1^-«\ c>A.i' iS^li ^'sib ^j ^j-jLJI .-*s? ^,jL£.c 
(j\^x]l A»!!^ (jU. sJ Jlsb d*5w>lil ^* u^^ -^j?. r^^ ^j ^ ift^LJL 

ei>U j.A^^l ^JjJl ^^-^1 <;-^'^ ry-^} S^ Jyt-Jl ^.1 i'li^. ^_j.J>L5 
j,-iJl XwJl ^jJbLkj (^jJI y-Jl v-^ilS (cH^j J-^fi-^^^ fJ^-^Jl J^l 

Collect other notices of the Egyptian coinage. 
3 K 45 [Turn over. 



^* 5Jlj 5:^l::5 As- nsy^ ^ ^Ikl-Jl ^^ ^jb ^1 5.;j^ ^j s-U As] ^, 

What do we learn of the relations between the 
Abyssinians and the Mamluke Sultans ? 

JJjIsHU 'isojJ\ v^CAL J^lsT^' Ulj ♦ ujll-xll ]ji4) l^i'^lcl -ii l*j 

Comment on this passage. 
\T. T, 1912.] 



\ 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Unseen Translations. 



[Two hours are alloioed for this paper. Candidates icho 
offer more than one language need only attempt one 
of the French passages.^ 

1. Deux iddes avaient souleve le moyen age hors de 
rinforme barbarie : Tune religieuse, qui avait dress^ les 
gigantesques cath^drales et ddracin^ les populations pour 
les pousser sur la Terre sainte ; I'autre seculiere, qui 
avait bati les forteresses feodales et plants I'liomme de 
coeur debout et arme sur son domaine ; I'une qui avait 
produit le h^ros aventureux, I'autre qui avait produit 
le moine mystique ; Tune qui est la croyance en Dieu, 
I'autre qui est la croyance en soi. Toutes deux, exces- 
sives, avaient d^gener^ par Femportement de leur propre 
force : Tune avait exalte I'ind^pendance jusqu'a la r^- 
volte, I'autre avait ^gar^ la pi^te jusqu'a Tenthousiasme ; 
la premiere rendait Thomme impropre a la vie civile, la 
seconde retirait I'homme de la vie naturelle ; Tune, insti- 
tuant le desordre, dissolvait la soci^t^ ; I'autre, intronisant 
la d^]'aison, pervertissait I'intelligence. II avait fallu r^- 
primer la chevalerie qui aboutissait au brigandage et 
reWner la devotion qui amenait la servitude. La f<doda- 
lit^ turbulente s'etait (^nervde comme la theocratic oppres- 
sive, et les deux grandes passions maitresses, privies de 
leur seve et retranch^es de leur tige, s'alanguissaient 
jusqu'a laisser la monotonie de I'habitude et le gout du 
monde germer a leur place et fleurir sous leur nom. 

2. Qu'est-ce done que cette race fran9aise qui, par les 
armes et les lettres, fait dans le monde une entree si 
^clatante, et va dominer si visiblement qu'en Orient, par 
exemple, on donnera son nom de Francs a tous les peuples 
de rOccident? En quoi consiste cet esprit nouveau, 
inventeur precoce, ouvrier de toute la civilisation du 
moyen age? H y a dans chaque esprit une action ele- 
mentaire qui, incessamment rep^t^e, compose sa trame 
et lui donne son tour: a la ville ou dans les champs, 
cultivd ou inculte, enfant ou vieillard, il passe sa vie et 
emploie sa force ^ concevoir un ^v^nement ou un objet ; 
c'est la sa d-marche originelle et perpetuelle, et il a beau 

3 K 31 [Turn over. 



changer de terrain, revenir, avancer, allonger et varier 
sa course, tout son mouvement n'est jamais qu'une suite 
de ces pas joints bout a bout ; en sorte que la moindre 
alteration dans la grandeur, la promptitude ou la stiret^ 
de Tenjamb^e primitive transforme et regit toute la 
course, comme dans un arbre la structure du premier 
bourgeon dispose tout le feuillage et gouverne toute la 
vegetation. Quand le Fran9ais con9oit un ev^nement ou 
un objet, il le con9oit vite et distinctement ; nul trouble 
interieur, nulle fermentation pr^alable d'id^es confuses 
et violentes qui, a la fin concentrees et eiabor^es, fassent 
eruption par un cri. Les mouvements de son intelli- 
gence sont adroits et prompts comme ceux de ses membres ; 
du premier coup, et sans effort, il met la main sur son 
idee. 

3. Die berechtigten HofFnungen der Kurfiirstin Sophie 
wurden vereitelt durch den im Marz 1702 eingetretenen 
Tod des Konigs Wilhelm. Seine Nachfolgerin, die 
Konigin Anna, schreibt zwar sogleich an Sophie^ dass 
sie fiir das Haus Hannover dieselben Gesinnungen hege, 
wie ihr Vorganger ; aber die Kurfiirstin scheint der 
Wahrheit jener Worte nicht recht getraut zu haben ; am 
2. April 1702 schreibt sie an die Raugrafin Louise: 'Die 
jetzige Konigin von England hat mir sofort versichert, 
dass sie dieselbe Gnade fiir mich und mein Haus haben 
wiirde, wie der vorige Konig. Dieses hat mir ein Hand- 
schreiben an ihre Maj. gekostet. Ob man mich wird in 
England verlangen, wird die Zeit lehren.' Und am 13. 
April schreibt sie derselben: ' Von der Reise nach England 
wird weder in England noch hier gei-edet, weder fiir 
meinen Enkel noch fiir mich. Die Konigin Anna ist 
noch wohl, obschon man ihrer Maj. linke Hand hat 
kiissen miissen, well die andere wegen des Podagra 
verbunden war.' Die Kurfiirstin bedauert dann noch, 
dass der Sch wager der Raugrafin, der Herzog von Schon- 
burg, fiir ihre Sache in England nicht werde wirken 
konnen ; ' derselbe ', schreibt sie, ' wird so viel Anderes 
zu thun haben, dass er an mich nicht denken wird.* 
* Ubrigens,' setzt sie resigniert hinzu, ^ denke ich, es ist 
gleich, ob ich hier sterbe oder in England.' Der friiheren 
Versprechungen Wilhelms III. in BetreflT eines Jahrgelds 
fUr Sophie und der Uberkunft nach England wird jetzt 
nicht mehr gedacht. Bei Gelegenheit der Bewilligung 



des Kroneinkommens der Konigin Anna schreibt die 
Kurfiirstin am 15. April 1702 an Raugrafin Louise : ' Ich 
habe von einem guten Fi-eunde vernommen, dass das 
Parlament ihrer Maj. der Konigin nicht allein daa Ein- 
kommen vom seligen Konig gegeben, sondern ihr noch 
dazu ihre vorherige Revenue gelassen hat und auch die 
Revenue vom Herzog von Glocester, in der Absicht, dass 
ihre Maj. von sich selber diese zwei letzten Betrage ver- 
wenden sollte, mich und meinen Enkel nach England zu 
berufen.' 

4. Intanto gli nimici mia di Banchi a lento passo 
s'erano avviati inverso la Chiavica, luogo detto cosi, ed 
arrivati in su una crociata di strade, le quali vanno in 
diversi luoghi; ma quella dove era la casa del mio 
nimico Pompeo, era quella strada che diritta porta a 
Campo di Fiore : e per alcune occasioni del detto Pompeo, 
era entrato in quello ispeziale che stava in sul canto della 
Chiavica, e soprastato con ditto speziale alquanto per 
alcune sue faccende ; benche a me fu detto che lui si era 
millantato di quella bravata che a lui pareva aver fatta- 
mi : ma in tutti i modi la fu pur sua cattiva fortuna; 
perche arrivato che io fui a quel canto, appunto lui usciva 
dello speziale, e quel sua bravi si erano aperti, e I'avevano 
di gia ricevuto in mezzo. Messi mano a un piccol pun- 
gente pugnaletto, e sforzato la fila de' sua bravi, gli messi 
le mane al petto con tanta prestezza e sicurta d'animo, 
che nessuno delli detti rimediar non possettono. Tira- 
togli per dare al viso, lo spavento che lui ebbe gli fece 
volger la faccia, dove io lo punsi appunto sotto I'orecchio ; 
e quivi raffermai dua colpi soli, che al secondo mi cadde 
morto di mano, quale non fu mai mia intenzione ; ma, 
siccome si dice, li colpi non si danno a patti. Ripreso il 
pugnale con la mano istanca, e con la ritta tirato fuora 
la spada per la difesa della vita mia (dove tutti quel 
bravi corsono al morto corpo, e contra a me non feciono 
atto nessuno), cosi soletto mi ritirai per istrada lulia, 
pensando dove io mi potessi salvare. 



[T. T. 1912.] 



<f> 



No. 1646 One Shilling net 



OXFOED UNIVERSITY 
EXAMINATION PAPERS 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMINATION 



HONOUK SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



TRINITY TERM, 1913 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 

116 HIGH STREET 



-♦— •!• 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History. 
I. 

[Candidates are recommended to attempt Question 1.] 

1. Comment on any jive of the following passages, 
translating where necessary : — 

(a) In primis ut omnes jurent in nomine Domini, 
pro quo sanctum illud sanctum est, fidelitatem Edmundo 
regi, sicut homo debet esse fidelis domino suo. 

{Edmund.) 

(b) That every tithe be rendered to the old minster 
to which the district belongs ; and that be then so paid, 
both from a thegn's ' inland ' and from ' geneat ' land, so 
as the plough traverses it. (Edgar.) 

(c) Et nnllus eorum faciat bellum. Et si quis civium 
de placitis coronae implacitatus fuerit_, per sacramentum 
quod judicatum fuerit in civitate, se disrationet homo 
Londoniarum. (Henry Fs Charter to London.) 

(d) Ecclesiasticarum personarum et omnium cleri- 
corum et rerum eorum justitiam et potestatem et distri- 
butionem bonorum ecclesiasticorum in manu episcoporum 
esse perhibeo et confirmo. (Stephen's Charter.) 

(e) Item lustitiae faciant jurare per legales milites 
vel alios liberos et legales homines de hundredis et de 
burgiS; quot viderint expedire, qui habebunt valentiam 
catalli secundum quod eum habere oportuerit loricam et 
galeam et lanceam et clypeum secundum quod dictum 
est (Assize of A^^ms.) 

(/) Liber homo non amercietur pro parvo delicto, 
nisi secundum modum delicti ; et pro magno delicto 
amercietur secundum magnitudinem delicti, salvo con- 
tenemento suo ; . . . et villanus eodem modo amercietur 
salvo wainnagio suo. (Magna Carta.) 

(g) Scutagium capiat ur de cetero sicut capi consue- 
vit tempore Henrici regis avi nostri. (Charter of 1217.) 

3 K 25 [Turn over. 



(h) Et qe veue des armes soit fete deus foiz par an 
Et en chescun hundred e fraunchise seyent eleus deus 
conestables a fere la veue des armes. 

(Statute of Winchester.) 

(i) Le roi ad grante a soen poeple qil eient eleccion 
de leur viscontes en chescun conte ou visconte ne est mie 
de fee sil voelent. (Articuli super cartas, 1300.) 

2. ' The ceorls were sinking more and more towards 
a state of servitude before the Conquest.' Discuss and 
illustrate this statement. 

3. Sketch the history of the Frankpledge system. 

4. Was Henry II in his constitutional reforms rather 
the successor of Henry I or the forerunner of Edward I ? 

5. Estimate the value of the part played by the Church 
in the development of the Constitution during the 
thirteenth century. 

6. Discuss the constitutional importance of the parlia- 
ment of 1275. 

7. Is it accurate to say that the early liberties of 
England were won rather with the money than with the 
blood of Englishmen ? 

8. What were the constitutional aims of the various 
parties between 1258 and 1265 ? 

9. Trace the attempts of Parliament to investigate and 
reform the abuses of the administration during the four- 
teenth century. 

10. Examine the functions of the Council in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 

11. How and when was the sheriff displaced as the 
main-spring of local government in England ? 

12. Classify the chief sources of our knowledge of con- 
stitutional history for the period between the Norman 
Conquest and the accession of the Tudors. 

[2\ T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History. 

II. 

\Canclidates are expected to attempt Question 1.] 
1. Comment briefly on five of the following passages : — 

(a) The sums of money paid in the name of customs 
and subsidies of wares and merchandizes ... is an ancient 
revenue annexed and united to your imperial crown. 

(1 Eliz. c.xi.) 

(b) The churchwardens of every parish and four, 
three or two substantial householders there, . . . who shall 
be nominated yearly in Easter week, or within one month 
after Easter, under the hand and seal of two or more 
justices of the peace in the same county, whereof one to 
be of the quorum . . . shall be called overseers of the poor 
of the same parish. (Poor Laiu, 1601.) 

(c) Furthermore we notify by these presents that all 
returns and certificates of knights, citizens, and burgesses 
ought and are to be brought to the Chancery, and there 
filed of record. {Proclamation of Elections.) 

{d) Divers of your subjects have of late been im- 
prisoned without any cause showed, and when for their 
deliverance they were brought before your Justices, by 
your Majesty's writs of Habeas Corpus ... no cause was 
certified, but that they were detained by your Majesty's 
special command, signified by the Lords of your Privy 
Council. {Petition of Right.) 

{e) That the people of England (being at this day 
very unequally distributed by counties, cities, and 
boroughs for the election of their representatives) be in- 
differently proportioned. (Agreement of the People.) 

(f) That a constant yearly revenue shall be raised, 
settled, and established . . . which revenue shall be raised 
by the customs and such other ways and means as shall 
be agreed upon by the Lord Protector and the Council, 
and shall not be taken away or diminished, nor the way 
agreed upon for raising the same be altered but by the 
consent of the Lord Protector and the Parliament. 

(Instrument of Government.) 

3K26 [Turnover. 



(g) That no pardon under the Great Seal of England 
be pleadable to an Impeachment by the Commons in 
Parliament. (Act of Settlement) 

(h) That no person who shall have in his own name 
or in the name of any person or persons in trust for him 
or for his benefit any new ofiice or place of trust whatso- 
ever under the Crown which at any time since the 25th 
day of October, 1705, have been created . . . shall be 
capable of being elected or of sitting and voting as a 
member of the house of Commons. {Place Act, 1707.) 

[i) That on every such trial, the jury sworn to try 
the issue may give a general verdict of Guilty, or Not 
Guilty, upon the whole matter put in issue upon such 
indictment or information. [Fox's Libel Act.) 

2. Give some account of the special courts and councils 
employed by the Tudor sovereigns for secular affairs, 
explaining their functions and their relations with the 
Privy Council. 

3 . What were the principal questions aflecting privilege 
of parliament which were in debate during the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James I ? 

4. Analyse the methods by which the ecclesiastical 
supremacy of the crown was made eflfective from Henry 
VIII to Charles I. How far was the supremacy shared 
with Parliament? 

5. What were the principal sources of revenue of the 
crown between 1603 and 1628, and how far were they 
free from the control of Parliament ? 

6. On what occasions during the seventeenth century 
did Parliament attempt to deal with feudal tenures? 
What was the final solution of the question 1 

7. 'In order to carry on government, the Common- 
wealth had to revive and establish many of the practices 
which had been most loudly condemned in Charles I.' 
Discuss this statement. How far is it borne out by the 
documents of the Commonwealth period ? 

8. * A Restoration is always a Revolution.' How far 
does this apply to the Restoration settlement under 
Charles II ? 



9. Sketch in outline the history of the Secretariate of 
State since the Restoration. 

10. ' George III never desired or attempted more than 
to regain the legal powers of the crown as they were de- 
fined in the Revolution Settlement.' Discuss this. 

11. Compare the provisions of the Scottish and the 
Irish Acts of Union. How far can the greater success 
of the former be attributed to the differences between 
the two Acts 1 

12. At what periods, and for what reasons, did the 
numbers of the House of Lords increase most rapidly ? 

13. * Local self-government was at its best in England 
during the eighteenth century : the nineteenth has de- 
stroyed it by making it mechanical.' Discuss this. 

14. Trace the development of the control exercised 
by the British Government over Indian affairs from 1760 
to 1860. 



[T. 1\ 1913.J 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



English Political History. 

I. 

[Candidates are ex'pected to ansiver questions from 
all three sections of the paper, including at least 
ONE of those marked *, and to avoid questions on 
their special subjects^ 

A. 

1. Give soms account of the oldest written authorities 
for Anglo-Saxon History down to the year 800 and esti- 
mate their respective values. 

2. Compare the characters and careers of Wilfrid 
and Dunstan. 

3. Can it be maintained that England made any con- 
siderable progress in civilization between the days of 
Bede and the days of Edward the Confessor ? 

^4. What was a burh? Describe and illustrate by 
a sketch-map the system of fortifications by which the 
House of Alfred recovered and secured the Dane-law. 

*5. How were the English shires grouped into great 
earldoms'? Explain the growth of the earldoms by 
a sketch-map or maps. 

6. What did Wessex, as contrasted with other English 
kingdoms, gain by its intercourse with the Frankish 
Empire and with other continental countries 1 

7. Discuss the statement that Harold Godwinsson 
'usurped' the throne in January, 1066. What other 
possible candidates were there ? 

B. 

*8. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map or maps 
the changes in frontier either between England and 
Scotland or between England and Wales down to the 
death of Edward I. 

9. Discuss the twelfth century as the golden age of 
monasticism in England, and, if possible, illustrate your 
answer from the history of any particular religious house. 

3Kl9 [Turnover, 



10. ' In an age when the defence was almost everywhere 
superior to the attack, the ease with which the English 
Kings triumphed over feudal revolts was remarkable.' 
Examine and illustrate this statement. 

11. Point out the importance in mediaeval history 
of any one English town other than London. 

12. Account for the slight interest in the Crusades 
manifested by the Anglo-Norman barons. 

13. Contrast the characters and aims of Henry II and 
Thomas Becket. 

14. Were the foreign possessions of our Kings before 
1307 an advantage to England or the reverse 1 

C. 

15. Give some account of the rise and growth of the 
House of Lancaster down to its usurpation of the Crown. 

16. Trace down to 1485 the history of the interest 
of England in the independence of the Low Countries. 

*17. ' The English commanders in the Hundred Years' 
War were victorious mainly owing to superior tactics, and 
had little merit as strategists.' What exceptions can be 
taken to this statement ? Illustrate your answer by 
a sketch-map or maps. 

18. Illustrate from the history of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries the weakness and the fears of the 
English Church. 

19. Were any questions other than economic at issue 
in the Peasant Revolt of 1381 ? Write a brief account 
of that event. 

20. Give some account of the two Universities of 
England in the Middle Ages, and of the system of educa- 
tion there pursued. 

21. Write a character either of Cardinal Beaufort or of 
Richard III. 

[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



English Political History. 

II. 

[Candidates are expected to ansiuer questions from all 
three sections of the paper, including at least one of 
those onarked*,and to avoid questions on their Specicd 
Subjects.] 

A. 

1. How far did the mediaeval ambition of making 
conquests in France influence Tudor foreign policy ? 

2. Can you suggest any reasons for thinking that the 
effects of the dissolution of the monasteries have been 
exaggerated ? 

3. Illustrate from the careers of the Protector Somerset 
and his rival Warwick the characteristics of the new 
nobility created by the Tudors. 

4. Did Elizabeth miss any real opportunities of 
national advantage owing to her extreme caution and 
frugality ? 

^5. Draw a sketch-map of southern Scotland and of 
the English Border counties, and mark upon it the 
places of military interest in the Tudor period. 

6. Sketch the history of the Reformation in Ireland. 
Do you consider that it had much to do with the rebel- 
lions against Henry VIII and Elizabeth ? 

7. Does the literature of Elizabeth's reign support the 
belief that interest in theological controversy was then 
general among Englishmen ? 

B. 

8. Compare the Scottish policy of James I with that 
of Charles I. 

9. To what extent was Charles I responsible for the 
conflicts with foreign powers which marked the first 
years of his reign ? 

3 K 20 [Turn over. 



10. Compare Pym and Shaftesbury as party leaders. 

11. Sketch the history of the political newspaper in 
the Stuart period. 

12. Trace the gradual changes in Cromwell's political 
opinions throughout his public life. 

13. ' He showed his judgement in this that he cannot 
properly be said ever to have had a favourite, though 
some might look so at a distance.' (Halifax,, Character 
of King Charles H.) Examine the truth of this state- 
ment. 

*14. Describe with a sketch-map the Irish campaigns 
of 1690 and 1691. 

C. 

15. Point out the significance of the career of Boling- 
broke. 

*16. Illustrate the influence of naval power on the 
course of the Seven Years' War, and describe with 
a sketch-map any one naval campaign of that war. 

17. Compare the Whigs of 1760 with the Whigs of 
1830. 

18. Which of Burke's speeches and writings shed most 
light upon the English politics of his time ? Give reasons 
for your answer. 

19. When did the Eastern Question begin to be 
a source of anxiety to English statesmen ? At what 
times previous to 1830 was this anxiety most acute? 

20. Sketch the growth of a new colonial empire in the 
half century following the peace of Versailles. 

21. Trace the influence of the evangelical movement 
upon English politics. 

\T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTORY, 



General History. Period I. (284-604.) 

I. 

\^At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 

attempted.'] 

*1. Describe, with a sketch-map or maps, the frontiers of 
the Roman Empire in Europe at the date of Constantine's 
invasion of Italy, pointing out both the strong and the 
weak spots. 

*2. Discuss the advantages of Byzantium as the new 
capital of the Empire, and illustrate your answer by a 
sketch-map or maps. 

3. Trace the history of the struggle of Arianism against 
Catholicism within the Roman Empire down to the 
year 381. 

4. Examine the weak points in the religious and 
political position of the Emperor Julian. 

5. What were the chief merits of the government of 
Theodosius I? 

6. Account for the poverty of written authorities for 
Western history after 378. 

7. Explain the meaning of the words— ^scus, dioecesis, 
^xdrocinium, lionitanei, fundus, comes. 

8. Give some account of early Christian art as 
illustrating early Christian belief. 

9. Trace the origin and growth of the Eremitic and 
Coenobite movements throughout your period. 

10. Discuss the character and career either of Stilicho 
or of Galla PI acid ia. 

*11. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map the 
fortunes of the Spanish provinces of the Empire from 
the close of the third century to the middle of the fifth. 

12. Why did paganism die harder in the Senate of 
Rome than elsewhere in the Empire ? 

13. ' Before the pontificate of Leo I the claims of the 
Roman See to primacy had hardly been formulated.* 
Examine this statement. 

S K 1 [T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Oeneral History. Period I, (284-604.) 

11. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 

attempted.'] 

I. Sketch the relations of the Goths with the Franks 
down to the death of Theodoric. 

*2. Describe the changes in the population of Soiith- 
Eastern Europe between 450 and 604. Illustrate your 
answer with a sketch-map. 

3. Give an account of the career of St. Benedict and 
show its^importance. 

*4. Draw a sketch-map of the Frankish monarchy at 
the death of the last of the sons of Clovis (561), and add 
notes showing when and how each part was acquired. 

5. What do we know about the institutions of the 
Visigothic monarchy and the condition of its Eoman 
subjects'? 

6. Compare the Roman military system as it existed 
in the time of Belisarius with its condition in the time 
of Stilicho. 

7. What peculiarities of the fiscal system of the Empire 
do you consider to have been most injurious to its 
prosperity ? 

, *8. Draw a sketch-map of Italy at the close of this 
period, indicating carefully the division of the land 
between the Lombards and the Empire. 

9. Give some account of the state of Greek literature 
in the sixth century. 

10. Sketch the development of Byzantine architecture. 

II. Estimate the degree of culture among the clergy 
of Western Europe at the close of this period. 

12. What do we know of the relations of the Popes 
with the Emperors from the Lombard invasion of Italy 
to the death of Gregory I ? 

3K2 [T. ^. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History, Period III. (919-1273.) 

I. 

[^Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 
marked * and should avoid questions on their special 

subject.'] 

1. Sketch the history of the Magyars down to the 
issue of the Golden Bull (1222). 

2. Describe the condition of Italy and of the Papacy in 
the middle of the tenth century. 

*3. Give some account of the principal feudal states of 
France at the opening of the eleventh century. Add a 
sketch-map. 

4. Compare the contributions respectively made by 
the Cluniac and the Cistercian orders to the religious 
revivals of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

*5. ' Under the Macedonian Emperors the Eastern 
Empire formed an oasis of prosperity and good govern- 
ment between the anarchy of the Latin West and the 
anarchy of the Saracen East.' Amplify and discuss this 
statement, and draw a sketch-map of the Eastern Empire 
in the middle of the eleventh century. 

6. Narrate the career of Gerbert of Rheims. How far 
did he foreshadow the intellectual revival of the eleventh 
century 1 

7. Give some account of the heresies of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. Would you draw any distinction 
between the heresies which preceded and those which 
followed the First Crusade ? 

8. What justification is there for the view that the 
German kingdom was at its strongest in the reign of 
Henry HI? 

*9. Show the importance of the relations between the 
Popes and the County of Tuscany, to the death of the 
Countess Matilda. Add a sketch-map showing the extent 
of the Matildine lands. 

3 K 5 [Turn over. 



10. What circumstances made the Saxon Revolt 
peculiarly dangerous in eleventh-century Germany? 

11. In what ways did Hildebrand extend the control 
of the Papacy over the church ? 

*12. Describe with a sketch-map the condition of 
Western Asia at the end of the eleventh century, and 
show how it facilitated the advance of the early 
crusaders. 



[Z T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



General History, Period III. (919-1273.) 

II. 

\^At least ONE of the questions marked * shovid he 

attempted.l 

1. Describe the influence of the first three crasades on 
the fortunes of the Norman power in Sicily. 

*2. Describe the growth of the royal domain in France 
from Philip I to Louis IX. How far was its growth 
retarded by the creation of appanages for younger 
members of the Royal House? Add a sketch-map. 

*3. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map the expan- 
sion of the German people northwards and eastwards 
during the twelfth century. 

4. Contrast the position of the Papacy in the ponti- 
ficate of Pascal II with its position at the close of that 
of Alexander III. 

5. What did the Eastern Empire owe to the House of 
Comnenus ? 

6. Contrast the development of the municipal idea in 
Northern France with its developments in Italy and 
Germany. 

*7. Describe the condition of the Christian Kingdoms 
in the Spanish peninsula in the times of Alfonso X of 
Castile and James I of Aragon. What advances did they 
make during the thirteenth century '? Illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map. 

8. Trace the history of the Franciscan brotherhood 
down to the close of the Generalate of Bonaventura. 

9. How far did Venice owe her success, in contrast to 
other Italian city states, to the stability of her institu- 
tions, how far to her trade ? 

*10. What was the condition of Palestine in 1188? 
Account for the failure of the Third Crusade and illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

3 K 6 [Turn over. 



11. Give some account of the history during your 
period of any one University outside England. 

12. Discuss the causes of the failure of Frederick II 
(a) to rule Germany, (6) to utilize the strength of Germany 
for imperial purposes. 

13. Explain the following allusions in Dante's Divina 

Commedia : — 

(a) lo son colui che tenni ambo le chiavi 

Del cor di Federico. 

(b) Lo strazio e il grande scempio 
Che fece I'Arbia colorata in rosso. 

(c) E I'altra, il cui ossame ancor s'accoglie 
A Ceperan, la dove fu bugiardo 

Ciascun Pugliese, e la da Tagliacozzo 
Ove senz' arme vinse il vecchio Alardo. 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 
attempted,'] 

1. Estimate the real importance of Rudolf of Habsburg* 
in German history. 

■^2. Describe the growth of France eastwards between 
1273 and 1415. Illustrate your answer with a sketch- 
map. 

3. In what ways did the residence of the Popes at 
Avignon exercise an evil influence upon the Church ? 

4. How far were Philip VI and John personally 
responsible for the calamities which befell France in 
their reigns ? 

5. Give an account of the growth and decline of the 
Servian power in the fourteenth century. 

6. Account for the comparative insignificance of Genoa 
after the war of Chioggia. 

7. Compare the spirit and method of Dante's De 
Monarchia with those of the Defensor Pads by Marsilius. 

8. What general causes promoted the rise of the 
' Tyrants ' in Italy ? 

*9. Show by means of a sketch-map the extent of 
German ascendancy in the Baltic lands at its widest. 
What were the circumstances which rendered that ascen- 
dancy precarious, and how was it broken up ? 

10. Should the fourteenth century be considered an 
age of artistic decadence? Give reasons for your 
answer. 

3 K 7 [Turn over. 



11. Illustrate from the visits of the Emperors to Italy 
ill the foui-teenth century the weakness of imperial 
authority (a) in Italy, (b) in Germany. 

*12. Describe the extent of the knowledge of the world 
outside Europe possessed by Europeans at the beginning 
of the fifteenth century. 

13. What were the distinctive peculiarities of parlia- 
mentary institutions in Castile and Arragon ? 



[T, 2\ 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY, 



General History, Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

11. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should be 

attempted,] 

1. Explain the attitude of the following to the Conciliar 
movement: — Jean Gerson, Cardinal Cesarini, Aeneas 
Sylvius. 

*2. Describe, with a sketch-map, the political situation 
in the Balkan Peninsula at the beginning of the fifteenth 
centur}^, and trace the subsequent advance of the Ottomans 
down to 1460. 

3. Illustrate the political and military importance of 
Paris in the fifteenth century. 

4. Discuss the significance of the reign of Charles VII 
in the history of French institutions. 

5. Describe the circumstances of the interviews of 
Charles the Bold with Louis XI at P^ronne (1468), and 
with Frederick III at Trier (1473). How did these 
events afiect his career ? 

6. To what extent did the German towns enjoy real 
commercial or political prosperity during the fifteenth 
century ? 

7. Describe the change effected by Cosimo de' Medici 
in the foreign policy of Florence, and consider its 
wisdom. 

■^8. Compare the value of the contributions made 
respectively by Sixtus IV and by the Borgias to the 
temporal power of the Papacy. Illustrate your answer 
with a sketch-map of the States of the Church. 

9. How was it that Charles VIII so easily won and so 
easily lost the kingdom of Naples ? 

10. State shortly the results of the reigns of Ferdinand 
and Isabella on their Spanish dominions. 

3 K 8 [Turn over. 



11. 'One cannot but be struck with the resemblance 
between the histories of Hungary and of Bohemia in 
the latter half of the fifteenth century.' Discuss this 
point. 

12. Do you ascribe the failures of Maximilian's foreign 
policy more to his lack of character or to his lack of 
money ? 

13. Illustrate from any artists with whose work you 
are acquainted what seem to you the distinctive notes of 
Renaissance art. 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V. (1414-1598.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 

attempted.^ 

1. Explain the attitude of the following to the Conciliar 
movement : — Jean Gerson, Cardinal Cesarini, Aeneas 
Sylvius. 

*2. Describe, with a map, the political situation in the 
Balkan peninsula at the beginning of your period, and 
trace the subsequent advance of the Ottomans down to 
1460. 

3. Illustrate the political and military importance of 
Paris in the fifteenth century. 

4. Discuss the significance of the reign of Charles VII 
in the history of French institutions. 

5. Describe the circumstances of the interviews of 
Charles the Bold with Louis XI at Peronne (1468), and 
with Frederick III at Trier (1473). How did these 
events aflfect his career ? 

6. To what extent did the German towns enjoy real 
commercial or political prosperity during the fifteenth 
century ? 

7. Describe the change effected by Cosimo de' Medici 
in the foreign policy of Florence, and consider its 
wisdom. 

■^8. Compare the value of the contributions made 
respectively by Sixtus IV and by the Borgias to the 
temporal power of the Papacy. Illustrate your answer 
with a sketch-map of the States of the Church. 

9. How was it that Charles VIII so easily won and so 
easily lost the kingdom of Naples ? 

10. State shortly the results of the reigns of Ferdinand 
and Isabella on their Spanish dominions. 

3 K 9 [Turn over. 



11. 'One cannot but be struck with the resemblance 
between the histories of Hungary and of Bohemia in 
the latter half of the fifteenth century.' Discuss this 
point. 

12. Do you ascribe the failures of Maximilian's foreign 
policy more to his lack of character or to his lack of 
money ? 

13. Account for the insignificance of the Scandinavian 
States in the European history of this age. 

14. Illustrate from any artists with whose work you 
are acquainted what seem to you the distinctive notes of 
Renaissance art. 



[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V. (1414-1598.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attemj^t at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. In what respects was the Lutheran movement trans- 
formed during the years 1521-5? 

*2. Give an account of the campaigns of 1524 and 
1525, and of the battle of Pavia, illustrating your answer 
with a sketch-map. 

3. What is the importance of the part taken by 
Solyman the Magnificent in the afiairs of Europe ? 

4. Describe the relations of Francis I with the 
parties of religious reform in France and in Germany. 
What light do they throw on his character ? 

*5. Draw a sketch-map of the Spanish possessions in 
Italy at the death of Charles V, and discuss the influence of 
the Spanish domination upon the character and prosperity 
of the Italian people. 

6. What were the chief problems that faced Fer- 
dinand I when he became Emperor ? With what success 
did he handle them ? 

7. Examine the motives of those chiefly responsible 
for the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, and explain the 
immediate consequences of the crime. 

8. Trace the rise of the Jesuits. In which country 
was their influence most powerful ? 

9. 'It was the man far more than the measures, that 
was the inciting cause of the troubles that ended in 
revolt.' How far is this true of Philip II in his relations 
with the Netherlands ? 

3 K 10 [Turn over. 



*10. Draw a sketch-map to illustrate the war of Dutch 
independence, indicating the provinces and the following- 
places — Alkraaar, Alost, Amsterdam, Brill, Gemblours, 
Gemmingen, Ghent, Haarlem, Heiligerlee, Leyden, Mook, 
Mons, Naarden, Zierickzee. 

11. What were the measures by which Henry IV 
pacified his country at the close of the Wars of Religion ? 
Had the Huguenots any just cause for dissatisfaction ? 

12. Estimate the importance of the pontificate of 
Sixtus V. 

13. Compare the condition of Poland with that of 
Russia in the last quarter of the sixteenth century. 



[T, T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the quedions marked ^ should he 
attempted.^ 

1. Explain the system of government of the Ottoman 
Empire at the beginning of this period. 

2. What were the chief problems facing Ferdinand I 
when he became emperor? With what success did he 
handle them ? 

3. ' It was the man far more than the measures that 
was the inciting cause of the troubles that ended in revolt.' 
How far is this true of Philip II in his relations with 
the Netherlands ? 

4. Estimate the importance of the Pontificate of 
Sixtus V. 

*5. Draw a sketch-map to illustrate the war of Dutch 
independence, indicating the provinces and the following 
places, Alkmaar, Alost, Amsterdam, Brill, Gemblours, 
Ghent, Haarlem, Heiligerlee, Jemmingen, Leyden, Mock, 
Mons, Naarden, Zierikzee. 

6. Trace the causes of the failure of the League in 
France. 

7. Compare the condition of Poland with that of 
Russia in the first half of this period. 

8. Discuss the importance of the Cleves- Juliers succes- 
sion question. 

9. What causes led to the interference of (a) Denmark 
and (6) Sweden in the Thirty Years' War ? 

*10. Discuss the part played by Wallenstein in the 
Thirty Years' War and illustrate with a sketch-map any 
one of his campaigns. 

*11. Trace the history of Richelieu's interventions in 
Italy and illustrate by a sketch-map the distribution of 
political power in that country. 

12. Point out the chief developments in the art of war 
during this period. 

13. Trace the relations between Spain and Portugal 
during your period. 

3Kll [T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

II. 

[At least ONE of the questions marJced * should he 

attempted.] 

* 1. Describe the condition of the Empire after the Peace 
of Westphalia. Show on a sketch-map the territorial 
redistribution of Germany which was the result of that 
peace. 

2. To what extent was Mazarin's policy a continuation 
of that of Richelieu ? 

3. Had Sweden good reason to be satisfied with the 
position she had won in Europe by the end of the year 
1661? 

4. ' Few states or dynasties have accomplished more for 
themselves than Prussia and the Hohenzollerns ; and few 
have been more conspicuously the heirs of time and the 
beneficiaries of circumstance.' Discuss these two state- 
ments and apply them to the history of Brandenburg in 
the seventeenth century. 

5. Why did de Witt fail in his French policy ? 

6. Can it be said with truth of Colbert's industrial and 
commercial policy that he ' regarded liberty and efficiency 
as rivals, and not as partners ' ? 

7. Was Leopold justified in forming the Holy League 
against the Turks in 1684 instead of concentrating his 
attention on opposition to France ? 

8. Is it true to say that the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes was a turning point in the history of Europe ? 

9. Discuss the motives of William III and Louis XIV 
in negotiating the two Partition treaties. 

10. Contrast the failure of Charles XII with the success 
of Gustavus Adolphus in their respective attacks on 
Russia. 

11. Trace the course of the negotiations for peace 
between France and the Allies from 1706 until 1712. 

*12. Describe with the help of a sketch-map either the 
campaign of Almanza or that of Blenheim. 

13. Describe the commercial and colonial ascendancy 
of the Dutch in the middle of the seventeenth century. 

3K12 [T.T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the 
questions marked *.] 

1. Compare and contrast the economic and political 
position of the Austrian state with that of the Prussian 
state in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

*2. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map or maps 
the several shiftings of the balance of power in Italy 
between 1715 and 1748. 

3. ' Das liebe, heil'ge rom'sche Reich, 

Wie halt's nur noch zusammen ? ' (Goethe.) 
Why did that strange bundle of states, the Empire, 
hold together? 

4. Discuss the history of the several so-called * Family 
Compacts ' in the eighteenth century. Did they express 
any community of interest between the contracting 
parties ? 

*5. Estimate the importance of Bavaria as a factor in 
European politics in the eighteenth century ; illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

6. What attempts at reform were made in Spain during 
the reign of Charles III ? 

^7. By what sophistries did the three Eastern Powers 
respectively excuse themselves for their projects of par- 
tition directed against Poland and the Ottoman Empire ? 
Show by a sketch-map or maps the limits of their 
acquisitions in 1772 and 1774. 

8. Explain any three of the following terms : — ' Conseil 
d'dtat', 'eilende Reichsexecutionsarmee*, 'Romermonate', 
* Liberum Veto ', ' Acte van Consulentschap ', ' Armed 
Neutrality \ ' Assembly of Notables '. 

9. What causes led to the suppression of the Order of 
the Jesuits ? 

10. Had Catherine H any right to pose as a ' reforming 
sovereign ' 1 

3K13 [Turnover. 



11. Discuss the policy and the historical reputation 
oiany one of the following statesmen: — the Abb^ Dubois, 
the Marquis d'Argenson, the Due de Choiseul, the Comte 
de Vergennes. 

12. What do you consider to have been the true needs 
of France, as regards internal reform, in the reign of 
Louis XVI ? 

13. Examine the claim of Frederick the Great to be 
considered the first soldier of his age. 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

11. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Explain the circumstances which enabled the 
Jacobins to seize power in August, 1792. 

2. Why was the government of the Directors neither 
good nor stable ? 

3. Hoche, Moreau, Massdna — to which of these would 
you give the highest place as a general ? State your 
reasons. 

4. To what extent was Austrian foreign policy between 
1789 and 1815 guided by fixed principles? 

*5. Describe the successive political transformations of 
Italy between 1797 and 1810. Illustrate your answer 
with sketch-maps. 

6. Trace the changes in French local administration 
during the period of the Revolution and Empire. 

7. The French Revolution has been described as 
* thoroughly bourgeois and individualist in spirit '. 
Examine the justice of this criticism. 

8. Explain fully the reasons why Prussia remained at 
peace with France from 1795 to 1806. 

9. Did Napoleon succeed in turning Polish patriotism 
to the best account ? 

*10. When and why were the lands between the lower 
Rhine and Liibeck brought under direct French rule? 
Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

11. What circumstances might be considered to prove 
French military decadence after 1807 ? 

3 K 14 [Turn over. 



*12. How far was Napoleon's overthrow in the campaign 
of 1812 or in that of 1813 due to his own faults as 
a general 1 Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

13. What do you conceive to have been the guiding 
principles of Napoleon's policy with reference to religion, 
to education, and to general intellectual life in France"? 



[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VIII. (1789-1878.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

"inarked "^.J 

1. Explain the circumstances which enabled the 
Jacobins to seize power in August, 1792. 

2. Why was the government of the Directors neither 
good nor stable ? 

3. Hoche, Moreau, Mass^na — to which of these would 
you give the highest place as a general? State your 
reasons. 

4. To what extent was Austrian foreign policy between 
1789 and 1815 guided by lixed principles? 

*5. Describe the successive political transformations of 
Italy between 1797 and 1810. Illustrate your answer 
with sketch-maps. 

6. Describe the successive changes in French local 
administration during the period of the Revolution and 
Empire. 

7. The French Revolution has been described as 
' thoroughly bourgeois and individualist in spirit '. 
Examine the justice of this criticism. 

8. Explain fully the reasons why Prussia remained at 
peace with France from 1795 to 1806. 

9. Did Napoleon succeed in turning Polish patriotism 
to the best account ? 

*10. When and why were the lands between the lower 
Rhine and LiJbeck brought under direct French rule ? 
Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

1 1 . What circumstances might be considered to prove 
French military decadence after 1807 ? 

3 K 15 [Turn over. 



*12. How far was Napoleon's overthrow in the campaign 
of 1812 or in that of 1813 due to his own faults as 
a general ? Illustrate your answer with a sketch-map. 

13. What do you conceive to have been the guiding 
principles of Napoleon's policy with reference to religion, 
to education, and to general intellectual life in France '? 

[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VIII. (1789-1878.) 

II. 

[Gandidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Analyse the system of government established in 
France by the ' Charter *. What were its main defects ? 

2. What defence can be made of the action of the 
Concert of Europe during the decade following the 
Congress of Vienna ? 

3. 'The history of Russia during the nineteenth 
century has been a succession of alternations between 
liberal and Occidental, and reactionary and Oriental 
ideas.' Discuss this, and show how the domestic policy 
of the Russian government has been reflected in its 
foreign policy. 

■^4. Draw a sketch-map showing the conflict of races 
in the Balkan peninsula, and illustrate the political 
results of this conflict. 

*5. Summarize the history of the several German 
Customs unions, and estimate their influence upon the 
political development of Germany. Add a sketch-map. 

6. Estimate the share of credit belonging to Mazzini 
for the liberation of Italy. 

7. Account for the mutual alienation of France and 
England in the later years of Louis-Philippe, and 
illustrate its effects upon European politics. 

*8. Describe with a sketch-map the campaign of 1848-9 
either in Italy or in Hungary. 

9. Compare the character and aims of Bismarck and 
Cavour. 

10. Trace in outline the career of Thiers, Do you 
perceive in it any unity of aim or of principles ? 

3 K 16 [Turn over. 



11. What do you consider to have been the chief 
internal and external problems confronting United Italy 
since 1860? 

12. * During the second half of the nineteenth century 
militarism and industrialism have destroyed all the 
generous ardours which in the first part of the century 
were inspired by the sentiments of liberalism and 
nationalism.' Criticize this statement. 

13. 'It is now generally acknowledged, except by the 
teachers of history at our Universities, that the study of 
any period of history until at least three generations have 
elapsed from the events thereof, is futile if not mis- 
chievous.' Discuss this proposition. 



\T, T. 1913.1 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Hildehrancl. T. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked "^.J 

1. State what you learn from your authorities about 
any three of the following: — Swein Estrithson ; the 
Alpine passes and their guardians ; the Patarines at 
Milan ; Richard, Prince of Capua ; Manasses I, A^rch bishop 
of Rheims ; the future Pope Urban II ; William the 
Conqueror. 

2. * Of the writings on the Imperialist side the bitter 
hatred of the Church has left few remaining to us ' 
(Richter). Discuss this point and mention any of such 
writings still extant other than your set authorities. 

3. ' Inania blaterat Lampertus, harum rerum ignarus ' 
(Holder-Egger). Correct from your other authorities 
this annalist's account of the scene at Canossa. 

4. Illustrate from your authorities the turbulence 
of the Rhenish cities, and the attitude of the citizens 
towards their bishops. 

5. Discuss the proposition that Lampert was probably 
a disappointed candidate for the abbacy of Hersfeld. 

^6. Comment on not more than four of the following 
passages from Lampert, illustrating, where possible, from 
your other authorities : — 

(a) Principes Saxoniae crebris conventiculis agita- 
bant de iniuriis, quibus sub imperatore [Heinrico III] 
afFecti fuerant. 

(6) Anno Coloniensis archiepiscopus, expulsis de 
Salefelt canonicis, vitam illic instituit monasticam. 

(c) Legatos mittunt ad regem . . . postulantes ut 
expeditio, quam in Polenos instituerat, sibi remitteretur. 

{d) Adversus hoc decretum protinus vehementer 
infremuit tota factio clericorum. 

{e) Pollicens . . . postremo, ultro se iure suo cedere 
eisque gubernandi disponendique pro suo arbitratu 
tocius regni ius potestatemque facere, dummodo equo 
animo paterentur sola regii nominis regiique cultus rata 
sibi manere insignia. 

3 K 21 [Turn over. 



(/) His paulatim rebus Italorum indignatio miti- 
gari, furor deflagrare, studia dcnuo in cum incalescere 
ceperunt, ita ut frequenter in dies ad eum multitudo 
conflueret. 

7. Illustrate the statement that Bruno of Magdeburg 
is more a Saxon patriot than a Gregorian churchman. 

■^8. Comment on not more than four of the followinor 
passages from Bruno, illustrating, where possible, from 
your other authorities : — 

(a) Cumque alicui sic episcopatum dedisset, si ei 
alius plus daret vel eius magis facinora laudaret, ilium 
priorem quasi symoniacum fecit deponi, et istum 
secundum quasi sanctum in eodem loco consecrari. 

(6) Romanos etiam quamplurimos pecunia corrupit, 
et ut Hildebrandum ab apostolicae sedis honore deiicerent, 
talibus litteris oravit. 

(c) Sed .Magedaburgensis ab incolis illius patriae 
interceptus, miserabiliter occiditur ; Merseburgensis vero 
despoliatus in patriam nudus revertitur. 

(d) Deinde quoque hoc mirandum censemus, quod 
illius hominis causam cum illis hominibus discutere 
iubemur, quos utrosque legatus sanctae Romanae ecclesiae 
vestra iiissione a liminibus sanctae ecclesiae separavit. 

(e) Nam flamma latum facientes iter, venerunt non 
longe a Babenberg, ibique Suevos veteres amicos habentes 
obvios, de communi negotio regis constituendi communi 
consilio ti'actaverunt, et post multos tractatus ut Heri- 
mannum regem eligerent, unanimiter omnes consenserunt. 

■^9. Write brief notes on the following passages from 
Bernheim's * Quellen zur Geschichte des Investitur- 
streites ' : — 

(a) Eligant de ipsius ecclesiae gremio, si reperitur 
idoneus, vel si de ipsa non inveuitur, ex alia assumatur. 

(6) Nunc tu, pater, rem tecum considera, si causa 
fuit iusta aut digna, pro qua Romam vocari deberem . . . 
si suspensio, que mihi facta est, curanda aut negligenda 
est. 



Ai,.JJ f>»?f am discordiae, quam in Romana eoclesia 
din* factionibus excitasti, per omnes ecclesias Italiae 
Germamae, Galhae et Hispaniae furiali dementia sparsistL 

(d) Unde ne pigeat, karissime, ne pigeat, omnium 
nostrum scilicet et meae et coepiscoporum tuorum pet^ 
cioni satisfacere, ut in pentecosten Wormatiam venias. 



[T. r. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Hildebrand. II. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked "^.J 

1. Discuss the economic and political importance of 
the city of Goslar. 

2. Explain : — spermologus, Rex Babiloniorum, pratum 
Neronis, ' Gregorius ' (the etymology of the name), Traia- 
nium, terra inanis et vacca. 

3. ' Perfectum autem mentiendi artificem in hac re 
quoque se praebet Bonitho' (Jaff^). Illustrate from 
his text the utter untrustworthiness of Bonitho as his* 
torian. 

4. Discuss the question whether Gregory's circular 
letter of March 1, 1074, was really an incitement to 
a crusade. Collect from later letters evidence upon the 
same point. 

*5. Comment upon not more than six of the following 
passages from Jaff<^'s Monumenta Gregorlana, illustrat- 
ing, where possible, from your other authorities : — 

{a) Longa iam temporum curricula transacta sunt, 
ex quo regnum Franciae, olim famosum ac potentissi- 
mum, a statu gloriae suae coepit inflecti. 

(b) Eos autem, inter quos habito, Romanos videlicet 
Longobardos et Normannos, sicut saepe illis dico, ludeis 
et paganis quodammodo peiores esse redarguo. 

(c) Tandem per semet ipsum, nichil hostile aut 
temerarium ostentans, ad oppidum Canusii, in quo morati 
sumus, cum paucis advenit. 

(d) Si quis Normannorum vel quorumlibet hominum 
praedia monasterii sancti Benedicti Montis Cassini in- 
vaserit . . . excommunicationi subiaceat, donee resipiscat 
et ecclesiae satisfaciat. 

(e) De reliquo, quia cognovimus ecclesiam vestram 
azima sacrificare et ob hoc a Grecis dumtaxat imperitis 
quasi de heresi reprehendi, volumus: vos de temeraria 
garrulitate eorum non multum mirari, sed nee ab insti- 
tuto desistere. 

3 K 22 [Turn over. 



(/) Et inter omnia et prae omnibus nefas, quod de 
Scotis audivimus — videlicet quod plerique proprias 
uxores non solum deserunt sed etiam vendunt. 

(g) Praefatus vero Anno, nil melius cogitans, quam 
ut regnum sacerdotio uniretur, Italiam veniens, Romam 
tendit papamque convenit : cur absque iussu regis ausus 
sit Romanum accipere pontificatum. 

(h) Deo odibilis Cencius, coniuratione facta in ipsa 
nocte nativitatis Christi papam, sacramenta celebrantem, 
ab altare . . . rapuit. 

(i) Guibertus vero ut Alcimus satis agebat pro 
sacerdotio suo. 

6. * Walram's Liber de Unit ate Ecclesiae Gonservanda 
proves at least that patristic and historical learning was 
not all upon the side of the high churchmen.' Discuss 
this statement. 

■^7. Comment upon not more than four of the following 
passages from Walram, illustrating, where possible, from 
your other authorities : — 

(a) Quibus papa rescripsit talibus verbis : ' Ne 
solliciti, inquiens, sitis, quoniam culpabiliorem eum reddo 
vobis.' 

(b) Qui etiam in usum belli conduxit milites rei 
publicae, cum militantes Deo implicare se non debeant 
negotiis saecularibus iuxta disciplinam ecclesiae. 

(c) Sed his ita gestis, deinde indicta est synodus 
apud Moguntiam secunda hebdomada post pascha . . . 
ubi convenerunt cum imperatore legati ipsius sacro- 
sanctae sedis apostolicae . . . Aderat etiam omnium 
episcoporum consensus sive de Italia sive de Gallia. 

(d) Specialiter enim ipse prae ceteris Saxonibus 
odio habebat eundem locum Herosfeldiae, ideoque civi- 
tatem et sancta nostra quaerebat omnibus modis de- 
struere ; nam abbas eiusdem loci, dictus quoque et ipse 
Hartvigus, successerat illi damnato et deposito in episco- 
patum. 

(e) Nunc autem aliter Mathild ilia instituta post 
octavum annum quo defunctus est Hildebrant familiaris 
eius, defendit pronissime contra sedem apostolicam et 
contra imperatorem partem ipsius. 



■^8. Write brief notes on the following verses in Donizo's 
Vita Mathildis : — 

(a) Regis erat mater tunc Romae subdita papae. 

(b) Qui pergit Pisas videt illic monstra marina. 

(c) Qui pater in lavacro regis fuerat sacrosancto. 

(d) Qua stabat turba maligna 
Pontificum, valde metuentes banc fore pacem. 



[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Richard II. 

I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. Trace the course of the French war from the 
accession of Richard to the end of the year 1380. 

2. Compare the value of your authorities for the 
history of the rising of 1381. 

■^3. Translate and comment on not more than four of 
the following extracts from the Anominalle Chronicle : — 

(a) Pur quoy lauantdit Thomas fua deuers Londres 
al conseil le roy et les comons aleront al boys pur dubt 
que ils auoient de sa malice. 

(b) Et come fust diet ils troueronct trois barrells 
de poudre pur gonnes et cuidont ester ore or argent, et 
ietterent en le feu et cest poudre leva bien ent haut et 
mist la sale en feu et flame. 

(c) Et quant les comens auoient eye la bille ils 
dissoient que il ne fust forsque trifles et mockery. 

(d) Et par vij. del knolle le roy mesmes vient al mile 
ende et ouecque luy sa meir en vn whirlecole et les countes 
de Buckingham de Kent et de Warewicke et de Oxenforde. 

(e) Et nul euesque seroit en Engleterr forsque vn 
ne nul prelate forsque vns. 

4. Give an account of the proceedings at Oxford 
against Wyclifle and his followers to the end of the 
year 1382. 

^5. Comment on the following extracts from the His- 
toria Anglicana: — 

(a) Ubi tandem invenerunt multa spolia quae 
abduxerant . . . et praecipue campanas quas tulerant de 
ecclesia, cum plumbo etiam quod detraxerant infaustis 
manibus de eadem. 

(6) Quapropter affirmavit, si Rex juberet, se velle 
properare Londonias, et ilium contumacem Episcopum, 
invitis Londoniensibus, quos ' ribaldos ' vocabat, violenter 
ad Consilium adducturum. 

3 K 30 [Turn over. 



(c) Gode and Seynt Mungo, Seynt Romayne, and 
Seynt Andreu, scheld us this day fro Goddis grace, and 
the foule deth that Ynglessh men dyene upon. 

(d) Rex evgo, qui sapiebat ut parvulus, plus atten- 
dens delatorum falsas machinationes quam sui Cancellarii 
fideles allegationes, in furoris spiritu mittit qui Sigillum 
suum expeterent ab eodem, et sibi deferrent. 

(e) Vir plus aptus mercimoniis quam militiae, et qui 
trapezetis in pace consenuerat, non armatis in bello. 

(/) Exeas et aggrediamur eos, et cuiuslibet matris 
filios perimamus ; et per oculos Dei, hoc completo, 
peremisti omnes fideles amicos quos habes in regno. 

6. Describe with the help of your authorities the 
Crusade of the Bishop of Norwich. 

7. Trace the relations between the King and John 
of Gaunt down to the time of John's departure to Spain. 

*8. Translate and comment on not more than four of 
the following extracts from the Fasciculi Zizaniorumi : — 

(a) Si Deus est, domini temporales possunt legitime 
ac meritorie auferre bona fortuuae ab ecclesia delinquente. 

(h) Quod accidens sit sine subiecto non est fundabile ; 
et si sic, Deus annihilatur, et perit quilibet articulus 
fidei Christianae. 

(c) Quod si papa sit praescitus, et malus homo, ac 
per consequens membrum diaboli, non habet potestatem 
supra fideles Christi ab aliquo sibi datam, nisi forte 
a Caesare. 

{d) Si autem in istis erravero, volo hu mil iter, etiam 
per mortem, si oporteat, emendari : . . . et communiter 
me docuit plus Deo quam hominibus obedire. 

(e) Quod multitudo artium non necessariarum usi- 
tarum in nostro regno nutrit multum peccatum in ivasty 
curiositate, et inter dysgysyng. 

9. What comments do your authorities offer on the 
anti-papal legislation of this reign ? 

10. ' The fourteenth century is commonly regarded as 
the age of chivalry.' Show from your authorities the 
nature of this chivalry. 

[T, T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Richard II. 
II. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked ^.] 

1. Comment on not more than four of the following 
passages from the chronicle of the Continuator of 
Knigfiton : — 

(a) Domos quoque iuratorum in civitate subver- 
terunt, quas senes et quasi decrepiti, quod dictu mirura 
est, tanta agilitate ascenderunt, acsi essent ratones vel 
spiritu aliquo vecti. 

(b) Venit etiam quidam in campo de Sapcote in 
comitatu Leycestriae et tulit unam equam de quadam 
carruca, cuius possessor insequebatur eum cum vicinis 
suis et equam eripuit, raptoremque ad plenum verberavit. 

(c) ... dicens se nolle pro ipsis nee minimum gar- 
cionem de coquina sua amovere de officio suo. 

(d) Hie si vixisset dux Troiae f actus per regem 
fuisset. 

(e) Quod quisquis haeres in warda cuiuscunque do- 
mini positus cum vicesimum primum annum aetatis suae 
pervenerit statim de paternali haereditate gaudebit. 

2. Examine the charges brought against Michael de la 
Pole. Do they show that he had tried to induce the 
king to take up the position of despot ? 

3. Collect any internal evidence tending to throw 
light on the question of the authorship of tlie history 
known as that of John of Malvern. 

4. Sketch from your authorities an account of the 
proceedings of John of Gaunt from the time he left 
England till his return in the autumn of 1389. 

■^5. Comment on the following passages from the 
Annates Bicardi Secundi : — 

{a) Cuius exequiae quanto celebriores f uerunt in ex- 
pensis, ita ut omnes antecederent nostri temporis, tanto 
famosiores fuere infamiis, Regis factis, qui polluit eccle- 
siam sanguine Comitis Arundelliae, in principio officii 
funeralis. 

3K31 [Turn over. 



2 

(b) Venerunt nuncii de Alemannia, Praepositus 
Coloniensis et alii, qui, Regis levitatem et ambitionem 
cognoscentes, suggesserunt ei quod electus, vel certe eli- 
gendus, erat in Imperatorem. 

(c) Quamobrem fertur quod Rex tanquam commove- 
batur contra dictum Comitem, ut iuraret ipsum occiden- 
dum, nisi celerius Ducem perimere maturasset. 

(d) Nam caeteris dominis et communibus videban- 
tur haec quasi iocus ; ita quod palam fatebantur se nolle 
damnum inferre Duci Lancastriae quovismodo. 

6. Trace carefully the quarrel between the king and 
the City of London in 1392. Had it any constitutional 
importance ? 

■^7. Comment on the following passages from the 
chronicle of Adam of Usk : — 

(a) Unde, in pluribus regni partibuSj et praecipue 
Londonia et Bristolia, velud ludei ad montem Oreb, 
propter vitulum conflatilem, mutuo in se revertentes, 
xxiij. milium de suis miserabilem pacientes casum merito 
doluerunt. 

(b) Comes respondit : ' Ubi illi fideles plebei ? Bene 
novi te et comitivam tuam ibi, qualiter congregati estis, 
non ad fidelitatem faciendam, quia plebei fideles regni 
non sunt hie '. 

(c) Et quia rex a sortilegio habuerat quod dux 
Northfolchie tunc prevaleret, ducis Herfordie destruc- 
cionem afFectando multum gaudebat 

(d) Deus ! hec est mirabilis terra et inconstans, 
quia tot reges, tot presules, totque magnates exulavit, 
interfecit, destruxit, et depredavit, semper discencionibus 
et discordiis mutuisque invidiis continue infecta et 
laborans. 

8. Trace on a sketch-map the movements of Henry of 
Lancaster from his landing at Ravenspur to the surrender 
of Richard. 

9. Account for the temporary success of Richard's 
coup d'Mat of 1397. 

[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY, 



Revolution 0/I688. 
I. 

[Questions marked * should he attempted^ 

*1. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Burnet : — 

(a) Some clays after this Frenchman was gone, 
I told the prince what I had done. He approved of it 
heartily : but was particularly glad I had done it as of 
myself, without communicating it to him, or any way 
engaging him in it. 

(b) The duchess of Orleans's pretensions to old 
furniture was a strange rise to a war. 

(c) As soon as I landed, I made what haste I could 
to the place where the prince was ; who took me heartily 
by the hand, and asked me, if I would not now believe 
predestination. 

{d) He answered, he had like to have outlived the 
law it self, if his highness had not come over. 

(e) Thus Hamilton, by breaking his own faith, 
secured the earl of Tyrconnell to the king : and this 
gave the beginning to the war of Ireland. 

(/) He therefore resolved to go over to Holland, 
and leave the government in the queen's hands : so he 
called the marquis of Caermarthen, with the earl of 
Shrewsbury, and some few more, and told them, he had 
a convoy ready, and was resolved to leave all in the 
queen's hands. 

{g) The first great debate arose, in the house of 
lords, upon a bill that was brought in, acknowledging 
the king and queen to be their rightful and lawful 
sovereigns ; and declaring all the acts of the last 
parliament to be good and valid. 

*2. Comment shortly on jive of the following : — 

(a) To the first Amendment proposed by the lords 
to be made to the Vote of the Commons, of the 28th of 

3 K 33 [Turn over. 



Jan. instead of the word ' abdicated ', to insert the 
word ' deserted ', the commons do not agree ; because 
the word ' deserted ' doth not fully express the conclusion 
necessarily inferred from the premises, to which your 
lordships have agreed. 

(b) * I, A. B., do sincerely promise and swear, that 
I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to their 
Majesties King William and Queen Mary, so help me 
God.' 

(c) Provided always, That nothing in this Act con- 
tained shall extend or be construed to exempt any Officer 
or Soldier whatsoever from the ordinary process of Law. 

(d) The foundation of all our misfortunes is, That 
the Judges gave their Opinion for the Dispensing Power, 
and I would have them excepted in the Act of Indemnity. 

(Sir H. Capel.) 

(e) The question is plain, * Whether this law shall 
be suspended for any farther time ; which is so much for 
the safety and preservation of the kingdom. Liberty of 
persons is the question.' (Sir W. Williams.) 

(/) The engineer was called the King's Attorney, 
and bombs his Quo warantos. (Seegeant Maynard.) 

(g) The question proposed was, ' That the king be 
advised, that all matters of state be advised on in the 
Privy Council ; and that the management of them by 
a Cabal is dangerous.' (Mr. Waller.) 

*3. Comment on the following passages from the 
papers in Dairy mple : — 

(a) The Captains they were most desirous of bring- 
ing over to their party were, Ashby and Woolfred 
Cornwall, both of them zealous for the King. 

(b) It is fit you should know the condition of our 
troops here ; they are very raw, and defective of good 
officers. We shall march a thousand, and increase every 
day very much, but still we are very weak in discipline. 

(c) Cela ne laissera pas de nous embarasser, et il 
sembleroit par la, que s'ils demeuroient deriere Drogheda, 
oh ils trouveront de fourage et des vivres, ils nous 
tiendront arrest^s, sans beaucoup pouvoir avancer ; et 
d'autant plus que Mr. Shals ne nous a pas encore envoy^ 
lea chevaux, ni les chariots pour porter nos vivres. 



(d) What Lord Torrington can say for himself 
I know not, but I believe he will never be forgiven 
here ; the letters from the fleet, before and since the 
engagement, show sufficiently he was the only man 
there had no mind to fight. 

4. Compare the information supplied by Burnet with 
that contained in the Dalrymple Papers on the negotia- 
tions of William of Orange with the English malcontents. 

5. How far do your authorities satisfactorily explain 
the policy of Sunderland in the year 1688 1 

6. ' The sitting of the Convention was now very near. 
And all men were forming their schemes, and fortifying 
their party all they could. . . . Three parties were formed 
about the town ' (Burnet). Describe these parties and 
illustrate their arguments from the debates in the 
Convention. 

7. Sketch the history of the ' Comprehension ' scheme. 
What was Burnet's attitude to the Bill ? 

8. Construct from your authorities a narrative of 
the war in Ireland down to the landing of William. 

9. Do you agree with Bolingbroke that Burnet's 
Memoirs are a party pamphlet? 

[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Revolution of 16SS. 

II. 

[Questions marked * should he attempted.'] 

1 . Illustrate from Mary's correspondence the difficulties 
surrounding her during William's absence in Ireland. 
How far did her conduct of affairs at this time justify 
Burnet's praise of her ' great capacity ' ? 

2. Trace the history either of the naval or of the land 
war in 1692. To what criticisms did the operations in 
question give rise, and how far were these criticisms 
reasonable ? 

3. Set out the arguments that were urged for and 
against either (a) the Treason Bills or^ (b) the Triennial 
Bills. 

4. Analyse the political situation in Scotland in 1689, 
and consider in what respects the state of that country 
changed for the better or for the worse during the reign 
of William and Mary. 

5. Give an account of the various schemes for 
borrowing money wherewith to carry on the war. 

6. What is the importance of the part taken by Savoy 
in the war? 

■^7. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Burnet : — 

(a) As low as we now are, change but kings with 
us, and we will fight it over again with you. 

(b) So the bill passed in the house of commons : 
but it was rejected by the lords ; since it seemed to 
establish an opposition between the crown and the 
people, as if those who were employed by the one could 
not be trusted by the other. 

3 K 34 [Turn over. 



(c) The fleet at Brest sailed away from thence so 
suddeDly, that they were neither completely manned 
nor victualled. 

(d) This was objected to Trevor as corruption, and 
a breach of trust ; and upon it he was expelled the 
house ; and Mr. Paul Foley was chosen speaker in his 
room. 

(e) And in the end, when all the errors, with 
relation to the protection of our trade, were set out, 
and much aggravated, a motion was made to create, 
by act of parliament, a council of trade. 

*8. Comment on three of the following passages from 
Bonnet: — 

(a) Le sujet de la disgrace du Comte de Malborough 
roule a peu pr^s sur les 3 raisons qu'on en manda 
r ordinaire passe, mais avec des circonstances qui rendent 
son action bien plus odieuse. 

(b) Et tons les amis de I'Eveque, I'utilit^ du but 
qu'il se proposoit, et I'innocence de sa proposition en elle 
meme, ne purent empecher que son livre ne fut condamn^ 
a tenir compagnie a I'autre, et a estre aussi bruld demain 
par le bourreau. 

(c) Le Comte de Shrewsbury ne leur a pas fait 
plaisir en refusant, comme il a fait, la Charge de 
Secretaire d'Estat ; ce qu'on attribue en partie a ce 
qu'il aime I'aise, et en partie a ce que les causes qui la 
luy firent quitter, assavoir quelques personnes qui sent 
encore dans le Ministere, subsistent encore. 

(d) Dans le Conseil qui se tint hier, on agita une 
affaire de grande consequence, savoir si, la Reine venant 
a mourir, le Parlement seroit dissout de luy meme, comme 
quelques-uns le repandoient malicieusement. 

(e) Hier les Communes dress^rent le Tarif de ce que 
chaqu'un payera en venant au monde, en en sortant, et 
en se mariant. 

*9. Comment on three of the following : — 

(a) And that, in this point of Luxemburgh especially, 
his majesty, as head of this State, ought to be considered 
as most concerned, and, consequently, the most proper 
judge of the reasons for, or against, the equivalent in 
question. (COXE.) 



(h) If I could lay hold of any occasion, I should 
certainly deliver my opinion in the sense you wish, but 
having never had anything communicated to one (except 
M. de Bouffler's article, which my lord Portland sent to 
me) I know not how to be so impertinent to thrust 
myself into a business of so secret a nature. (CoxE.) 

(c) Sa Majeste s' engage et promet pour elle et 
pour ses successeurs Roys de France, de ne troubler ny 
inqui^ter en quelque fa^on que ce soit le Roy de la 
Grande Bretagne dans la possession de ses Royaumes, 
pays, Etats, terres ou Gouvernemens dont Sa ditte Maj. 
Britanique jouit pr^sentement, donnant pour cet ^fet sa 
parole Royalle de n'assister directement ou indirecte- 
ment aucun des ennemis dud. Roy de la Grande Bretagne. 

(Vast.) 

(d) . . . Reljgione tamen Catholica Romana in locis 
sic restitutis in statu quo nunc est, remanente. (Vast.) 



[T. 1\ 1913.] 



I 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOKY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 

I. 

\_Ganclidate8 are exjyeded to attempt the quedions 

marked *.] 

1. Illustrate the influence of British party strife upon 
the career and work of Warren Hastings in India. 

2. Draw a sketch-map of the Ganges valley, showing 
carefully the limits of the principal Gauge tic powers, to 
illustrate the period of Warren Hastings. 

3. Analyse the organization of the Mahratta power, 
and the relations between its principal members, about 
the year 1775. Add a sketch-map. 

4. Summarize the work of Warren Hastings in the re- 
organization of the judicial system of Benga], What 
changes were made by Cornwallis 1 

5. Draw a sketch-map showing the extent of the 
dominions of Mysore at the death of Hyder Ali, and the 
territorial changes brought about by Cornwallis. 

6. Summarize the main features of the military reforms 
of Cornwallis. 

*7. Comment on the following passages from the corre- 
spondence and despatches of Warren Hastings : — 

(a) I have hopes of being able to effect another 
reformation, which will also contribute much to the 
freedom of trade, by recalling all the gomastahs, and pro- 
viding the investment by Dadney contracts. {Hastings 
to Dupre, March 1773.) 

(6) I now retract the resolution communicated to you 
separately in my letter of 27 March. Whatever advices 
the first packet may bring, I am now resolved to see the 
issue of my appeal. (Hastings to Graham and Macleane, 
May 1775.) 

3 K 35 [Turn over. 



(c) The restoration of Rajah Rajebullub to the office 
of Royroyan, and the prolongation of this year's settle- 
ment to such of the zemindars as were punctual in the 
discharge of their engagements in the next, were two of 
the conditions of our proposed accommodation. {Hastings 
to Sulivan, Dec. 1777.) 

(d) On the 10th of October I moved that Mr. White- 
hill should be suspended for persisting in keeping posses- 
sion of the circar of Guntoor after we had given our faith 
to Nizam Ally Cawn, and had ordered the Select Com- 
mittee of Fort St. George to surrender it, {Hastings to 
Sulivan, Oct. 1780.) 

(e) If he should renew the offer to you, you will 
inform him that my objection remains the same, and is 
insuperable, but that if he will be pleased to transfer it 
to the Company for the relief of their present and known 
distresses, I will accept it in their behalf with a thank- 
fulness equal to that which I should have felt and ex- 
pressed for the gift had it been made to myself. {Hastings 
to Palmer, May 1782.) 

(/) To have kept him in the full exercise of powers 
he had notoriously abused . . . was totally inconsistent 
with the maxims of justice and prudence. To divest 
him entirely of the Zemeedary, though justifiable on the 
grounds stated above, would have been attended with 
an appearance of severity. {Narrative of Insurrection of 
Panaris.) 

{g) It appears plain, therefore, from what I have 
said, that if the Company were to open their cash for 
bills in Europe, one of these consequences would ensue : 
either their provinces would be enriched by the bullion 
and specie imported by foreigners, or the foreigners must 
desist from the trade, and leave to the Company not only 
a national but a universal monopoly. {State of Bengal.) 

*8. Comment on the following passages from the 
Cornwallis papers : — 

(a) From the confused state of the Upper Provinces 
it would be highly unadvisable in us to attempt the 
defence of the Vizier's extensive frontier without a 



respectable force. The principle being admitted to retain 
two brigades, there was no difficulty in arranging the 
extent of the subsidy. (Cormvallis to Secret Committee^ 
Aug. 1787.) 

(b) We have now to require that you will assign 
your reasons for withholding the information from the 
Resident at Travancore, and from the Rajah himself, that 
we should assist in maintaining and defending the forts 
of Cranganore and Jacottah. (Gov.- Gen. in Council to 
Gov. and Council of Fort St. George^ Feb. 1789.) 

(c) It is almost beyond a doubt with me that no 
solid advantages would be derived from placing the civil 
and revenue departments under the immediate direction 
of the King's Government. (Cormvallis to Dundas, April 
1790.) 

{d) The garrison of this redoubt conducted them- 
selves very differently from those which we had lately 
met with, and their resistance was so obstinate that it 
was not carried without costing us several lives, and a 
very considerable delay. [Cormvallis to Oakeley, Feb. 
1792.) 

(e) It must therefore be clearly expressed in the 
treaty of guarantee that in case any difference should 
arise between one of the latter [the Allies] and Tippoo, 
the other allies . . . shall not be considered as bound to 
take up arms in his favour until they are convinced that 

»he has justice on his side. {Cormvallis to Malet, Aug. 
1792.) 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 

II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
■" WAtrked *.] 

1. When, and in what forms, did the problem of the 
north-west frontier first present itself to British states- 
men in India ? How was it dealt with during your 
period ? 

2. In what ways were the provisions of the India Act 
(1784) modified or supplemented by subsequent enact- 
ments during your period? 

3. Draw a map showing the re-arrangements of territory 
brought about by Lord Wellesley in Northern India. 

4. What information does the ' Fifth Report of the 
Select Committee ' contain regarding the administration 
of the provinces brought under British rule by Lord 
Wellesley ? 

5. Write an account either of the campaign of Seringa- 
patam or of the campaign of Assaye, illustrating your 
answer with a sketch-map. 

6. What reasons justified the annexation of the Car- 
natic ? 

*7. Write brief comments on Jive of the following 
passages : — 

(a) The cession of the principalities of Malabar, 
adjacent to no English possession but the commercial 
establishment of Tellicherry, was so far from being ques- 
tioned as a departure from the preliminary treaty, that 
the Sultaun and his vakeels openly congratulated them- 
selves on that selection. . . . Coorg was a continuation of 
the same territory. (WiLKS.) 

(6) In a conference with the agent of the Nizam at 
Poonah, that chief [Mahdajee Sindia] did not hesitate to 
state, in the most public manner, his dislike to the 
guarantee treaty, and to advise the Nizam not to enter 
into any such engagement with the British government. 

(Malcolm.) 

3 K 36 [Turn over. 



(c) That as the union of the three allies was the 
basis of the treaty, the continuance of that union or 
friendship is essential to the performance of the obliga- 
tions imposed by it, and a war between two of the 
parties totally changes the relative situation of all. 

(Shores Minute of Feb. 1795.) 

(d) The Nizam, when encamped at Beder, had shown 
great anxiety that the two battalions, which he subsi- 
dized from the English government, should join his 
camp ; but a compliance with this wish was evaded, as 
it was thought their junction would give offence to the 
Mahrattas. (Malcolm.) 

(e) That Vizier Ally is undoubtedly the son of a Fur- 
raush ; has no title to the Musnud ; and from his character 
is unworthy of it. (Shore's Minute, 1798.) 

(/) We are sufficiently apprised of the disposition of 
the Rohillas to be assured that they would seize the first 
favourable opportunity for rebellion ; and that they would 
have considered the arrival of Zemaun Shah at Delhi as 
furnishing it. (Shore's Minute, July 1797.) 

■^8. Comment briefly on seven of the following passages 
from the Wellesley and Wellington Dispatches: — 

(a) The China trade and that to the Eastward, are 
those upon which the Company and the nation princi- 
pally depend ; the Company for carrying home the revenue, 
and the nation for that large sum in Customs which is 
annually paid by the Company. 

(A. Wellesleijs Memorandum on Piilo Penang, 1797.) 

(h) The paper No. 2 is a note of the demands which 
Tippoo Sultaun's ambassadors were authorized by him to 
make upon the Executive Directory at Paris. They cor- 
respond in substance with the requisitions announced in 
M. Malartic*s proclamation. 

(Marquess Wellesley to Secret Committee, May 1799.) 

(c) The quarrel of the Rajah of Kolapoor and Appah 
Saheb, and their weakness, have brought forward Dhoon- 
diah, and we must get the better of him and of such as 
he is, by reconciling these two chiefs and by establishing 
one strong government on this frontier. 

(A. Wellesley to Palmer, July 1800.) 



{d) These treaties have been concluded by Captain 
Malcolm between the British government of India and 
the Court of Persia. 

{Marquess Wellesley to Secret Gommittee, Sept. 1801.) 

(e) I am perfectly awai-e of the strange and improper 
conduct of some in Malabar, and of the dangerous steps 
taken by them against Major Macleod and his system. 

(A. Wellesley to Montresor, Dec. 1802.) 

(/) I was the person who first suggested the position 
at Moodgul to General Stuart ; every day's experience 
shows the benefit which we have derived from occupy- 
ing it. {A. Wellesley to Wehhe, Dec. 1803.) 

(g) The states of Hyderabad and Poonah being the 
only states which could be considered as allies of the 
British Government in the late war, it became necessary 
to determine whether either or both of these states pos- 
sessed a right to participate in our conquests. 

(Marquess Wellesley to Secret Committee, June 1804.) 

(h) The Governor-General has deemed it equally un- 
necessary and inexpedient to combine with the intended 
provision for his Majesty and his household, the con- 
sideration of any question connected with the future 
exercise of the imperial prerogative and authority. 

(Governor-General in Council to Secret Committee. 

June 1805.) 

(i) As soon as I understood that Colonel Monson 
had formed the resolution of advancing bej^ond the 
position I had assigned to him, I expressed in the 
strongest terms my disapprobation of such a measure, 
and my apprehension of the mischiefs that might follow. 
(Lake to Marquess Wellesley^ July 1805.) 



[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self -Government, 

I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt questions marked ^.] 

■'*"1. Annotate ^y6 of the following passages : — 

(a) Until such Assemblies can be called ... all 
persons inhabiting in oi* resorting to our said colonies may 
confide in our royal protection for the enjoyment of the 
benefit of the laws of our realm of England. (Houston.) 

(h) As Lieutenant-Colonel Irving has signified to 
you that the part of my conduct you think worthy your 
reprehension happened by accident, let him explain to 
you his reasons for so doing, he had no authority 
from me. (Shortt & Doughty.) 

(c) The plan for the regulation of the interior 
country proved abortive, and in consequence thereof an 
immense tract of very valuable land, within which there 
are many possessions and actual colonies existing under 
the faith of the Treaty of Paris, has become the theatre 
of disorder and confusion. (lb.) 

{d) No dispute ever was started before upon the 
King's legislative right over a conquest. (Houston.) 

(e) I think there ought to be no temptation held 
out to the subjects of England to quit their native soil, 
to increase colonies at the expense of this country. 

(Shortt & Doughty.) 

(/) Let the captains of militia in presence of the 
curate and four of the most notable in the parish take 
the voices of the people for House or no House. (lb.) 

{g) Be it also enacted . . . that there shall be . . . 
a Legislative Council and a General Assembly for all his 
Majesty's dominions ... in the parts of America to the 
southward of Hudson's Bay and in those seas to the 
northward of the Bermuda or Somers Islands. 

(Egerton & Grant.) 

ill) Popular Assemblies are hardly ever wrong in 
the beginning, and hardly ever right at the conclusion, 
of such struggles. (Hansard.) 

3 K 38 [Turn over 



2. How were the following subjects dealt with by the 
British : — 

Seignorial dues : Tithes : the Jesuits : the endow- 
ment of Protestantism 'I 

3. Discuss Chatham's view of the Quebec Act. 

4. What constitutional problems were created by the 
advent of the American Loyalists to Canada "? 

5. 'It may be said in brief that the war of 1812 did 
not affect the continuity of history in the Lower Province, 
whereas in the Upper Province it made a complete break 
and supplied a new starting-point.' (Sir C. Lucas.) 

Discuss this. 

6. What interests in Upper and in Lower Canada were 
in favour of Union in 1822. and what were opposed 
to it? 

7. Give an account of the events leading to the rebel- 
lion in Lower Canada from the appointment of Lord 
Aylmer as Governor. 

8. Compare the elements of discontent existing in 
Upper and Lower Canada in 1837. How far did they 
extend to the Maritime Provinces ? 

*9. Write notes on five of the following extracts from 
Lord Durham's Report : — 

(a) That a race which felt itself thus superior in 
political activity and intelligence should submit with 
patience to the rule of a majority which it could not 
respect, was impossible. 

(6) The error ... to which the present contest must 
be attributed is the vain endeavour to preserve a French- 
Canadian nationality in the midst of Anglo-American 
colonies and states. 

(c) The Assembly . . . was left to get on as it best 
might with a set of public functionaries whose paramount 
feeling may not unfairly be said to have been one of 
hostility to itself. 

(d) Theoretically irresponsible to the Colonial Legis- 
lature, the Governor was in effect the only oflBcer in the 
colony who was at all responsible. 



(e) The utter want of municipal institutions . . . may 
indeed be considered as one of the main causes of the 
failure of representative government and of the bad 
administration of the country. 

(/) I find in union the only means of remedying at 
once and completely the two prominent causes of their 
present unsatisfactory condition. 

(g) ... I rely on the adoption of a judicious system 
of colonization as an effectual barrier against the re- 
currence of many of the existing evils. 



[T. 1\ 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self- Government, 

n. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt questions marked *.] 

*1. Write notes on Jive of the following quotations : — 

{a) Then the Assembly is such a House ! Split into 
half a dozen different parties. The Government having 
none — and no one man to depend on ! 

(Egerton (fe Grant.) 

(6) That . . . advisers of the representative of the 
sovereign . . . ought always to be men possessed of the 
public confidence. (Houston.) 

(c) That it is the resolve of England to invest us 
with the attributes and compel us to assume the burdens 
of independence, is no longer problematical. 

(Egerton & Grant.) 

(d) If you say that your great lubberly boy is too 
big for the nursery, and that you have no other room for 
him in your house, how can you decline to allow him to 
lodge with his elder brethren over the way, when the 
attempt to keep up an establishment for himself would 
seriously embarrass him 1 (lb.) 

(e) It shall be lawful for the Legislature of Canada 
... to alter the manner of composing the Legislative 
Council . . . (Houston.) 

(/) In the imposition of taxation . . . the Adminis- 
tration . . . cannot admit responsibility or require ap- 
proval beyond that of the local Legislature. 

(Egerton & Grant.) 

(g) On the completion of . . . each . . . decennial 
census, the representation of the four provinces. shall be 
re-adjusted . . . (Houston.) 

(h) ... I am reminded of some of those towns which, 
when railways were first introduced, petitioned that they 
should be excluded from the benefits of railway legis- 
lation. (Hansard.) 

2. Compare the views expressed by Lord John Russell 
in 1837 and in 1840 in the two speeches prescribed. 
Account for any change in his views. 

3K39 [Turn over. 



3. Write a review of the Open Letters of Joseph Howe 
to Lord John Russell. 

4. Discuss the position of the chief Executive officer in 
Quebec in 1801, 1831, 1841, 1851, and 1871. 

5. What do you know of Robert Baldwin, Lord 
Metcalfe, Sir Edmund Head, and G. E. Cartier? 

6. What are the main differences between the Canadian 
constitution and that of the U.S.A. ? 

7. Trace with a sketch-map the expansion of the 
'Canada' of 1863 into the Canada of 1913. 

*8. Annotate five of the following extracts from the 
Confederation Debates : — 

(a) We have thus avoided that great source of 
weakness which has been the cause of the disruption of 
the United States. 

(6) The desire was to render the Upper House 
a thoroughly independent body. 

(c) The leaders of our people in these days saw that 
it was not their interest to cast in their lot with the 
democratic element — they knew the hollowness of demo- 
cracy. 

{d) Our scheme is to establish a government that 
will seek to turn the tide of European emigration into 
this northern half of the American continent . . . 

(e) There are three influences which determine any 
great change in the course of any individual or state . . . 
all three causes have concurred to warn and force us into 
a new course of conduct. 

( /) Such was the origin of this Confederation scheme. 
The Grand Trunk people are at the bottom of it. 

{g) Because I am an Englishman and hold to the 
connexion with England, I must be against this scheme. 

\T, T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



The French Bepuhlic of 1848. 
I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked ^.] 

1. What do you gather from your authorities to have 
been the chief causes of the Revolution of 1848 ? 

2. How far is the account of his political conduct 
before and during the Revolution which Thiers gave to 
Senior supported by independent evidence 1 

^3. Comment on the following passages from Louis 
Bonaparte's Idees Napoleoniennes : — 

(a) Quel est son but ? ... La Libert^ I Qui, la liberty 1 
. . . et plus on ^tudiera Thistoire de Napoleon, plus on 
se convaincra de cette v^rit^. 

(6) N'oublions pas surtout de remarquer que tout ce 
qu'entreprit Napoleon pour op^rer une fusion g^ndrale, il 
le fit sans renoncer aux principes de la Revolution. 

(c) Jamais, en effet, pouvoir a I'intdrieur ne fut moins 
militaire que celui de I'Empereur. Dans tous ses actes, 
on voit percer cette tendance a donner a I'ordre civil la 
preeminence sur I'ordre militaire. 

{d) Quoique I'Empereur ait pu disposer arbitraire- 
ment de la destinee de tant de peuples, il les fit toujours 
coop^rer eux-memes aux lois qu'il leur donnait. 

4. Draw a sketch-map of Paris indicating the public 
buildings, streets, and faubourgs of most importance 
during the insurrections of 1848. 

5. ' Je ne sais si j'ai rencontre, dans ce monde d'ambi- 
tions egoistes, au milieu duquel j'ai vecu, un esprit plus 
vide de la pensee du bien public que le sien ... Je n'ai 
jamais connu non plus d'esprit moins sincere, ni qui eiit 
un mepris plus complet pour la v^rite.' (Tocqueville.) 

Criticize this estimate of Lamartine. 
3 K 17 [Turn over. 



6. ' En France i] n'y a guk'e qu'une seule chose qu'on 
ne puisse faire : c'est un gouvernement libre, et qu'une 
seule institution qu'on ne puisse d^truire : la centralisa- 
tion.* (TOCQUEVILLE.) 
What do you gather from your authorities as to 
the effect of administrative centralization upon French 
politics ? 

*7. Explain the following passages from Ducamp, Sou- 
venirs de TAnnSe 1848 : — 

(a) Les intransigeants des deux oppositions . . . — 
le marquis de la Rochejacquelein et Ledru-Rollin — se 
r^unirent pour rendre le d^sastre irreparable et faire 
proclamer un gouvernement provisoire, qui se nomma 
lui-meme avec une d^sinvolture sans pareille. 

(b) Les ambitieux vains, naifs, ignorants et bavards, 
comme Odilon Barrot, sont la plus dangereuse engeance 
que Ton puisse voir. 

(c) Jamais, je crois, gouvernement plus singulier n'a 
infructueusement essay^ de diriger un pays. 

8. Illustrate from your authorities the divergent ten- 
dencies among the Revolutionary leaders. 

*9. Translate and comment upon the following passages 
from Lamartine's Histoire de la Revolution de 1848 : — 

(a) L'H6tel de Ville, quartier g^n^ral de la revolution, 
palais du peuple, mont Aventin des seditions, dtait occup^ 
par les innombrables colonnes du peuple des quartiers 
environnants et des faubourgs armds. 

(6) L'alliance russe, c'est le cri de la nature, c'est la 
revelation des geographies, c'est l'alliance de guerre pour 
les eventualites de I'avenir de deux grandes races, c'est 
requilibre de paix par deux grands poids aux extr^mites 
du continent. 

(c) Coramandes, diriges, contenus par des chefs qui 
avaient la pensee secrete de la partie anti-socialiste du 
gouvernement, ces ateliers contre-balancerent, jusqu'^ 
I'arrivee de TAssembl^e nationale, les ouvriers sectaires 
du Luxembourg et les ouvriers seditieux des clubs. 



(d) M. de Lamennais, autrefois ap6fcre du catho- 
licisme, avait chang^ sa foi et son r61e contre le r61e 
d'ap6tre des proletaires. 

(e) Les uns . . . voulaient que TAssembl^e nomm^t 
un seul dictateur temporaire, premier ministre en meme 
temps, qui nommerait les autres ministres et qui gou- 
vernerait pour elle. 

Le plus petit nombre voulait que FAssemblee nom- 
mat elle-meme au scrutin un conseil ou une commission 
executive du gouvernemenfc, pouvoir intermddiaire et fixe 
entre I'Assemblde et radministration. 



[T. T. 1913.] 



I 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The French Eepuhlic o/1848. 

II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked "^.j 

■^1. Translate and comment upon the following passages 
from Odilon Barrot's MSmoires : — 

(a) Un des principaux traits du caract^re de ce 
personnage prddestin^ qui devait reconstituer I'empire, 
est de savoir c^der : c'est ce qui le distingue essentielle- 
ment du premier Napoleon, et c'est ce qui fait surtout 
sa force. 

(6) Pour la premiere fois depuis 1789, des ev^ques, 
des pr^tres, des moines meme reparurent en assez grand 
nombre sur les sieges de la representation nationale ; il 
y eut des departements, particulierement dans I'Ouest, 
01^ la liste dress^e par T^veque passa tout enti^re. 

(c) Nous avons fait en cela quelque chose d'inoui ; 
nous avons tout k la fois ddclar^ le chef de I'Etat 
responsable et plac^ a cot^ de lui un conseil de ministres 
^galement responsables, sans lequel il ne peut rien faire 
d'important. 

(d) Le pouvoir ayant chang^ de mains, le parti 
r^publicain, meme dans ses nuances les plus mod^r^es, 
commen^ait k craindre serieusement pour I'existence de 
la R^publique. 

2. What solution of the labour question did Louis 
Blanc propound in his Organisation du Travail 

"^3. Comment upon the following passages from the 
Rapport de la Gom^mission de VEnquete sur U Insurrec- 
tion : — 

(a) C'est ainsi que, du sein des ateliers nationaux, 
oil les d^l^gu^s du Luxembourg avaient port^ le poison 
de leurs theories . . . c'est ainsi que Ton voit presque 
instantan^ment naitre et grandir Pinsurrection de juin. 

3 K 18 [Turn over 



(h) C'estmoiseulquisurla'demandeformellejpressante 
et sou vent r^itdr^e d'un grand nonibre de ddl^gu^s de Paris 
et des ddpartements . . . ai convoqu^ les clubs et les 
corporations ouvri^res en vue d'une manifestation solen- 
nelle de la Pologne. 

(c) C'est ainsi que des mesures mal combin^es, une 
surveillance trop faible, un contr61e illusoire, permirent 
k la fraude de d^vorer en quelques mois des sommes 
^normes, plus d'un million peut-etre. 

4. Analyse the state of parties in the Constituent 
Assembly and in the Legislative Assembly, and account 
for the change in their respective strengths. 

5. State concisely the causes and results of the French 
intervention in Rome. 

■^6. Comment on the following passages from Thomas, 
Histoire des Ateliers Nationaux : — 

(a) Le rapport du comity d'enqu^te, avec une 
l^g^ret^ inconcevable, accuse les ateliers nationaux 
d'avoir composS la manifestation du 17 mars. 

(b) Votre id^e a eu plus de succes que vous ne le 
pensez, car on a organist d'apres votre syst^me la legion 
destin^e k soulever la Belgique. 

(c) Cependant les d^l^gu^s du Luxembourg pour- 
suivaient leur ceuvre et persistaient dans la pens^e 
coupable d'embrigader le vote et de forcer les Elections. 

7. Show in what ways Louis Napoleon used his 
position as President to undermine the Republic. 

■^8. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) La reunion de la rue de Poitiers admettait cote 
k cote, sans difficult^, sans recrimination, des l^gitimistes, 
des orl^anistes, des r^publicains. (Falloux.) 

(6) Cette situation nne fois stabile, M. Thiers devint 
le promoteur le plus ardent de la prdsidence du prince 
Louis Bonaparte. (I'alloux.) 

(c) II etait impossible de se mdprendre sur le facheux 
efFet de la circulaire de Wiesbaden et ses rddacteurs 
eux-m^mes ne s'y tromperent point. (Falloux.) 



(d) Les droits de la liberty et de Tdgalitd civile sont 
conquis ; mais, apr^s cette grande oeuvre, la conquete de 
la liberty politique est restde incomplete et pr^caire. 

(GuizoT.) 

(e) Nous ne ferons que de la resistance au petit 
pied et sur le second plan, me dit le due de Nemours • 
mais, sur ce terrain, nous comptons retrouver votre 
^PP"^- (GUIZOT.) 



[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy and Economic History, 

[Candidates must ansiver questions from both parts of 

the paper.'] 

A. 

1. Explain and illustrate the meaning of the terro 
* economic law '. Do you agree with Mill's view that 
such laws ' are as much a subject for scientific enquiry 
as any of the physical laws of nature ' ? 

2. What various causes can produce a general rise in 
the cost of living ? To which of them do you specially 
attribute the recent rise ? 

3. Discuss, with reference to Mill's theories, the 
question whether the progress of mechanical invention 
has been, or is likely to be, beneficial to labour. 

4. Elaborate and discuss any ttvo of the following 
statements : — 

(a) The wages of labour [in different occupations] 
vary with the ease or hardship, the honourableness or 
dishonourableness, of the employment. (Adam Smith.) 

(b) The rate of profit on capital in all employments 
tends to an equality. (Mill.) 

(c) The rate of interest bears no necessary relation 
to the quantity or value of the money in circulation. 

(Mill.) 

(d) Rent of land is never a part of the cost of 
production. (Mill.) 

(e) I cannot attach any importance, in a wealthy 
country, to the objection made against taxes on legacies 
and inheritances, that they are taxes on capital. (Mill.) 

5. What were the objects of the Bank Charter Act of 
1844, and what is its value at the present day 1 

6. Discuss the probable economic effects and the 
incidence of — 

(a) A duty of 2s. a ton on the export of coal. 
(&) A duty of 28. a quarter on the import of corn. 
3K37 [Turnover. 



7. Develop the arguments for and against one of the 
following : — 

(a) Profit sharing in industry. 

(h) The Metayer system. 

(c) The enforcement of a Minimum Wage. 



B. 

8. Was the economic and industrial legislation of 
Elizabeth altogether superior to that of Edward III ? 

9. ' To understand the underlying causes determining 
the great events of political history, we must turn our 
attention to strictly economic or financial considerations.' 
Consider this statement with reference either to the 
victory of the House of York over the House of Lan- 
caster, or to that of the Parliament over Charles I. 

10. Give some account either of the rise, or of the 
decline of the yeomanry in England. 

11. How far had the great trading companies justified 
their existence before the Revolution of 1688 ? 

12. Illustrate from the history either of Ireland, or of 
the American colonies, the effect of the Mercantile 
Theory upon the treatment of dependencies. 

13. Sketch the history of the Poor Law in the period 
1660-1834. 

14. Discuss the economic effects of the development 
of the means of communication in England between 1760 
and 1830. 

15. Do you think it would be truer to say that economic 
theory has generally anticipated or lagged behind changes 
in economic practice ? 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military History and Strategy, 
I. Campaign of 1796. 

[Candidates are recommended to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. ' Malheureusement. au point cle vue historique, il ne 
faut pas accorder une confiance aveugle a I'oeuvre de 
Clausewitz ' (Colin). Do you consider this statement 
justified? 

2. What do you learn from your authorities as to the 
position and condition of the Army of Italy when 
Bonaparte took command of it ? 

3. Give some account of Bonaparte's operations against 
the Austrians between the armistice of Cherasco 
(April 28th) and the entry into Brescia (May 28th). 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

4. ' Wurmser, en effet, si bien battu qu'il ait ^t^, a 
atteint son but essentiel, delivrer Mantoue au moment 
prdcis oil le si^ge touchait a sa fin.' Do you consider 
this verdict exaggerated "? 

5. ' Whatever the relations between fortress and field 
army, the latter must make it a supreme rule never to 
allow itself to be thrown into a fortress ' (Vox dee Goltz). 
Does the story of the defence of Mantua bear out this 
contention ? 

6. On what grounds and with what justice does 
Clausewitz criticize Bonaparte's conduct of the opera- 
tions which culminated in the battle of Areola 1 

7. Was the armistice of Leoben more necessary to 
Bonaparte or to the Austrians ? 

*8. Comment upon not more than four of the follow- 
ing passages from Clausewitz : — 

{a) Nous voulons montrer par la qu'une grande 
victoire a toujours une plus grande portee qu'une s^rie 
de petits combats, alors meme que ceux-ci font subir 
a Tennemi les memes pertes. 

3 K 23 [Turn over. 



(6) Les troupes charg^es de cette expedition peuvent 
etre rappel^es d'un moment a I'autre, ce qui n'aurait pas 
lieu si elles avaient dte chargees de r^volutionner Rome. 

(c) II n'y avait pour le g^n^vol fran9ais qu'un moyen 
de parer a tout, c etait de se retrancher dans une ligne de 
circonvallation. 

(d) On pent dire que cette seconde offensive au- 
tricbienne ne pouvait pas avoir de plus mauvais r^sultats. 

(e) lis ont 4t4 plus preoccup^s d'exploiter que 
d'acqudrir. 

(/) On trouve au contraire un avantage ddcisif dans 
ce fait que I'ennemi ne pent employer que cette seule 
arme. 

■^9. Comment upon not more than four of the follow- 
ing passages from Colin : — 

(a) Aussi cette preoccupation unique domine-t-elle 
toutes les dispositions de Bonaparte jusqu a Cherasco. 

(b) Son armee est toujours rdunie et n'a qu'une 
ligne d' operations. 

(c) Aucune nouvelle n'arrivant pas d'Allemagne, 
Tarmee d'ltalie ne continuera pas sa marche sur Inns- 
bruck. 

(d) Cet ev^nement considerable, du h Texp^dition 
tentde par Hoche dans les lies Britanniques, am^liore 
sensiblement la situation de I'armee d'ltalie, et 6te toute 
valeur aux armements du Pape et des Napolitains. 

(e) Le Directoire est si d^sireux de voir signer la 
paix qu'il ne veut pas attendre la prise de Mantoue. 

(/) L' extraordinaire victoire de Rivoli vint subite- 
ment changer la face des choses. 

*10. Comment on any two of the following passages 
from Krebs et Moris' Campagnes dans les Alpes : — 

(a) Bien que judicieuse et adapt^e au terrain cette 
disposition des forces piemontaises ne suppl^ait pas a leur 
insuffisance. 

(6) Cependant, apr^s une entrevue avec le capitaine 
Nelson, il fait r^trograder une partie de ses troupes et 
part lui-meme en voiture pour Novi et Acqui. 



(c) Cette position ^tait trop forte pour etre enlev^e 
en quelques heures par une simple attaque brusqu^e. 
En consequence, a la nuit tombante, Mass^na, d'apres 
Fordre de Bonaparte, fait replier les troupes dans leurs 
bivouacs de la nuit prdc^dente. 

(d) Pour assurer le succes il reste k en d^boucher et 
a s emparer des hauteurs qui le commandent. Mais c'est 
en vain que les officiers essaient de rallier leurs soldats, 
dispersc^s dans ce long village et occup^s a piller. 



[T,T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTOEY. 



Military History and Strategy, 

II. Campaign in Bohemia^ 1866. 

[CandidjOtes are recommended to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. What do you learn from your authorities as to the 
political causes of the war of 1866 and the extent 
to which political considerations influenced military pre- 
parations ? 

2. ' Where the opponents are equal, errors committed 
in concentration will in most cases decide the retreat of 
the one and the advance of the other ' (Von der Goltz). 
Can you justify this statement from the campaign of 
1866? 

3. Describe the movements of the Second Army from 
the beginning of hostilities up to June 28, and illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

4. What principles does Foch lay down for the action 
of advanced-guards ? In what respects did the Austrians 
fail to observe them ? 

5. At what period during the battle of Koniggratz was 
the situation of the Austrians least unfavourable ? 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

6. Discuss the alternatives open to Benedek after the 
battle of Koniggratz. Which offered the best chance of 
checking the Prussian advance on Vienna ? 

7. * The Austrian defeats were due even more to bad 
tactics than to bad strategy.' Do you agree with this 
verdict ? 

*8. Comment upon not more than jive of the following 
passages from Moltke's Correspondence : — 

{a) La situation militaire et politique de la Saxe 
ofFrira beaucoup d'analogie avec celle qu'elle avait au 
d^but de la guerre de Sept Ans. 

3 K 24 [Turn over. 



(b) Durant les dernieres aundes, I'dtat des finances 
n'a pas permis a I'Autriche de vouer k son arm^e les soins 
n^cessaires. 

(c) II ne faut pas oublier que le deplacement de 
troupes qui ne sont pas au complet de guerre rend leur 
mobilisation ulterieure plus difficile. 

(d) L'offensive qui se pr^sente comme la plus 
nature!] e . . . c'est invasion de la Silesie. 

(e) Aucune disposition difFerente ne pouvait changer 
cela, ni supprimer la ndcessit^ geographique en vertu de 
laquelle TAutriche est, en Boheme, sur la ligne d'op^ration 
interieure entre la Sildsie et les Marches. 

(/) II importe avant tout, en vue des prochaines 
operations, que Ton ait connaissance de la position actuelle 
des principales forces de Tennemi, car, malgre une s^rie 
de combats heureux, le contact de I'adversaire a dte 
perdu. 

*9. Comment upon not more than/oi6r of the follow- 
ing passages from the Prussian Staff History : — 

(a) The mobilization of the army was then in fact 
war. 

(6) The infantry fought almost alone. 

(c) It was therefore deemed imperative that the 
First Army should proceed beyond the originally- 
appointed rendezvous. 

(d) The army could neither remain in this position 
. . . nor was it any longer possible to attack one of the 
hostile armies without the other appearing in the rear of 
the action. 

(e) The line Chlum-Maslowed-Racitz was a far 
more suitable position for the right wing than the line 
Chlum-Sendrasitz. 

(/) It must be left undecided, how far the full im- 
portance of this imminent danger was estimated at the 
Austrian head -quarters. 

*10. Comment upon not more than three of the follow- 
ing passages from Foch : — 

(a) Ce renseignement, qui eut 6t4 du plus haut 
intdret pour le commandant du 6® corps, ne lui est pas 
communique. 



(6) Nous reconnaitrons bient6t,d'un c6t^,des hommes 
qui savent la guerre sans I'avoir faite ; de I'autre, des 
hommes qui ne rent pas comprise meme en I'ayant 
faite. 

(c) Toutes les forces ne peuvent frapper ensemble, 
le pire consistera a les lancer goutte a goutte dans 
Taction. 

(d) Supprimer la contre-attaque. c'est revenir a la 
defensive passive qui exclut la decision et qui finit 
toujours par p^rir. 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Science. 



[Candidates are reminded that they are required to show 
a knowledge of the 'prescribed texts^ 

1. Show how the doctrines of political thinkers on 
the proper limits of State action are affected by their 
theory of the source and nature of the social bond. 

2. In what consists the continuity of a State ? 

3. Comment on the following passages from Aristotle's 
Politics : — 

(a) The virtue of the citizen must be relative to the 
constitution. 

(f)) It is not the possessions but the desires of man- 
kind which require to be equalized. 

(c) If the people are to be supreme because they are 
stronger than the few, then if one man, or more than one, 
but not a majority, is stronger than the many, they 
ought to rule and not the many. 

{d) To be always seeking after the useful does not 
become free and exalted souls. 

4. ' Political liberty is good only so far as it produces 
private liberty.' Discuss this statement ; how would 
Aristotle and Hobbes respectively have regarded it? 

5. Point out in the political theories of Hobbes the 
influence of the circumstances under which he wrote. 

6. Comment on the following passages from the 
Leviathan : — 

(a) The rights and consequences of both paternal 
and despotical dominion are the same with those of 
a sovereign by institution. 

(6) Natural are those which have been laws from all 
eternity : and are called not only natural but also moral 
laws. 

3K27 [Turnover. 



(c) For seeing the ghostly power challeDgeth the right 
to declare what is sin, it challengeth by consequence the 
right to declare what is law, sin being nothing but the 
transgression of the law. 

(d) The value of all things contracted for is measured 
by the appetite of the contractors : and therefore the just 
value is that which they be contented to give. 

7. ' In the pregnant chapters of the Leviathan we have 
the essence of Bentham's long labours both as regards law 
reform and the creation of a science of law.' Illustrate 
this. 

8. Is the idea of equality essential to the theory of 
Democracy ? 

9. Discuss the various theories as to the origin of 
property in land. 

10. Illustrate the statement that in primitive societies 
law, religion, and morality were coextensive. 

11. 'Montesquieu's principle of the separation of powers 
is more applicable to a Federal than to a Unitary state.' 
Explain and discuss this statement. 

12. * Each person is the only safe guardian of his own 
rights and interests.' When was this opinion most 
fashionable ? Has any human society ever acted consis- 
tently on it ? 



[T. T, 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy, 

Paper A. 
Currency and Banking. 

[Candidates are expected to attetnpt the question 

marked *.] 

1. Discuss the conceptions of the function of money 
suggested in the following passages : — 

{a) * By means of which measures, all commodities, 
movable and immovable, are made to accompany a man 
to all places of his resort, within and without the place 
of his ordinary residence, and the same passeth from 
man to man, within the Commonwealth, and goes round 
about, nourishing as it passeth, every part thereof; in 
so much as this concoction is, as it were, the sanguini- 
faction of the Commonwealth.' (Hobbes.) 

{b) ' Ces deux propri^t^s de servir de commune mesure 
de toutes les valeurs et d'etre un gage repr^sentatif de 
toute marchandise de pareille valeur, renferment tout 
ce qui constitue I'essence et I'utilitd de ce qu'on appelle 
monnaie.' (Turgot.) 

2. Examine critically the findings of the Bullion Com- 
mittee of 1810 on the relation of the paper currency to 
(a) the price of gold bullion, (h) the foreign exchanges. 

3. Discuss with reference to your authorities the 
nature and operation of the forces which determine 
' the value of money ' in the strict economic sense of the 
term. 

4. * This therefore is the reason why Lombard Street 
exists ; that is, why England is a very great Money 
Market and other European countries but small ones in 
comparison.' (Baqehot.) 

Expand this statement and discuss England's claim 
to be still considered the financial centre of the world. 

5. Which is the more beneficial to the country at 
large, a period of rising prices or a period of falling 
prices ? Kefer in your answer to the views on the 
subject expressed by Marshall and Fox well. 

3K28 [Turn over. 



6. Summarize the main points of controversy between 
the supporters of the Banking and Currency principles. 
Compare the views of Peel and Mill as to the provisions 
of the Bank Charter Act of 1844. 

7. Discuss briefly with reference to your authori- 
ties : — 

(a) ' A depreciating currency gives a bounty to 
those producing for export.' 

(6) ' The function of a legislator as regards currency 
is to do as little as possible.' 

8. Has practical experience strengthened or weakened 
the case for Bimetallism ? Explain Marshall's distinc- 
tion between ' true bimetallism ' and ' a hump-backed 
monometallism '. 

*9. Comment on the following extracts : — 

(a) * But it is said, if bank-notes are money, why are 
not checks money 1 ' (Walker.) 

(b) * So far, therefore, from its being at all natural 
that trade should develop constantly, steadily, and 
equably, it is plain, without going farther, from theory 
as well as from experience, that there are inevitably 
periods of rapid dilatation, and as inevitably periods of 
contraction and of stagnation.' (Bagehot.) 

(c) ' An increasing issue of paper has a tendenc}^ to 
reduce the rate of interest.' (Tooke.) 

{d) * What a beautiful simplicity of system, and 
what facility it would afford to the settlement of all 
transactions between the two parts of the same empire, to 
have a wheat standard for the one, and a potatoe standard 
for the other!' (Huskisson, 1822.) 

(e) * The authors of these index numbers did not fail 
to see the objections to their method, by which the simple 
addition of the comparative prices of articles of very 
unequal importance was made to measure changes in the 
general level of prices.' (Soetbeer.) 

(/) 'The relief to agriculture would not be solely 
a question of the rise in general prices produced by the 
introduction of bimetallism, because agriculture might 
be specially relieved by an alteration in the price of 
wheat.' * (FoxwELL.) 



(g) ' No certain or fixed proportion of its liabilities 
can in the present times be laid down as that which the 
Bank ought to keep in reserve . . . The forces of the 
enemy being variable, those of the defence cannot always 
be the same.' (Bagehot.) 

(h) ' It would thus appear that it has been found 
possible to introduce a gold standard without a gold 
circulation ; without a large stock of gold currency, and 
even without legal convertibility of an existing silver 
currency into gold.' 

{Indian Currency Committee Rejwrt.) 



[T. 1\ 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy. 

Paper B. 

Public Finance. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the question 
marked *.] 

1. What arguments may be used to justify the imposi- 
tion of special burdens upon land ? How are such 
burdens likely to affect {a) the landlord, {h) the farmer, 
(o) the labourer ? 

2. ' I do not at all agree with you in your estimate of 
Pitt's career. It is the first half of it which I select as 
his title deed to be looked upon as a Tory Minister . . . 
the latter half is pure Whiggism, close parliaments, war 
with France, national debt, and commercial restriction.' 

Is this division of Pitt's career into two well-marked 
divisions helpful in forming a just estimate of his finan- 
cial policy 1 

8. To what extent does the Report of the Committee 
on Public Income and Expenditure (1828) contain (a) an 
effective criticism of the various methods employed since 
1786 for the reduction of the debt, (6) a sound scheme 
for reduction in the future ? 

4. Translate the following passage and discuss the 
claims of Sir R. Peel to be regarded as a great financial 
reformer. 

' Seit den 1820er Jahren, . . . voU und ganz aber 
erst seit Sir Robert Peel's grossartiger handelspolitischer 
Reform in freihandlerischer Richtung, trat die Zoll- und 
Accisepolitik unter volkswirthschaftliche und rationell- 
fiscalische Gesichtspuncte im Sinne einer moglichsten 
Befreiung des Verkehrs von den Fesseln des Zoll- und 
Accisesy stems und einer Fdrderung der Volkswirthschaft, 
besonders der Industrie und des Handels, durch solche 
Befreiung und durch die danlit verbundene Erleichterung 
der Concurrenz gegen das Ausland : Vereinfachung des 
Zoll- und Accisetarifs durch Beschrankung der Zahl der 
steuerpflichtigen Artikel auf einige von wirklich bedeu- 
tendem und mdglichst von rein fiscalischem Interesse, 
ohne protectionistische Nebenwirkungen.' (Wagner.) 

3 K 29 [Turn over. 



5. *Your Committee examined Mr. John Stuarfc Mill 
(and) Mr. Charles Babbage . . . and these gentlemen have 
stated fully their particular opinions, which it will be 
found differ very materially.' 

{Draft of Report by Joseph Hume.) 

How did the opinions referred to differ ? In what 
respects, if any, were the recommendations contained in 
Hume's Draft Report in harmony with the views ex- 
pressed by Mill and Babbage ? 

6. It is frequently asserted that one of the main objects 
of taxation should be redistribution of wealth. Is such 
an idea incompatible with [a) the principles of justice 
and equality, (6) a system which combines indirect with 
direct taxation 1 

7 . What criticism has been directed against our exist- 
ing system of local rating ? Discuss with reference to 
3^our authorities the various proposals for reform. 

8. Examine in the light of your authorities the probable 
economic effects of (a) taxes on necessaries, (6) taxes on 
luxuries, (c) taxes on capital. 

■^9. Comment on the following extracts : — 

(a) *The moral difficulty of basing the financial pros- 
perity of the State on the growing consumption of what 
is useless and in many instances injurious, will be more 
and more felt in the future.' (Bastable.) 

(h) ' In the period of twenty-eight years the sum of 
a million annually improved, would amount to four 
millions per annum.' (PiTT, 1786.) 

(c) ' I think the Committee will see that Parliament 
. . . has not neglected the great duty of endeavouring, in 
a time of peace, to relieve the people as much as possible, 
from the oppressive burthens which have been unavoid- 
ably imposed during the continuance of the war.* 

(Robinson, 1826.) 

{d) *The only proper subject of municipal assess- 
ment is real estate, because it is this which derives all 
the benefit of the protection and improvements which are 
made.' (Answers of Self-governing Colonies.) 

{e) 'Now it is said that gross inequality is the 
characteristic of the tax, and that it ought not to be 



levied — that it is unjust to levy it upon precarious, and 
realized income alike. What income is precarious, and 
what is realized ? ' (Gladstone, 1853.) 

(/) ' It is difficult to understand how the intolerable 
injustice of the relations between the taxation of various 
kinds of property under the Death Duties has been so 
long endured.' (Harcourt, 1894.) 

(g) ' The productiveness of every separate tax has 
its limits, and so has that of the tax system as a whole.' 

(Bastable.) 

(h) * Nur die Bedeutung einer kleinen Erganzungs- 
steuer der directen Besteuerung hat die wiedereinge- 
fUhrte, an Stelle der aufgehobenen Fenstersteuer getre- 
tene Haussteuer.' (Wagner.) 



[T. T. 1913.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Unseen Translations. 



[Two hours are allowed for this paper. Candidates who 
offer more than one language need only attempt one 
of the French passages.'] 

Translate : — 

(a) 'Les rois,' dit-il au commencement de Vlconodaste, 
' quoique forts en legions, sent faibles en arguments, ^tant 
accoutum^s d^s le berceau k se servir de leur volontd 
comme de leur main droite, et de leur raison comme de 
leur main gauche. Quand, par un accident inattendu, ils 
sont rdduits a ce genre de combat, ils n'ofFrent qu'un 
d^bile et petit adversaire.' N^anmoins, pour I'amour de 
ceux qui se laissent accabler par ce nom ^blouissant de 
majeste, il consentit ' a ramasser le gant du roi Charles,' 
et Ten souffleta de mani^re a faire repentir les imprudents 
qui I'avaient jet^. Bien loin de fl^chir sous I'accusation 
de meurtre, il la releva et s'en para. II ^tala le regicide, 
r^tablit sur un char de triomphe, et le fit jouir de toute 
la lumiere du ciel. II raconta, avec un ton de juge, 
' comment ce roi pers^cuteur de la religion, oppresseur 
des lois, apres une longue tyrannic, avait ^te vaincu les 
armes a la main par son peuple ; puis mene en prison, et, 
comme il n'ofFrait ni par ses actions ni par ses paroles 
aucune raison pour faire mieux esp^rer de sa conduite, 
condamne par le souverain conseil du royaume a la peine 
capitale ; enfin, frappe de la hache devant les portes 
memes de son palais. . . . Jamais monarque assis sur le 
plus haut trdne fit-il briller une majesty plus grande que 
celle dont ^clata le peuple anglais, lorsque, secouant la 
superstition antique, il prit ce roi ou plutot cet ennemi, 
qui, seul de tous les mortels, revendiquait pour lui, de 
droit divin, I'impunit^ I'enla^a dans ses propres lois, 
I'accabla d'un jugement, et, le trouvant coupable, ne 
craignit point de le livrer au supplice auquel il eut livr^ 
les autres ? ' 

(b) Lui-meme il a pris, autant pour donner que pour 
garder, autant pour soutenir son role que pour en jouir, 
quitte a depenser centre la cour Targent de la cour, 
probablement avec un rire interieur et narquois, avec ce 

3 K 32 [Turn over. 



rire qu'on devine chez le paysan en blouse lorsqu'il vient 
de duper son propri^taire en redingote, avec ce rire que 
les vieux historiens decrivent chez le Franc lor.squ'il 
empochait For romain pour mieux faire la guerre a Rome. 
Sur le sauvageon plebSien, la greffe n'a pas pris ; dans 
notre jardin moderne, il est le meme que dans la vieille 
foret ; sa s^ve intacte a gardd I'apret^ primitive, et ne 
produit point les bons fruits de notre civilisation, le sens 
moral, I'honneur et la conscience. Dan ton n'a ni le 
respect de lui-meme, ni le respect d'autrui ; les delimita- 
tions precises et delicates qui circonscrivent la personne 
humaine lui semblent une convention de legistes et une 
biensdance de salon : comme un Clovis, il marche dessus, 
et, comme un Clovis, avec des facultds ^gales, avec des 
expedients pareils, avec une bande pire, il se lance k 
travers la soci^td chancel ante pour la d^molir et la 
reconstruire a son profit. Des I'origine, il a compris le 
caractere propre et le proc^d^ normal de la Revolution, 
c'est-a-dire I'emploi de la brutality populaire : en 1788, 
il figurait ddja dans les ^meutes. Des I'origine, il a 
compris I'objet final et Tefiet d^finitif de la Revolution, 
c'est-a-dire la dictature de la minorite violente : au 
lendemain du 14 juillet 1789, il a fonde dans son quartier 
une petite republique independante, agressive et domina- 
trice, centre de la faction, asile des enfants perdus, rendez- 
vous des energumenes, pandemonium de tons les cerveaux 
incendies et de tous les coquins disponibles, visionnaires 
et gens a poigne, harangue urs de gazette ou de carrefour, 
meurtriers de cabinet ou de place publique, et, dans cet 
fitat plus que jacobin, mod^e anticipe de celui qu'il 
etablira plus tard, il regne, comme il regnera plus tard, 
president perpetuel du district, chef du bataillon, orateur 
du club, machinateur des coups de main. 

(c) Sobald die Germanen sich in dem Besitz der 
eroberten Lander gesichert glaubten, begannen sie die 
Verhaltnisse derselben, die durch den langen Kriegszu- 
stand in die argste Verwirrung gerathen waren, so gut es 
ging, friedlich zu ordnen. Nur einen Theil des eroberten 
Landes nahmen sie fiir sich und liessen den anderen den 
alten Bewohnern zu eigener Bebauung. Ein gesetzlicher 
Zustand wurde hergestellt, die Rechtsverhaltnisse wieder 
geordnet. Die Romer empfingen in ihrer Sprache und 
nach ihren RechtsbegrifFen von den germanischen Siegern 



neue Gesetzbucher, und selbst den Germanen, die nun 
inmitten einer romischen Bevolkerung sassen, liessen die 
Konige ihre alten Rechtsgewohnheiten imd zwar in 
romischer Sprache verzeichnen. Ackerbau und Wohlstand 
hoben sich, sobald das Gefuhl der Sicherhoit wuchs, zumal 
die driickenden Abgaben der Kaiserherrschaft entweder 
ei'leichtert oder ganz aufgehoben wurden. Die Sitten- 
strenge, welche die Deutschen selbst in diesen wilden 
Zeiten nicht eingebusst batten, die Treue und Redlicbkeit, 
welcbe von jeher als GrundzUge ibres Cbarakters galten, 
wirkten vortbeilbaft auf alle ofFentlichen Verbaltnisse 
zuriick. Bald wurde man inne, dass diese Eroberer nicbt, 
wie einst die Romer, vernicbtend fur die selbststandige 
Entwicklung der Volker waren, dass sie fremdes Recbt 
scbonten, andere Sitte und Spracbe ebrten und ibr 
Freibeitssinn einen erdriickenden Zwang selbst gegen 
Ueberwundene nicbt aufkomrnen liess. So fiibrte das 
Eindringen der Fremdlinge in das romiscbe Reich des 
Abendlandes nicbt zu einer vollio-en Auflosunof und 
Zerstorung aller gesellscbaftlicben Ordnung, sondern 
babnte vielmebr eine Umgestaltung derselben an, aus 
welcber dereinst, so tiefgreifend und stark sie war, docb 
nocb bier eine Erneuerung des romiscben Reicbs voran- 
geben konnte. Ein neues Reis wurde auf den alten Baum 
gepfropft. 

(d) Cbe puo far peggio un giovine, cbe odiare ogni 
sorta di virtu, e abbracciare ogni sorta e ogni maniera di 
viziol E tu bai fatto diligentissimamente 1' uno e 1' altro. 
lo ti bo confortato, fatto aiutare e aiutato io stesso alle 
lettere ; e cominciai assai per tempo : e tu cominciasti 
prima a fuggirle, a odiarle, a sprezzarle ; e se' stato solo 
in questo tanto sollecito, cbe tu se' si tosto sparito dinanzi 
a cbiunque ne ba ragionato^ cbe tu non ne sai una. Orsii, 
i principj delle lettere sono amari : non e gran fatto cbe 
i giovanetti le scbifino. Io ne bo veduti molti (e ancor 
tu gii vedi) cbe ne sono stati vagbissimi : ma sia come tu 
vuoi deir amarezza delle lettere. Veggiamo la musica: 
baila tu abbandonata? II ballare, lo scbermire, il cavalcare, 
la caccia ? Queste pur sono virtu da giovani ; e potevile 
usare ; anzi v' eri invitato ognora^ e di alcune avevi i 
principj, e di tutte i mezzi e gli strumenti. Puo essere cbe 
tu abbi tanta nimista con le cose laudabili^ cbe tu fugga 
e ricusi cio cbe ba in^ se pur un poco di somigiianza di 



virtti? Hai tn mai pensato pur solamente d' esser bel 
parlatore, bello scrittore ; sapere o dell' istoria, o de' 
bisogni della guerra, de' costumi degli uomini ; o almeno 
di quest' altre cose piti basse, di medaglie, di pitture, di 
fogge? Niente. Nel tuo pensiero non e mai caduto 
desiderio di cosa simile a ben nessuno : cosi ti sei, e 
saraiti sempre, disadatto e inutile ad ogni azione e in 
ogni conversazione di gentiluomo. 



[71 T. 1913.] 



J^^^ 



No. 1700 One Shilling net 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY 
EXAMINATION PAPEES 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMINATION 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



TRINITY TERM, 1914 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 

116 HIGH STREET 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History. 

I. 

\Gandidates are recommended to attempt Question 1.] 

1. Comment on 3bny five of the following passages : — 

(a) If a ' gesithcund ' man owning land neglect the 

' fyrd ' let him pay cxx shillings and forfeit his land ; 

one not owning land, Ix shillings ; a ceorlish man xxx 

shillings, as fyrdwite. (Tne.) 

(h) And if any one depart this life intestate . . . let 
not the lord draw more from his property than the 
lawful heriot. And according to his direction, let the 
property be distributed very justly to the wife and 
children and relations. (Canute.) 

(c) Haec civitas tunc reddebat de firma xlv libras et 
iii timbres pellium martrinium. Tertia pars erat comitis 
et duae regis. 

(d) Item omnes burgenses et tota communa liberorum 
hominum habeant wambais et capellet ferri et lanceam. 

(e) Praeterea in quolibet comitatu eligantur tres 
milites et unus clericus custodes placitorum coronae. 

(/) Communia placita non sequantur curiam nostram 
sed teneantur in aliquo loco certo. 

(g) Unusquisque liber homo agistet boscum suum in 
foresta pro voluntate sua et habeat pannagium suum. 

(h) Viris autem religiosis non liceat ingredi feodum 
alicuius sine liceutia capitalis domini, de quo res ipsa 
immediate tenetur. (Provisions of Westviinster.) 

(i) Nos concessimus . . . domino regi Edwardo, pro 
nobis et haeredibusnostris, dimidiam marcam de quolibet 
sacco lanae et dimidiam marcam pro singulis trescentis 
pellibus lanutis quae faciunt unum saccum, et unam 
marcam de qualibet lesta coriorum, exeuntibus regnum 
Angliae et terram Walliae. 

(k) E ausi avoms grante pur nous e pur nos heirs as 

ercevesques, evesques, abbes, e priurs, e as autres gentz 

de seinte eglise, et as contes et barons et a tote la com- 

munaute de la terre, qo mes pur nule busoigne tieu 

4K40 [Turn over. 



2 



manore des aides, mises, ne prises, de notre roiaunie ne 
prendroms, fors qe par commun assent de tut le roiaume, 
et a commun profit de meisine le roiaume, sauve Jes 
auncienes aides et prises dues et custumees. 

2. What do you know about the Witenagemot ? 

3. ' It has become a commonplace among English 
writers that the family rather than the individual was 
the '^ unit " of ancient law.' Discuss this statement with 
reo'ard to the law of inheritance in lands both before and 
after the Norman Conquest. 

4. Give some account of the working of the Exchequer 
in the twelfth century. 

5. Explain any three of the following : — frankalmoin ; 
visus francplegii ; ancient demesne ; the King's peace ; 
writ of quo warranto ; hide. 

6. How were (a) criminal cases, (h) disputes concerning 
land decided in the reigns of Henry I and Henry III 
respectively 1 

7. What were the distinguishing marks of a borough 
before 1485? 

8. Trace the history and discuss the constitutional 
importance of the Law of Treason down to the close of 
the Middle Ages. 

9. 'If we examine the assemblies of Edward I, and 
those before Edward I, with the expectation of finding 
" the supremacy of a legislative assembly in matters of 
legislation ", we shall surely be disappointed.' Discuss 
this statement. 

10. What sphere of action was open to the King's 
Council in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ? 

11. Give some account of the privileges and immunities 
of the Clergy in matters legislative, judicial, and tinancial. 

12. Do you consider that Parliament in the fourteenth 
or the fifteenth century was representative of the interests 
of the country ? 

13. ' The breakdown of local government was the 
cause of the failure of the Lancastrian experiment.' 
Examine this statement. 



[T.T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History. 

II. 

\Gandidateii are recommetided to attempt Question 1.] 

1. Comment on any five of the following passages : — 

(a) That your Highness shall have full power by 
Letters Patent to assign such person or persons as your 
Majesty shall think meet to exercise all manner of juris- 
dictions in any wise touching any spiritual or ecclesias- 
tical jurisdiction within these your realms. 

[Act of Supremacy,'] 

(b) It will appear that your Majesty should be mis- 
informed if any man should deliver that the Kings of 
England have any absolute power in themselves either 
to alter religion, or to make laws concerning the same, 
otherwise than as in temporal causes by consent of 
parliament. [A2Jology of the Commoms^ 1604.] 

(c) And that the arduous and urgent affairs concerning 
the King, state and defence of the realm and of the church 
of England . . . are proper subjects and matter of counsel 
and debate in parliament. 

[Protestation of the Commons, 1621.] 

(d) It ma}' often fall out that the Commons may 
have just cause to take exceptions at some men for 
being councillors, and yet not charge those men with 
crimes, for there be grounds of diffidence which lie not 
in proof. There are others which, though they may be 
proved, yet are not legally criminal. 

[Grand Remonstrance.] 

(e) That such Bills shall pass into and become laws, 
although the Lord Protector shall not give his consent 
thereunto ; provided such Bills contain nothing in them 
contrary to the matters contained in these presents. 

[Instrument of Government.'] 

4 K 41 [Turn over. 



( f) That all the Subjects of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain shall from and after the Union have full 
Freedom and Intercourse of Trade and Navigation to 
and from any Port or Place within the said United 
Kingdom and the Dominions and Plantations thereunto 
belouo-ino-. \Act of Union icith Scotland,'] 

(g) That every male person of full age who shall be 
seized at law or in equity of any lands or tenements of 
copyhold ... of the clear yearly value of not less than 
ten pounds . . . shall be entitled to vote in the election of 
a Knight or Knights of the shire. [Reform Bill, 1832.] 

2. How far can the House of Commons be said to have 
represented public opinion under Henry VHI and in the 

two succeeding reigns 1 

3. Describe and account for the control which the 
Crown exercised over the administration of Justice in 
political cases in the Tudor period. 

4. Compare the administrative organization of rural 
England under Elizabeth with that which had prevailed 
in the Middle Ages. 

5. Illustrate and explain the conflict between the 
champions of the Courts of Chancery and those of the 
Common Law under the first two Stuarts. 

6. Examine the new methods of taxation adopted by 
Parliament during the Civil War and under the Common- 
wealth. 

7. What was done for or against the cause of religious 
toleration during the Commonwealth and the Pro- 
tectorate '? 

8. 'The real revolution was in 1660, for the settle- 
ment gave a new authorit}^ to Parliament which was 
only enlarged and confirmed in 1688.' Discuss this 
statement. 

9. Explain the steps by which the complete corporate 
responsibility of the Cabinet was established. 

10. Discuss the statement that the rule of the Whig 
Aristocracy, however successful in national politics, was 
fatal to the independence of the agricultural classes. 



F 



11. 'In the domain of political philosophy Burke has 
few peers.' Illustrate this statement from his writings. 

12. How far was Ireland before 1 782 under the control 
(a) of the English Council, (b) of the English Parliament ? 
Explain the changes introduced in that year and estimate 
their success. 

13. What causes have contributed to the growing 
discredit of Party Government ? 

14. What important legislation has been carried 
through Parliament since 1800 on the initiative of 
private members or owing to external pressure 1 

15. Explain and account for the chief differences 
between the constitutions of the Dominion of Canada 
and of the Union of South Africa. 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



English Political History, 
I. 

[Candidates are expected to ansiver questions fronfi 
all three sections of the paper, inclv.diiKj at least 
ONE of those inarhed ^.] 

A. 

■^1. Draw a sketch-map of the ' Heptarchic ' Kingdoms 
about 600 A. D., and point out how far their boundaries 
seem to have been determined by natural features. 

2. What poUtical consequences may be traced to the 
conversion of Northumbi'ia to Christianity ? 

3. 'All-round capacity rather than supreme ability 
in any one direction is Alfred's title to greatness.' 
Discuss this statement. 

4. Illustrate the varying character and value of the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the period 800-1066. 

5. With what justice can the reign of Edgar be 
described as ' the Golden Age of Saxon England ' ? 

6. Compare the character and importance of foreign 
influences on England, (a) in the reign of Canute, (b) in 
that of Edward the Confessor. 

7. Estimate the elements of strength and weakness in 
William's position in England at the time of his corona- 
tion, and consider how far the risings of the next G.ye 
years were really formidable. 

B. 

8. Which do you consider the most interesting of the 
Latin Chronicles of England in the period 1066-1272 ? 

Or, 

What do you know of the development of the 
Arthurian legend ? 

9. ' In his days, every right fell ; and every wrong in 
the sight of God and of the world rose up' {TJte 
Peterborough Chronicle). Was William Rufus really 
a bad king as well as a bad man 1 

4 K 19 [Turn over. 



10. How far was there, during the Norman and 
Angevin period, a career open to able men of humble 



origin 



11. What interest, other than constitutional, attaches in 
the Middle Ages to any tivo of the following : — Winchester, 
the Cinque Ports, Lincoln, St. Albans, Chester, Durham ? 

12. Discuss the reign of Henry III as the turning-point 
in the history o^the mediaeval church in England. 

13. Compare the political situation which resulted in 
the Confirmation of the Charters (1297) with that which 
gave birth to the Great Charter. 

"^14. Examine the methods by which Henry II and 
Edward I sought to govern their respective acquisitions 
in Ireland, Whales, and Scotland. Illustrate your answer 
by a sketch-ma-p of any one of these three countries. 

15. Discuss the importance of the reign of Edward I 
in the development of the English army and of English 
military tactics. 

C. 

16. Does the responsibility for the Hundred Years' 
War rest rather with Edward III or with Philip of 
Yalois ? 

17. How far can an accurate picture of the England 
of the day be drawn from the writings either of Lang- 
land or of Wycliffe ? 

18. How far did (a) Thomas Earl of Lancaster, (h) 
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, (c) Archbishop 
Scrope, deserve their fates ? 

19. Did the English Church during the fifteenth century 
recover the ground which it had lost in the previous fifty 
years ? 

^20. Distinguish the chief stages in the loss of the 
Lancastrian dominions in France, illustrating your 
answer with a sketch-map. 

21. Was the league of Scotland with France a factor 
of great consequence during the Hundred Years' War ? 

22. Account for the ease with which Henry YI was 
restored in 1470 and Edward lY in 147L 

[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



English Political History, 

II. 

[^Candidates are expected to answer questions from all 
three sections of the pa'per, including at least one of 
those marked luith an *.] 

A. 

1 . ' From a third-rate kingdom of little account in 
Europe, Wolsey raised this nation to an equality with 
the highest.' ' Wolsey played a brilliant, but essentially 
futile part on the diplomatic stage.' Discuss these two 
estimates. 

2. How far is it true that the nationalism of the 
English Church was the result rather than the cause of 
the breach with Rome ? 

■^3. Mark on a sketch-map the chief spheres of English 
military action on tlie continent during the Tudor period. 

4. Illustrate the importance of the Dudley family 
during the sixteenth century. 

5. ' The career of Stephen Gardiner is that of an essen- 
tially patriotic English statesman.' How far would you 
defend this verdict ? 

6. Show how the circumstances of the country and 
those of her personal position moulded Elizabeth's foreign 
policy down to 158 7. 

7. Is there reason to believe that the state of culture 
and civilization in England during the reign of Elizabeth 
was abreast of that of the chief continental nations ? 

8. ' To Drake a ship had become a fighting-unit, to the 
Duke of Medina-Sidonia a ship was simply a vehicle for 
soldiers.' Explain the importance of this difference, 

B. 

9. How far did the death of Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 
mark a turning-point in the reign of James I ? 

10. Trace the history of the attempts of the early 
Stuarts to introduce Episcopacy into the Scottish Church. 

11. ' Wentworth was indisputably the greatest of the 
administrators who rose up among the English before 
they gained possession of India.' Illustrate and discuss 
Ranke's estimate. 

4 K 20 [Turn over. 



*12. Describe, and illustnite with a sketch-map, any 
one campaign in the Great Civil War. 

13. ' Healing and Settling.' Was this the chief object 
of the home policy of Cromwell ? 

14. Can it be said with truth that the Act of Uniformity 
(1662) marked the abandonment of the idea of a National 
Church in favour of that of a State Church 1 

*15. Trace the development of England's colonial 
possessions prior to the Restoration ; illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map. 

16. Discuss the historical value of any one writer of 
political satire between the years 1660 and 1714. 

C. 

17. Illustrate the unpopularity on both sides of the 
Border of the Act of Union with Scotland. What cir- 
cumstances contributed to assuage the mutual antipathies 
of the two peoples 1 

18. ' The careers of Walpole and Chatham showed 
that even in that aristocratic age a man of extraordinary 
abilities — even without birth and influence — could reach 
the highest post in the State. ^ How far do you agree 
with this estimate ? 

19. Trace the rise of the native British School of 
Paintinp^. 

20. ' George III was a very clever man and a very 
bad man.' [Sir W. Harcourt.] Discuss this verdict. 

21. Estimate the effect of the War of American Inde- 
pendence upon the fortunes of Canada and upon her 
relations with England. 

*22. Illustrate with a sketch-map the importance of 
the chief military events in India from 1740 to 1763. 

23. Point out Wellington's chief difficulties in the 
Peninsular W ar, and show how they were overcome. 

24. Account for the long tenure of office by Lord 
Liverpool and estimate the merits of his administration. 

[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period II, (476-919.) 

I. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * should be 

attempted.] 

1. How far back are you disposed to trace the origin 
of praedial servitude ? 

2. What justification is there for considering the date 
of 476 an epoch in European history? 

3. Trace the history and estimate the effects of the 
Monophysite heresy. 

4. Account for the restlessness of Italy (a) under 
Ostrogothic rule, (b) after the Byzantine reconquest. 

■^5. Give some account of the struggles of the Roman 
Empire on its eastern and south-eastern frontiers, (a) 
with Persia, (b) with Islam, and illustrate your answer by 
a sketch-map or maps. 

6. Discuss the claims of Dagobert to be considered the 
most powerful of the Merovingian kings, 

*7. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map the cam- 
paigns in Italy either of Belisarius or of Narses. 

8. Compare the claims of the Papacy in the times of 
Gregory I and Stephen II- 

^9. Describe the situation, and account for the impor- 
tance of any three of the following — Aquileia, Tours, 
Pavia, Paris, the Kingdom of Armenia, the Via Egnatia, 
Soissons, Narbonne. 

10. Give some account of the origins of the Christian 
Church in Germany down to the year 768. 

11. 'Tarik's raid of 711 was merely intended to be a 
raid ; Musa's conquest of Spain was an afterthought.' 
Examine this statement, and account for the ease and 
rapidity of the conquest in the years immediately follow- 
ing the raid. 

4 K 3 [Turn over. 



12. Comment on the following passages: — 

(a) Niirsia. plaude satis tanto sublimis alunino, 

Astra ferens niundo, Nursia, plaude satis. 

(Paulus Diaconus.) 

(b) Eo tempore rex Liutprandus Ravennam obsedit, 
Classem invasit atque destruxit. (ibid.) 

(c) Inaudito Boethio [Theodericus] protulit in eum 
sententiam. (Anon. Valesii.) 

(d) Dani cum regi suo nomine Chlochilaico evecto 
navale per mare Gallias appetunt. Egressique ad terras, 
pagum unum de regno Theoderici devastant. 

(Gregory of Tours.) 

(e) Chilpericus, Nero nostri temporis et Herodis. 

(ibid.) 



[T.T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period II. (476-919.) 

II. 

[At least ONE of the questions marked * shoiUd be 

atte'inpted,] 

1. Illustrate from the history of the eighth century the 
influence of Asia upon Byzantine politics and civiliza- 
tion. 

2. 'At the head of his veteran and superior armies, Charle- 
magne oppressed savage or degenerate nations.' (Gibbon.) 
Is this a fair estimate of Charlemagne's military achieve- 
ments ? 

3. What institutions of the Carolingian Empire can be 
traced back to Merovingian times ? 

4. Trace the relations between ' Francia ' and 
' Aquitania ' from the time of Charles Martel to that of 
Charles the Bald. What conclusions can be drawn from 
the history of these relations 1 

5. Sketch the early history of Venice. 

6. How were the relations between the Frankish 
monarchy and the Church modified during the reign of 
Louis the Pious ? 

7. Show by a survey of the literature of the ninth 
century _, the character and importance of the Carolingian 
Renaissance. 

8. Give some account of the Saracen attacks on Italy, 
and discuss their results. 

9. Can it be shown that the flow and ebb of the attacks 
of the Vikings on Western Christendom were determined 
by events in Scandinavia ? 

10. Estimate the character and life-work of Lewis the 
German. 

4 K 4 [Turn over. 



11. 'John VIII did all he could to strengthen the 
Empire.' ' Ambiguous, intriguing, sophistic, unscrupulous, 
John VIII was totally absorbed in aims of temporal 
dominion.' Discuss these two verdicts. 

*12. Draw a map showing the extent of territory north 
of the Alps allotted to Lothair in 843, and describe the 
condition of the same territory at the close of your period. 

*13. How far had the Slavonic peoples come within the 
pale of Christendom by the end of the ninth century ? 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map showing their 
distribution in Europe. 

14. Comment on the following : — 

(a) Avares autem, ut quidam putant, reliquia erant 
Hunorum. Huni egressi sunt de Gothis. (Widukind.) 

(b) Opidum vocabulo Fraxinetum, quod in Itali- 
corum Provintialiumque confinio stare manifest um est. 

(LiUTPRAND.) 

(c) Planities haec nonnullis plena colonobus, uno, 
ut cernitis, ex latere montibus asperrimis atque fertilibus, 
altero mari cingitur Adriatico ; opida vero cum nonnulla, 
turn munitissima. (Liutpkand.) 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period III. (919-1273.) 

I. 

[Candidates ahould attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

*1. What geographical meanings are attached during 
your period (a) to ' Burgundy ', (b) to ' Lorraine ' ? Illus- 
trate your answer by sketch-maps. 

2. 'The Northmen in the Dark Ages had already 
discovered the imaginative, poetical, romantic value of 
myth ' (W. P. Ker). Discuss this statement with refer- 
ence to Icelandic literature. 

*3. Give some account of the eastward expansion of 
Germany before 1100, and illustrate your answer by 
a sketch-map. 

4. Under what circumstances and by favour of what 
elements of society did Hugh Capet become king ? 

5. With what justice has the tenth century been called 
the golden age of the Eastern Empire ? 

6. ' The origin of the Hildebrandine movement must 
be sought in the monastery of Cluny.' How far is this 
true ? 

7. ' The wearer of the crown at Laon or at Paris had 
few allies so faithful as the Norman Dukes.' Within 
what limits is this statement true ? 

8. Point out the leading differences between the 
growth of the feudal principle to the East and to the 
West of the Rhine. 

9. Examine the relation between Empii'e and Papacy 
in the reign of the Emperor Henry III. 

*10. Give some account of the settlements of the Normans 
in Sicily and Southern Italy down to the accession of 
Roger II. Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

4 K 6 [Turn over. 



11. Give some account of the iDiportauce of the city of 
Cologne in the eleventh and at the beginning of the 
twelfth century. 

1.2. 'The Spirit of the Crusades had its origin in the 
Spanish peninsula.' Amplify and illustrate this state- 
ment. 

13. Contrast the characters of the Emperors Henry IV 
and Henry V. 

14. Discuss the attitude of Alexius Comnenus towards 
the First Crusade. 

15. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Fervebat Gerbertus studiis. numerusque disci- 
pulorum in dies accrescebat. Nomen etiam tanti doctoris 
ferebatur non solum per Gallias, sed etiam per Germaniae 
populos dilatabatur. Transiitque Alpes ac difFunditur 
in Italiam usque Thirrenum et Adriaticum. (Richer.) 

(h) Heinricus rex ex agrariis militibus novum quem- 
que eligens in urbibus habitare fecit. (Widukixd.) 

((•) Inde Chuonradus rex ad Mediolanum veniens, 
ab Heriberto archiepiscopo magnifice receptus est in 
ecclesia sancti Ambrosii. (WiPO, Vita Ghuonradi.) 

(d) Les Francs, lorsqu ils partirent d'Antioche, etaient 
au nombre d'un million d'hommes, dont cinq cent mille 
en i^tat de combattre . . . lis suivirent le bord de la mer. 
Jerusalem appartenait alois aux figyptiens. 

(Ibn Giouzi.) 



\T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period III. (919-1272.) 

II. 

\^At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 
oMerapted.] 

1. What were the lasting effects of the War of In- 
vestitures on the internal condition of Germany ? 

2. ' The Cistercian movement, reactionary in intention, 
was almost a revolution in the history of monasticism.' 
Examine this statement. 

3. Discuss the position and influence of the French 
monarchy at the accession of Louis VI. What did he 
do for the royal power ? 

4. What general conditions helped to bring about the 
transition from the chansons de geste to the courtly epic ? 

5. What were the points at issue in the struggle 
between Frederick Barbarossa and Alexander III ? Why 
was the latter successful ? 

*6. Draw a sketch-map showing the dominions of 
Henry the Lion, and the scenes of his colonizing energy. 
What was the fate of these territories on his fall ? 

7. Illustrate and account for the rivalry between the 
Eastern Empire and the Kingdom of Sicily. 

8. Why was architecture so far ahead of the other 
arts in the twelfth century ? 

9. How far can the Albigensian Crusade be described 
as a struggle between two ' civilizations ' ? 

10. ' The career of Innocent IH is the best proof that 
the mediaeval system made an impossible demand on 
the occupants of the Roman See.' Discuss this statement. 

1 1 . What is the place either of Ab^lard or of St. Thomas 
Aquinas in the history of European thought*? 

4 Kg [Turn over. 



12. Describe the steps by which the Fourth Crusade 
was diverted to Constantinople, and account for the 
success of the Latins. 

*13. Explain, and illustrate by a sketch-map, the chief 
incidents in the struggle between Frederick II and (a) 
the Lombard cities, (b) the Papacy ? 

14. How far were the Friars successful in dealing 
with the religious and social problems of the early 
thirteenth century ? 

15. What did French national unity and sentiment 
owe to St. Louis ? 

16. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Indeque Rex Parisios tanquam ad propriam 
remeans sedem — ea enim. sicut in antiquis legitur gestis, 
reoes Francorum vitam degere consueverunt — de regni 
administratione et ecclesiae defensione, pro etate, pro 
tempore gloriose disponebat. (Sugek.) 

(h) Duae in Romano orbe apud Galliae Germaniaeve 
fines famosae familiae actenus fnere, una Heinricorum de 
Gueibelinga, alia Gwelforum de Aldorfo, altera impera- 
tores, altera magnos duces producere solita. 

(Otto of Freising.) 

(c) L'Empereur (Frederic) etait roux et chauve; il 
avait la vue faible ; s'il avait 6t4 esclave on n'en an rait 
donn^ deux cents drachmes. (Yafe'i.) 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period IV, (1273-1519.) 

I. 

\^At least ONE of the question^ marked * should he 
attempted.'] 

I. Give some account of the rivalry between Venice 
and Genoa. 

*2. What geographical circumstances favoured the ex- 
pansion of the power of the House of Aragon? Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

3. In what classes of his people did Philip IV of 
France find his best supports ? 

4. With what justice could the term 'democracy ' be 
applied to the government of any Italian city during 
your period ? 

5. What progress had been made in geographical dis- 
covery before the days of Henry the Navigator ? 

6. Estimate the position and account for the repu- 
tation of the Emperor Charles IV. 

7. ' The fourteenth century lived largely on the in- 
tellectual capital that the preceding centuries had 
bequeathed to it.' Discuss and illustrate this statement. 

■^8. Give an account of the struggle between the 
Hanseatic League and the Scandinavian Kingdoms. 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map of the countries 
and islands of the Baltic region. 

9. Trace the beginnings of the Renaissance in the art 
either of Italy, or of the Low Countries. 

^10. Trace the steps in the encroachment of the Ottoman 
Turks upon South-Eastern Europe down to 1402, and 
illustrate your ans,wer by a sketch-map. 

II. Narrate the circumstances which led to the sum- 
moning of the Council of Constance. 

4 K 7 [Turn over. 



12. Give some account of the constitutional crisis in 
France during the regency of the Dauphin, afterwards 
Charles V. 

13. Discuss the importance of any one of the fol- 
lowing : — Defensor Pacts, Be Recuperatione Terrae 
Sanctae, De Iniitatione Christ L 

14. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Veggio in Alagna [Anagni] entrar lo fiordaliso 
E nel vicario suo Oristo esser catto. 

(Dante.) 

(b) Thus the Christian realms were in variation and 
the Churches in great difference because of the Popes. 
Urban had the greater part, but to speak of the most 
profitable revenues and plain obesiance, Clement had it. 

(Froissart.) 

(g) Moguntinensis, Trevirensis, Coloniensis, 
Quilibet imperii sit cancellarius horum, 
Et Palatinus dapifer, Dux portitor ensis, 
Marchio praepositus camerae, pincerna Bob emus, 
Hi statuunt dominum cunctis per saecula summum. 

(Marsiglio of Padua.) 



[T. T, 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY, 



General History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

11. 

\^At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 

atter)i2)ted,] 

1. What part was taken by the German nation in the 
Conciliar movement, and what were the effects of that 
movement on Germany ? 

2. In what sense is it true that Martin V was ' the 
second founder of the Papal monarchy ' ? 

3. Compare the characters of Charles VII and 
Charles VIII of France. 

*4. Trace the events immediately leading to the last 
siege of Constantinople by the Turks. Give an account 
of the siege and illustrate your answer by a sketch-map 
or maps. 

5. Contrast the power and prestige of Florence during 
the rule of the Albizzi with her position at the close 
of the life of Cosimo de' Medici. 

6. ' The career of Charles the Bold was first checked at 
the siege of Neuss, and finally determined by the battle 
of Morat.' Examine this statement. 

7. Illustrate from the rule of Francesco Sforza and his 
descendants at Milan the merits and defects of Italian 
despotism. 

8. How far did Ferdinand and Isabella change the 
form and the spirit of Aragonese and Castilian institu- 
tions ? 

9. To what extent did the dynastic interests of the 
Hapsburgs clash with their imperial duties till the close 
of the reign of Maximilian ? 

*10. Show on a sketch-map the situation of the follow- 
ing, and point out shortly their political or strategical 
importance in the period 1414-1519 : — Bologna, Brescia, 
the Casentino, Forli, the Friuli, Ghiara d'Adda, Mantua, 
Verona, Sarzana. 

4 K 8 [Turn over. 



11. Whom do you regard as the greatest general in 
the Italian wars, 1494-1515 ? 

12. Sketch the history of Brittany in the fifteenth 
century. 

*13. Show on a sketch-map the distribution of the 
Slavonic peoples in Europe about 1500 A. D., and account 
for the small part which they play in European history 
during the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

14. ' The word Renaissance really means a new birth 
to liberty ' (J. A. Symonds). Discuss, from this point of 
view, the importance of Lorenzo Valla, Pico della Miran- 
dola, Machiavelli. 

15. Comment on the following : — 

(a) Grand follie a deux princes qui sont comme 
esguaulx en puissance, de s'entrevoir, si non qu'ilz fussent 
en grand jeunesse qui est le temps qu'ilz n'ont aultres 
pensees que a leurs plaisirs. (Commines.) 

(b) Ceulx de Gand aymoient bien le filz de leur 
prince, mais le prince non jamais. (Commines.) 

(c) Et me semble que, en moins de deux ans, ilz 
furent cinq roys portans couronne a Naples. (Commines.) 

(d) E benche I'intento suo (d'Alessandro VI) non 
fusse di far grande la Chiesa^ ma il duca (Cesare), nondi- 
meno cio che fece torno a grandezza della Chiesa. 

(Machiavelli.) 



[T,l\ 1914.1 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V. (1414-1598.) 

I. 

[At least ONE o/" the questions unarked * shoidd be 

attempted.] 

1. What part was taken by the German nation in the 
Conciliar movement, and what were the effects of that 
movement on Germany ? 

2. In what sense is it true that Martin V was 'the 
second founder of the Papal monarchy ' 1 

3. Compare the characters of Charles VII and 
Charles VIII of France. 

*4. Trace the events immediately leading to the last 
siege of Constantinople by the Turks. Give an account 
of the siege and illustrate your answer by a sketch-map 
or maps. 

5. Contrast the power and prestige of Florence during 
the rule of the Albizzi with her position at the close 
of the life of Cosimo de' Medici. 

6. ' The career of Charles the Bold was first checked at 
the siege of Neuss, and finally determined by the battle 
of Morat.' Examine this statement. 

7. Illustrate from the rule of Francesco Sforza and his 
descendants at Milan the merits and defects of Italian 
despotism. 

8. How far did Ferdinand and Isabella change the 
form and the spirit of Aragonese and Castilian institu- 
tions 1 

9. To what extent did the dynastic interests of the 
Hapsburgs clash with their imperial duties till the close 
of the reign of Maximilian ? 

*10. Show on a sketch-map the situation of the follow- 
ing, and point out shortly their political or strategical 
importance in the period 1414-1519 : — Bologna, Brescia, 
the Casentino, Forli, the Friuli, Ghiara d'Adda, Mantua, 
Verona, Sarzana. 

4 K 9 [Turn over. 



11. Whom do you regard as the greatest general in 
the Italian wars, 1494-1516? 

12. Sketch the history of Brittany in the fifteenth 
century. 

*13. Show on a sketch-map the distribution of the 
Slavonic peoples in Europe about 1500 A. d., and account 
for the small part which they play in European history 
during the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

14. ' The word Renaissance really means a new birth 
to liberty ' (J. A. Symonds). Discuss, from this point of 
view, the importance of Lorenzo Valla, Pico della Miran- 
dola, MachiaveUi, 

15. Comment on the following: — 

{a) Grand follie a deux princes qui sont comme 
esguaulx en puissance, de s'entrevoir. si non qu'ilz fussent 
en grand jeunesse qui est le temps qu'ilz n'ont aultres 
pensees que a leurs plaisirs. (Commines.) 

(b) Ceulx de Gand aymoient bien le filz de leur 
prince, mais le prince non jamais. (Commines.) 

(c) Et me semble que, en moins de deux ans, ilz 
furent cinq roys portans couronne a Naples. (Commines.) 

(d) E benche Tintento suo (d'Alessandro VI) non 
fusse di far grande la Chiesa, ma il duca (Cesare), uondi- 
meno cio che fecc torno a grandezza della Chiesa. 

(Machiavelli.) 

[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History, Period V. (1414-1598.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

wiarked *.] 

1. 'One of the peculiarities of the Renaissance is the 
importance of the part played by women in the world 
of letters and politics.' How far is this statement 
applicable to France during the reigns of Louis XII and 
Francis I ? 

2. Illustrate from the career either of Cortes or of 
Pizarro the characteristics and the methods of Spanish 
empire-builders. 

*3. Trace and account for the fluctuations of Turkish 
power on the Mediterranean during the sixteenth century. 
Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

4. ' The sack of Rome was the real end of the Renais- 
sance.' Discuss this statement. 

5. How far was Charles V consistent in his dealings 
with the Lutherans 1521-46 ? 

6. Describe the condition of France and of French 
parties in 1559 and consider how far the troubles of the 
time are to be attributed to the rule of Francis I. 

7. In what respects was the papacy of Pius IV a 
turning-point in the history of the Catholic Church 1 

*8. ' The Hohenzollerns were converted to Protestant- 
ism only by the motive of territorial aggrandizement.' 
Examine this statement and trace the attitude of the 
Hohenzollerns to the Reformation, showing on a sketch- 
map any of their acquisitions which may be attributed 
to their change of religion. 

*9. What causes were prejudicial to concerted action 
between the Huguenots and les Gueuxl: Show by the 
aid of a sketch-map how far these causes were geo- 
graphical. 

4 K 10 [Turn over. 



10. What points in the policy of William the Silent 
during the years 1570-84 seem to you most open to 
criticism ? 

11. 'Religious liberty was the parent of political 
liberty.' Discuss this statement with special reference 
to the contributions made by Calvinists to political 
thought. 

12. What elements of weakness may be discovered 
in the domestic condition of Spain under Philip II ? 

13. 'It seemed inevitable that the House of Savoy 
should share the fate of Navarre.' Why was this and 
why did the apparently inevitable not come to pass '^ 

14. Explain the policy and estimate the success of 
Ivan the Terrible. 

15. Sketch the development of any one School of 
painting. 

16. Comment on the following passages: — 

(a) Mundus oneratus est constitutionibus humanis, 
oneratus est opinionibus et dogmatibus scholasticis, 
tyrannide Fratrum Mendicantium, qui cum sint Satel- 
lites Sedis Romanae, tamen eo potentiae ac multitudiuis 
evadunt, ut ipsi Romano Pontifici atque ipsis Regibus 
sint formidabiles. {Erasmus to Albert of Mainz, 1519.) 

(6) Nos . . . nequeuntes per nos solos omnia exsequi, 
lohannem Petrum, et lohannem, et Petrumpaulum et 
Bartholoraaeum necnon Dionysium et Thomam Cardi- 
nales . . in Romana Curia super negotio fidei Commis- 
sarios et Inquisitores generales auctoritate Apostolica 
tenore praesentium constituimus et deputamus. (1542.) 

(c) Tous deux egalement nous portons des couronnes, 
Mais, roi, je la re9ois, poete, tu la donnes. 

{Charles IX,) 



[2\ T, 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

I. 

\_At least ONE of the questions marked * should he 
aitempted.'] 

1. What points in the policy of William the Silent 
during the years 1570 lo 1584 seem to you most open 
to criticism ? 

*.2. What causes were prejudicial to concerted action 
between the Huguenots and les Gueux ? Show by the aid 
of a sketch-map how far these causes were geographical. 

3. Trace the decline of the Catholic League after the 
death of Henry IH. 

4. What elements of weakness may be discovered in 
the domestic condition of Spain under Philip II ? 

5. In what respects was the Papacy of Pius IV a 
turning-point in the history of the Catholic Church ? 

6. ' Religious liberty was the parent of political liberty.' 
Discuss this statement wdth special reference to contribu- 
tions made by Calvinists to political thought before the 
end of the sixteenth century. 

*7. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the condition 
of affairs in the countries bordering on the Baltic at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

8. In what ways was the regency of Marie de Medicis 
a step backwards in the progress of France ? 

9. To what extent was the policy of the Elector of 
Saxony, during the Thirty Years' W^ar, natural and 
justifiable? 

10. How is the quiescence of Turkey during the first 
half of the seventeenth century to be explained ? 

11. 'Richelieu sought the greatness of the French 
Monarchy and not the good of the French people.' 
Discuss this statement. 

4 K 11 [Turn over.^ 



12. What claims has the Tsar Alexis to be regarded 
as the founder of modern Russia 1 

13. ' The Supreme Pontiff dreaded the rise of a 
universal monarchy even more than he desired the 
prosperity of the Universal Church.' Is this an adequate 
explanation of the policy of the Papacy in the first half 
of the seventeenth century ? 

14. Give some account of Pascal's Lettres pr ovine iales 
and of the circumstances which led him to write them. 

*15. Show on a sketch-map the difference in the terri- 
torial possessions of the Hapsburgs in Europe in 1559 
and in 1648. 

16. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) II y avait deux sortes de huguenots : les hugue- 
nots de religion, pour ne pouvoir supporter la rigueur 
et la cruaut^ exercdes a I'encontre d'eux, et les huguenots 
d'Etat, pour ne pouvoir plus comporter I'usurpation faite 
par les Guises de Tautorite, n'appartenant a autres qu'aux 
seuls princes du sang. (La Planch e.) 

(b) II n'y a de possible en France que le B^arnais, 
qui reviendra a la religion des ancetres. (SiXTUS V.) 

(e) Pikemen shall be my choice when going on 
execution, as also in retiring honourably with disad- 
vantage from an enemy, especially against horsemen. 

(Monro.) 

(d) On ne pent, sans la marine, ni profiter de la 
paix, ni soutenir la guerre. (Richelieu.) 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VI, (1559-1715.) 

II. 

[At lead one of the questions ^marked * should he 

attempted^] 

I. Show how the foreign policy of Mazarin bridged 
the gulf between that of Richelieu and that of Louis XIV. 

■^2. Point out, and illustrate with a sketch-map, the 
justification of the policy of the Great Elector. 

3. What improvements in the art of war do you attri- 
bute to {a) Maurice of Nassau, {!)) Gustavus Adolphus, 
[c) Turenne 1 Compare the merits of these three generals. 

4. Illustrate from the difficulties of the Dutch in the 
seventeenth century the defects of their constitution. 

5. ' The Triple Alliance was the earliest of that series 
of coalitions which ended by getting the better of the 
power of Louis XIV.' Trace the growth of these coali- 
tions down to 1689. 

6. 'The Liberties of the Galilean Church.' What is 
meant by this phrase in the reign of Louis XIV 1 

*7. Point out the importance of the reign of Leopold I 
in the history of South-Eastern Europe, and illustrate 
your answer with a sketch-map. 

8. ' Religious toleratiou, which seemed assured by the 
peace of Westphalia, was threatened before the end of 
the century, not only in France but in most of Europe.' 
Discuss and criticize this judgement. 

9. Estimate the importance of John Sobieski in the 
Turkish Wars. 

10. 'In 1672 Leibniz proposed to Louis XIV a plan 
for the conquest of Egypt. By rejecting this advice, 
Louis lost the Empire of the World.' Explain and 
criticize this statement. 

II. Explain the policy pursued by Victor Amadeus II 
during the wars of the League of Augsburg and of the 
Spanish Succession. 

4 K 12 [Turn over. 



12. Discuss the arguments for and against Louis XIV's 
acceptance of the will of Charles II on behalf of his 
grandson. 



& 



13. Trace the career and estimate the character of 
Charles XII of Sweden. 

14. ' The political supremacy of France was as nothing 
to the empire which she exercised over life and thought, 
over art and taste and civilization.' How far would 
you justify this statement "? 

15. Comment on the following passages :-- 

(a) Le prince d'Orange pent se vanter d'une chose. 
C'est qu'il n'y a point de general qui, a son age, ait leve 
plus de sieges et perdu plus de batailles que lui. 

(6) Le roi fait les lib^ralitds immenses. II peut 
arriver qu^en faisant sa cour on se trouvera sous ce qu'il 
jette. Ce qui est certain, c'est que loin de lui tons les 
services sont perdus. (Madame de Sevigne.) 

(vj Maintenant, avec I'aide de Dieu, P^tersbourg est 
fond^. 

(d) S: Dieu nous fait la grace de perdre encore une 
semblable bataille, Votre Majeste peut compter que ses 
ennemis sont perdus. (Villars.) 



[T, Z 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HLSTOEY. 



General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

I. 

[Candidates should atte7n.j)t at least one of the 
questions marked *.] 

1. Can it be said that the reversal of French foreign 
policy between 1716 and 1718 had such serious conse- 
quences for France as the Diplomatic Revolution of 
1756-7? 

2. Point out the chief blunders in the policy of the 
Emperor Ch aeries VI. 

3. ' While Elizabeth Farnese was queen, Spain fol- 
lowed wills-o-the-wisp.' Examine this statement. 

*4. Explain with the aid of a sketch-map the chief 
changes in the distribution of political power in Italy 
between 1715 and 1748. 

*5. Illustrate with a sketch-map the strategic importance 
of Bohemia in the duel between Prussia and Austria. 

6, Examine the claim of Frederick II to be regarded 
as one of the heroes of German history. 

7. Give some account of Catherine II's internal 
administration in Russia. 

*8. Can the Poles themselves bear any share of blame 
for the first partition of Poland ? Draw a sketch-map 
showing the losses of Poland by that partition. 

9. ' Turgot's failure to carry his entire programme of 
reform diminished the effect of those reforms which he 
did carry.' Discuss this statement. 

10. Discuss the part played by the Parlement of Paris 
in the eighteenth century. 

11. ' Here lies Joseph II who succeeded in nothing.' 
Do yon consider the Emperor's epitaph on himself to 
have been unduly pessimistic ? 

4K13 [Turn over. 



12. ' The eighteenth- century monarchs regarded their 
armies as royal capital to be saved, not as national in- 
come to be expended.' Illustrate tViis statement from 
the European wars between 1715 and 1789. 

13. How do you account for the collapse of the French 
power in India ? 

14. Discuss the statement that the chief characteristic 
of the French authors of the pre-revolutionary epoch was 
their faith in reason. 

15. Point out the symptoms and discuss the causes of 
the unrest in the Austrian Netherlands and in the United 
Provinces respectively at the time of the outbreak of the 
French Revolution. 

16. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Un ministre qu'un souverain envoie a cette 
assemble est T^quivalent d'un matin de basse-cour qui 
aboie a la June. (Frederic, Me^nioires.) 

(b) C'est le peuple du monde qui a le mieux su se 
pr^valoir de ces trois grand es choses, la religion, le com- 
merce et la libertd (Montesquieu.) 

(c) C'est toujours pour les politiques une regie fonda- 
mentale de diminuer cette puissance jusqu'au point oil 
I'Empereur ne soit pas plus grand terrier que le plus 
riche electeur. (D'Argenson, Mewmres.) 



\T. T. 1914] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. At what epochs of the French Revolution previous 
to the fall of the Monarchy do you consider that there 
was a fair chance for the establishment of a reasonable 
government in France ? 

2. Do you consider that the Civil Constitution of the 
Clergy was the fatal blunder of the Revolution ? 

3. ' The events are very great, the men are very small.' 
Illustrate this statement from the characters of any of 
the leaders in France between 1792 and 1795. 

4. Give an account of the struggle of Poland for 
national existence in 1793 and 1794. 

•^5. Trace from 1792 to 1814 the effect on French 
diplomacy of the conception of a ' natural frontier ' for 
France. Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map showing 
the frontiers of 1792. 

6. What merits can be ascribed to the Consular 
Government from 1799 to 1804? 

■^7. ' Territorial greed, was the bane of Prussia.' Illus- 
trate this statement from the history of the years 1792- 
1806, adding a sketch-map or maps to show the territories 
possessed and coveted by Frederick William II and 
Frederick William III. 

8. Whom do you consider to have been the most 
trustworthy of the civil or military servants of the 
Napoleonic Empire ? Give reasons for your choice. 

9. Discuss the political and strategic importance of 
the Battle of the Nile. 

10. Estimate the truth of the statement that Napoleon 
was no innovator in the Art of War. 

*1I. Give an account of the Archduke Charles's cam- 
paign of 1809, and illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map. 

4 K 14 [Turn over. 



12. Trace the successive steps in the breach between 
Napoleon and Alexander after the Treaty of Tilsit. 

13. Contrast the spirit in which Austria, led by 
Metternich, and Prussia, under the influence of the ideas 
of Stein, faced Napoleon from the battle of Leipzig to 
the final pacification. 

14. Trace the chief economic effects of the Continental 
System (a) upon France, (6) upon the continental powers 
within the orbit of France. 

15. Do you consider that Napoleon's return from Elba 
averted a serious quarrel between the Powers then 
engaged in the Congress of Vienna ? 

16. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) L'Assemblde Nationale declare consentir provi- 
soirement pour la nation que les impots et les contri- 
butions, quoiqu'illegalement (^tablis et per^us, continuent 
d'etre levds de la meme maniere qu'ils I'ont et^ prece- 
demment. et jusqu'au jour seulement de la premiere 
separation de cette Assembl^e, de quelque cause qu'elle 
puisse provenir. (Resolution of June 17, 1789.) 

(6) J'ai voulu etre ton ami . . . As-tu cessd de regner !■ 
Reveille-toi, S^lim. Confie-toi a tes vraies amies, la 
France et la Prusse. Redoute les Russes qui veulent 
Constantinople. (Napoleon to the Sultan.) 

(c) Si Talleyrand est pour quelque chose dans cette 
opinion de laisser I'imperatrice a Paris dans le cas ou 
1 'ennemi se rapprocherait, c'est trahir ; mefiez-vous de 
cet homme. (Napoleon to Joseph, Feb. 8, 1814.) 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HI8T0RY. 



General History, Period VIII, (1789-1878.) 

I. 

\Candidate8 shoidd attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. At what epochs of the French Revolution previous 
to the fall of the Monarchy do you consider that there 
was a fair chance for the establishment of a reasonable 
government in France ? 

2. Do you consider that the Civil Constitution of the 
Clergy was the fatal blunder of the Revolution ? 

3. ' The events are very great, the men are very small.' 
Rlustrate this statement from the characters of any of 
the leaders in France between 1792 and 1795. 

4. Give an account of the struggle of Poland for 
national existence in 1793 and 1794. 

■^5. Trace from 1792 to 1814 the effect on French 
diplomacy of the conception of a ' natural frontier ' for 
France. Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map showing 
the frontiers of 1792. 

6. What merits can be ascribed to the Consular 
Government from 1799 to 1804? 

*7. ' Territorial greed was the bane of Prussia.' Rlus- 
trate this statement from the history of the years 1792- 
1806, adding a sketch-map or maps to show the territories 
possessed and coveted by Frederick William II and 
Frederick William III. 

8. Whom do you consider to have been the most trust- 
worthy of the civil or military servants of the Napoleonic 
Empire ? Give reasons for your choice. 

9. Discuss the political and strategic importance of 
the Battle of the Nile. 

10. Estimate the truth of the statement that Napoleon 
was no innovator in the Art of War. 

■^11. Give an account of the Archduke Charles's cam- 
paign of 1809, and illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map. 

4 K 15 [Turn over. 



12. Trace the successive steps in the breach between 
Napoleon and Alexander after the Treaty of Tilsit. 

13. Contrast the spirit in which Austria, led by 
Metternich, and Prussia, under the influence of the ideas 
of Stein, faced Napoleon from the battle of Leipzig to the 
final pacification. 

14. Trace the chief economic effects of the Continental 
System (a) upon France, (b) upon the continental powers 
within the orbit of France. 

15. Do you consider that Napoleon's return from Elba 
averted a serious quarrel between the Powers then 
engaged in the Congress of Vienna ? 

16. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) L'Assembl^e Nationale dt^clare consentir provi- 
soirement pour la nation que les impots et les contribu- 
tions, quoiqu'ill^galement ^tablis et per9us, continuent 
d'etre lev^s de la meme maniere qu'ils I'ont ^te pr^c^- 
demment, et jusqu'au jour seulement de la premiere 
separation de cette Assemblee, de quelque cause qu'elle 
puisse proveuir. (Resolution of June 17, 1789.) 

(b) J'ai voulu etre ton ami . . . As-tu cess^ de r^gner ? 
R^veille-toi, S^lim. Confie-toi a tes vraies amies, la 
France et la Prusse. Redoute les Russes qui veulent 
Constantinople. (Napoleon to the Sultan.) 

(c) Si Talleyrand est pour quelque chose dans cette 
opinion de laisser I'imp^ratrice a Paris dans le cas ou 
I'ennemi se rapprocherait. c'est trahir; mefiez-vous de 
cet homme. (Napoleon to Joseph, Feb. 8, 1814.) 



[T, T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VIIL (1789-1878.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked ^.] 

1. Explain the part played by secret societies in the 
liberal movements of the years 1819-23. 

2. Illustrate from the history of the Restoration the 
difficulties which a constitutional monarchy has to face 
in France. 

3. ' History will begin for Russia where Romance has 
ended.' Do you consider this remark appropriate to the 
change from Alexander I to Nicholas 11 

4. Trace in outline tbe history of the Carlist movement 
in Spain, and explain the character and composition of 
the Carlist party. 

5. Discuss the relations between Austria and Russia 
from the Congress of Vienna down to the war of 1866. 

6. How far is Prussia responsible for the failure of 
German Unity from 1848 to 1851? 

*7. Describe, and illustrate with a sketch-map, Charles 
Albert's campaigns in Lombardy in 1848-9. What were 
the reasons — personal, political, and military — of his 
failure ? 

8. Explain briefly the causes which led to the tran- 
sition from the ' Romantic movement ' to the ' realistic ' 
or ' scientific ' movement of the middle of the nineteenth 
century. 

*9. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the districts, 
outside the Russian Empire, mainly inhabited by Slav 
populations. What attempts were there, within your 
period, to make them conscious of their common racial 
origin, and with what success ? 

4 K 16 [Turn over. 



10. Examine the conflict between the House of Savoy 
and the Republicans in Italy, and account for the success 
of the former. 

11. Compare the elements of strength and weakness 
in France during the later years of the Second Empire. 

1 2. Was the Franco-German War of 1 8 70 ' inevitable ' ? 

13. Discuss the importance in the history of the nine- 
teenth century of any one of the following : — the iiction 
of Balzac, the historical work of Ranke, Darwin's Origin 
of Species, the Vatican Council of 1869-70. 

14 Explain, and illustrate with a sketch-map, {a) the 
importance of Plevna in the War of 1877, [h) the differ- 
ence between the terms of the Treaty of St. Stefano and 
those of the Treaty of Berlin. 

15. Summarize the 'material' and 'spiritual' causes 
which combined to bring about the union of Germany. 

16. Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Nach Canossa gehen wir nicht. (Bismaeck.) 

if)) Der Breitmann in der barlor 
Help writen rapidly : 
La liherte pour la Pologne I 
Likevise — pour Vltalie I 

(Breitmann in Forty -Eight.) 

(c) J'ai rencontr^ a mon retour a Paris bien des 
difficult^s diplomatiques et bien d'autres inter venants au 
sujet de mon voyage en Crimde. Je dirai en confiance 
a Votre Majesty que ma resolution de voyage s'en trouve 
presque ebranlee. En France tons ceux qui possedent 
sont bien peu courageux. 

(Napoleon HI to Queen Victoria.) 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Hildebrand, I. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

ma^'ked *.] 

1. What do you learn from your authorities about 
Anselm of Lucca ; Robert, Count of Flanders {Robert the 
Fridan) ; Peter Damiani ; Leopold of Merseburg ; Hugh, 
Abbot of Cluny ; Otto, Bishop of Ostia ; the condition 
of Venice ? 

2. What different practices were included by con- 
temporary writers under the word ' simony ' ? 

3. Discuss Gregory VII's views as to the origin of 
temporal sovereignty. 

*4. Translate and comment on four of the following 
passages from Lampert, illustrating your answer where 
possible from your other authorities : — 

(a) Capharnaum hanc fuisse ex similitudine vocabuli 
coniciebant. 

(h) Cui filius eius Gozelo successit, prestantis quidem 
animi adolescens, sed gibbosus. 

(c) Primus tunc in palacio erat Adalbertus Pre- 
mensis archiepiscopus, qui triumphatis emulis suis . . . 
solus nunc rege fruebatur. 

{d) Montes omnes colhculosque Saxoniae et Turin- 
giae castellis munitissimis extruxit praesidiumque im- 
posuit. 

[e) Bex natalem Domini (1073) Wormaciae cele- 
bravit longe aliter ibi victitans quam regiam magnifi- 
centiam deceret. Nam neque ex fiscis regalibus quic- 
quam servicii ei exhibebatur, neque episcopi aut abbates 
vel aliae publicae dignitates consueta ei obsequia pre- 
bebant. 

4 K 83 [Turn ov©r. 



(/) Omnium unanimi conseDsu constitit nulla un- 
quam retro maiorum memoria fcantum exercitum, tarn 
fortem^ tarn militariter instructum in regno Teutonico 
a quoquam rege contractu m fuisse. 

(g) Dux Polenorum . . . propterea quod principes 
Teutonicos cerneret domesticis seditionibus occupatos . . . 
regiam dignitatem regiumque nomen sibi usurpavit. 

(h) Quarto demum die in conspectu eius admissus, 
post multas hinc inde dictas sententias his postremo 
condicionibus excommunicatione absolutus est. 



*5. Write brief notes on the following passages from 
Bernheim's ^ Quellen zur Geschichte des Investitur- 
streites ' : — 

(a) Et certe rectus atque legitimus hie electionis 
ordo perpenditur, si perspectis diversorum patrum re- 
gulis sive gestis, etiam ilia beati praedecessoris Leonis 
sententia recolatur. 

(b) Illi velut inconsiderati homines et furiosi sub 
obedientia sedis apostolicae iniunxerunt, ut aut banc 
eorum voluntatem de synodo laudanda faceremus aut 
Rom am rationem reddituri veniremus. 

(c) Inter quos scilicet Hildebrandum monachum 
notantes, vos in eius inimicitiam excitamus, quia hunc 
et ecclesiae invasorem et oppressorem et Romanae rei 
publicae vel regni nostri insidiatorem deprehendimus. 

(d) Taceat Parma cum suo heresiarcha. 

6. What truth is there in the view that the German 
towns, except in Saxony, preferred the cause of Henry IV 
to that of his successive rivals ? 

7. ' Eminet liber documentis authenticis insert is, scri- 
bendi ratione vivida, aliquotiens faceta et iocosa, stilo 
simplici, sententiis rhythmo quodam praeditis.' 

Discuss this statement from Pertz's preface to Bruno, 
De Bello Saxonico, and illustrate it, if possible, from the 
text of that book. 



*8. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Bruno, illustrating your answer, where possible, from 
your other authorities : — 

(a) Ottonem denique, virum prudentem et fortem, 
qui natus e Saxonia dux erat in Bawaria, omni calliditate 
deponere quaerebat. 

(6) Willehalmum gentis Anglicae regem hac con- 
dicione suum vocavit in auxilium, ut ei Adeem redderet 
aequam, si se unquam haberet necessarium. Ille vero 
respondit . . . 

(r) De monasterio suo destructo vel de sepulchris 
filii vel fratris sui violatis et ossibus eorum disiectis, cum 
qualiter factum sit audieritis, quia nos sumus innocentes 
agnoscetis. 

[d) Temporibus illis vigebat depositio regum. 

{e) Ipso vero die consecrationis eius [Rodulfi] paene 
contigit miserandum facinus. 

(/) Transacto vero natali Domini proximo, quo 1081 
ab incarnatione Domini inceptus annus erat, Heinricus 
exrex Italiam disponebat ingredi, ut imponeret aliquem 
finem rerum suarum longo labori. 



[7'. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Hildebrand, II. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. Collect fi'om Jaffa's preface and from the text of 
Bonitho's Liber ad Araicum illustrations of the statement 
that Bonitho was a typical mediaeval busybody. 

2. Discuss the question of Gregory VII's intention to 
anticipate the Crusades, and illustrate your answer from 
his letters. 

*3. Translate and comment on five of the following- 
passages from Jaffa's Monumenta Gregoriana, illustrat- 
ing your answers, where possible, from your other 
authorities : — 

[a) Nostis, dilectissime sancti Petri filie, quam aperte 
Longobardorum episcopi symoniacam heresim defendere 
ac fovere praesumpserint. 

(6) Quapropter ut filios karissimos vos adhortor et 
moneo : ut vos, sicut bonae soboles, etsi post diuturnas 
scissuras . . . Romanae ecclesiae ordinem et officium 
recipiatis, non Toletanae vel cuiuslibet aliae. 

(c) Praeterea scitote, Robertum Guiscardum saepe 
supplices legatos ad nos mittere. 

(d) Quinque de familia regis Teutonicorum, quorum 
consilio ecclesiae venduntur, a liminibus sanctae ecclesiae 
separavit. 

(e) Et omnes Christianos a vinculo iuramenti, quod 
sibi fecerunt vel lacient, absolvo ; et, ut nullus ei sicut 
regi serviat, interdico. 

(/) Discretionis temperantiam potius quam rigorem 
canonum sequentes, causas episcoporum Franciae atque 
Burgundiae, qui suspensi seu damnati a legato nostro 
Hugone Diensi episcopo fuerant, non sine gravi labore 
discussimus. 

((/) Agite nunc, queso, patres et principes sanctissimi, 
ut omnis mundus intelligat et cognoscat, quia, si potestis 
in coelo ligare et solvere, potestis in terra imperia regna 
principatus dncatus marchias comitatus et omnium 
hominum possessiones pro meritis tollere unicuique et 
concedere. 

4K24 [Turn over. 



(h) Eodem tempore Hugo Candidus, de quo superius 
mentionem feciraus, post multas et varias miserias, quas 
sub Cadolo passus est, tandem ad venerabilem papam 
veniens, veniam peciit et impetravifc. 

(^) Nam a Deo protectus Erlimbardus, ut audivit 
eius conatum, congregans multitudinem Dei exercitus, 
omnia castra ad ius episcopi pertinentia ab eius subtraxit 
dicione. 

(k) Non sicut solent mori ignavi, mortuus est 
Rudolfus. 

*5. Write brief notes on the following passages from 
Donizo's Vita Matildis : — 

(a) Galeatus quin equitavit 

Contra Saxones, qui fortes sunt et atroces ; 
Peccator quamvis, prudens tamen hie erat armis. 

(6) Omnibus ex istis equites habet alta Matildis. 

(c) Cum plantis nudis a frigore captis. 

(d) Qui veluti per stratam dammula fugit 
Francigenam, montes ultra rediens malus hospes. 

6. Discuss the question of the authorship of the 
Liher de Unitate Eccleslae Gonservanda. How far do 
you take it to represent the view of the German Church 
in the pre-Hildebrandine age ? 

*7. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Waltram, illustrating your comments, where possible, 
from your other authorities : — 

(a) Non invenitur in toto Francorum regno aptior 
persona Romano imperio, quem per totum tempus im- 
manentis belli, quod iam per 17 annos gestum est, Deus 
mirabiliter custodivit. 

(b) Considerate hunc ordinem rerum gestarum et 
perspicite, si iuxta script uram Hildebrandi papae aliquis 
Bomanorum pontificum deposuerit a regno regem Fran- 
corum. 

(c) Igitur factum non est hereticae pravitatis errors, 
quod consensit Wigberdus viventi ad hue Hildebrando 
subrogari, summa scilicet necessitate, quoniam constat, 
eum vixisse ad interitum ecclesiae pariter et rei publicae. 



(d) Ergo Hildebrant dictus papa Romanae ecclesiae 
discessit, immo fugit ab ecclesia ea praecipiie causa, ut 
non videret vel alloqueretur regem Henrichum. 

(e) Intererat etiam huic conventioni rex Saxonum 
Herimannus, cui ne apud suos quidem tribuebatur honor 
regius, a quo et illius synodi coepit tractatus. 

(f) Igitur postquam Egbertus marcbio decepit 
imperatoreni, sicut diximus, deinde et ipse pariter 
deceptus est, quoniam episcopi eum fefellerunt non ei 
donantes regnum quod promiserunt. 

8. Discuss the effects of the schism on the German 
Church, as they came to light at the Synod of Mainz of 
1085. 

9. Was there sufficient justification for tlie pessimistic 
tone of Gregory VII's last encyclical letter '^ 

[T, T. 1914.] 



SCPIOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Age of Dante. 
I. 



\Cm\didcdes are expected to attempt the questions 

marked "^.J 

1. How far does the Divina Commedia explain or 
illustrate those faults of character which lay at the root 
of the troubles of Florence ? 

*2. Explain the allusions in, and write brief notes on, 
four of the following passages from the Divina Com- 
media : — 

(a) Ma fu' io sol cola, dove sofFerto 

fu per ciascuno di torre via Fiorenza, 
colui che la difesi a viso aperto. 

(jj) E veramente fui figliuol dell' orsa, 
cupido si per avanzar gli orsatti, 
che su I'avere, e qui me misi in borsa. 

(r) Io fui uom d'arme, e poi fui cordelliero, 
credendomi, si cinto, fare ammenda ; 
e certo il creder mio veniva intero, 
se non fosse il gran Prete, a cui mal prenda, 
che mi rimise nelle prime colpe. 

((/) Vieni a veder la tua Roma che piagne 
vedova e sola, e di e notte chiama : 
Cesare mio, perche non m'accompagne '^ 

{e) Botoli trova poi, venendo giuso, 

ringhiosi piu che non chiede lor possa, 
ed a lor, disdegnosa, torce il muso. 
Vassi cadendo, e, quanto ella piu ingrossa, 
tanto piu trova di can farsi lupi 
la maledetta e sventurata fossa. 

(/) Poscia, per indi ond' era pria venuta, 
I'aquila vidi scender giii nell' area 
del carro, e lasciar lei di se ponnuta. 

4 K 31 [Turn over. 



3. 'The strange Italian nationalism of Dante which 
hated French and welcomed German intervention : 
ilhistrate and account for this apparent anomaly. 

4. Draw a sketch-map of Tuscany showing the course 
of the A mo and the chief towns. Show also the positions 
of Campaldino, Monte Accenico, and Lastra. 

5. Compare Villani and Dino Compagni (a) as 
chroniclers, (b) as historians. 

*3. Translate and comment on fouo' of the following 
passages from Villani : — 

(a) Giano della Bella voile torre a' capitani di parte 
guelfa il suggello e '1 mobile della parte, ch' era assai, e 
recarlo in comune. 

(6) Fu mondano uomo, ma di lui avemo fatta men- 
zione perocch' egli fu cominciatore e maestro in digrossare 
i Fiorentini. 

(c) E fu la pill mirabile cosa che mai si vedesse, che 
al continue, in tutto I'anno durante, avea in Roma, oltre 
al populo Romano, duecentomila pellegrini. 

(d) A messer Donato Alberti fu tagliato il capo, 
per quella legge medesima ch' egli avea fatta e messa in 
ordine di giustizia quando egli regnava e era priore. 

(e) II magnanimo papa gli rispuose ch' era contento 
d' essere condannato e disposto per gli paterini com' era 
egli, e '1 padre e la madre arsi per paterini; onde messer 
Guglielmo rimase confuso e vergognato. 

(/) Avemo fatta si lunga menzione di queata lezione 
del papa per lo sottile e bello inganno come fatta fu. 

7. Explain the steps by which the part}- of the Bianchi 
became identified with the Ghibellines. 

•^8. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Dino Compagni : — 

(a) Noi siamo quelli che demo la sconfitta in Cam- 
paldino ; e voi ci avete rimossi degli ufici c onori della 
nostra citta. 



(b) E quelli che nol cognosceano li teneano ricchi, e 
potenti, e savi. Ma i savi uomini diceano : ' E' sono 
mercatanti e naturalmente sono vili.' 

(c) 'Signore, merze per Dio, noi siamo i Guelfi di 
Firenze^ fedeli della casa di Francia ; per Dio prendi 
guarda di te e della tua gente, porche la nostra citta si 
regge da Ghibellini.' 

(d) I Ghibellini e Bianchi, che erano rifuggiti in 
Siena, non si fidavano starvi per una profezia che dicea ; 
'La lupa puttaneggia.' 

(e) Si paleso una congiura ordinata da messer Rosso 
della Tosa, 11 quale tutto cio che facea e procurava nella 
citta era per avere la signoria a guisa de' signori di 
Lombardia. 

(/) Nimico fu de' popoli e de' popolani, amato da' 
masnadieri, pieno di maliziosi pensieri, reo e astuto. 
Morto fu da uno straniero soldato cosi vilmente. 

9. What light do your authorities throw on — the 
aims of Boniface VIII regarding Florence, the failure of 
the Cardinal of Prato to reconcile parties, the fall of the 
Cavalcanti ? 



[7'. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOKY. 



The Age of Dante. 
II. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked "^.J 

1. Illustrate from your authorities tlie relations between 
Henry VII and Robert of Naples down to Henry's corona- 
tion in Rome. 

*2. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Nicholas of Butrinto : — 

(a) Gives de Modoecia instabant quod Rex Modoe- 
ciam reverteretur ad Coronam Ferream recipiendam, 
cum ibi asset locus ab antiquis regibus ordinatus. 

(?>) Nos autem citramontani, inter quos ego fui 
tunc, plus satis eramus contenti de Domino Guidone, et 
de sua procuratione magna, quam essemus de Domino 
Matthaeo. 

(c) Ipse mihi dixit secrete quomodo parum Italici 
curant de excommunication ibus alicubi. 

(d) Est ibi passus, quem si ipsi non permisissent 
transire Arctinos, Cortonenses, et omnes illos qui fideli- 
tatem nobis fecerant, nulla erat via per quam nos vcl 
ipsi ad civitatem Pisanum possemus ire. 

(e) In mea conscientia adhuc sentio quod audacius 
de maiori et ma^nis executionem sententiae fecisset, si 
potuisset, quam scripto et verbo protulerit, in hoc Deo 
credens placere. 

(/) Tunc ego subiunxi ' Et si ipse (Rex Fredericus) 
consulat, et vos intretis regnum, Papa excommunicatum 
vos denuntiabit.' 

3. How far did Henry VII identify himself with the 
Ghibellines during his Italian expedition ? 

4, What light is thrown by the Historla of John de 
Germenate on the author's opportunities for acquiring 
information and on his accuracy and trustworthiness ? 

4 K 32 [Turn over. 



^5. Translate and comment on four of the following 
passages from John de Cermenate : — 

{a) Ordines Mendicantium, apud quos, ad nutum 
tyrannorum, magna cuiusque generis exploratorum, meo 
tempore, copia semper fuit. 

(h) Quae hactenus nobilium pars nominata est, nunc 
Gibellina appellari coepit, alia vero Guelpha, quae primum 
pars populi, deinde Turriana fuit. 

(c) Dum potentiores impune more suo proximos 
inferiores premunt, humiles populares, etiam invitos, ad 
creandum dominum ex primoribus urbis cogunt. 

{d) Agnoscisne nunc quid egeris, bone rex, Supra- 
montem et reliquos ad te conversos et criminis poenitentes 
carceris poena damnans ? tunc contra te clausisti portas 
et armasti cives Brixiae. 

(e) Hie comes Varnerius primum applicuit Laude, 
ibique sedem eligens Gibellinorum consilium vocat. 

(/) Ibi conversus ordinis Cisterciensis barbatus, 
illiteratus prae se magnum acervum literarum tenet, quas 
antiqui moris curiae observantia forte papali bulla tecta 
manu signat. 

6. State what you learn from your authorities on the 
following subjects : — the origin of the Milanese riot 
(Feb. 1311); the attitude of the imperialists towards 
municipal rights ; the quarters of Rome held by Guelfs 
and Ghibellines respectively during Henry's presence in 
the city ; the cities that formed the Tuscan league against 
Henry. 

7. Discuss Villani's belief that Henry, if he had lived 
some years longer, would ultimately have been suc- 
cessful. 

8. ' Constat quod omne quod est bonum, per hoc est 
bonum, quod in uno consistit ' (De MonarcJda, I. 1 7.) 
' Ita videmus in omnibus rebus quod omnia reducuntur 
ad unum primum principium ' [Determinatio GoiYhpen- 
diosa, § 1 5). Show how Dante and the author of the 
Deterwiinatio drew such different conclusions from the 
principle of unity. 

9. Explain Dante's argument that freedom is best 
secured under the Monarcliia, 

[T. 2\ 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The Reign of Richard II. 

T. 

[Candidates are expected to attem^d the questions 
marked "^.'J 

1. Illustrate the historical value of the Anonimalle 
Chronicle. 

2. Trace the relations between England and Brittany 
from 1377 to 1389. 

3. What do you gather from your authorities to have 
been the causes of the Risinof of 1381 ? 

4. Give a careful account of the movements of the 
rioters in London in 1381, 

*5. Comment on four of the following extracts from 
the Historia Amjlicana : — 

(a) Erubuit^ ut diccbatur, et doluit^ quod Rex 
ceperat de eo castrum Hcrfordiae, ubi proposuerat 
maxime moratus fuisse; et ob hoc mcremium enieudi- 
caverat ad fortificandum castcllum de suis vicinis pos- 
sessoribus in circuitu eius. 

{h) Non arbitrantes tutum cohabitare tam vicino 
serpenti, praedam quam potuerunt ex insula collegerunt, 
et insulanos coegerunt cxtorquere ab amicis quos habe- 
bant extra insulam mille marcas argenti, pro salvatione 
domorum ab ignibus et residuo bonorum suorum. 

(c) Quidam autem ex famulis ipsius ecclesiae, qui 
conatus fuerat eos impedisse a tanti sceleris perpetratione, 
praedicando atque monendo, ne verendum illud templum 
. . . foedarent, cuiusdam framea mox in ipso loco per 
latera traiectus interiit. 

{d) Hie ergo per tres dies sine victu perseverans, 
dum audisset Flandrenses Anglicis colloquentes, et 
idioma suorum agnovisset, repente surrexit ex profundo 
navis, fidem et suffragium Anglorum inclamitans magna 
voce. 

(e) Ex abbathia etiam, ut fertur, praedicta foeminas 
coniugatas, viduas et virgines abduxerunt et in suis 
navibus collocarunt. 

4 K 25 [Turn over. 



(/) Nempe Dominum Stephanum de Hales, quia 
miles honorabilis fuerat, ad scindendiim coram eo prae- 
elegit, et praegustandum cibaria quae sumpturus erat. > 

(g) ' Ut quid ergo venistis? Ad consumendum 
victum, qui vix sufficiet bellaturis ? Vos nuraerus estis 
" fruges consumere nati " ; melius fuisset vobis domi sine 
cura super ollas carnium residisse.' 

6. Trace carefully, and illustrate from your authorities, 
the gradual development of WyclifFe's opinions. 

■^7. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum : — 

(a) Ista praedicta condemnatio promulgata est pub- 
lice in scholis Augustinensium, ipso Magistro lohanne 
sedente in cathedra, et determinante contrarium. Sed 
confusus est, ista audita condemnatione. 

{b) Sed post sermonem intra vit ecclesiam S. Fredes- 
wide cum viginti hominibus subtus pannos armatis. Sed 
Petrus Stokys timens, non est ausus tunc exire. 

(c) Nos una cum commissariis nostris memoratis in 
ecclesia nostra Lincolniensi in causa huiusmodi pro tribu- 
nali sedentes c . . praefatum Willelmum tam per proba- 
tionis testimonium, quam alias, legitime supra obiectis 
sibi . . . et per eum negatis con victum reputantes. . . . 

(d) Quod rex et episcopus in una persona, praelatus 
et index in temporalibus causis, curatus et officiarius in 
mundiali officio, facit quodlibet regnum extra bonum 
regimen. 

8. How far were Richard II's errors in the early part 
of his reign due to the influence of a court party ? 

9. Show from your authorities the attitude of John of 
Gaunt to the Church. 

■^10. Comment on four of the following extracts from 
the Continuator of Knighton :— 

(a) Pedem erigit, gressum dirigit, Romamque petere 
disposuit, et sic tandem viam arripuit. Cum igitur 
venisset Rom am in consistorio coram Papa conclusiones 
antedictas proposuit. 



(h) Dicebatur enim quod quidam de coramissariis 
suis asserebant, quod ad eorura praeceptum angeli de 
coelo descenderent, et animas in purgatoriis locis positas 
de poenis eriperent et ad coelos absque mora deducerent. 

(c) Posuerat enim unam machinam magnam et unum 
trepget cum una magna gunna, vocata gunna Cantua- 
riensis, contra unam turrim super unam portam. 

(d) Rex Franciae fecerat quendam palum mirae 
structurae cum turribus et munitionibus, quem palum 
secum veherent. 

(e) Videtur etiam eis quod ex quo onera supportant 
incumbentia habent etiam supervidere qualiter et per 
quos eorum bona et catalla expendantur. 

(/) Hie praedictus Robertus disfiguraverat seipsum 
fingens se pauperem debilem in tunica hispida et dila- 
cerata et debili, feceratque sibi barbam prolixam et 
longam artificiose, quam barbam barbam Parisiensem 
vocabant. 



[1\ T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOKY. 



The Beign of Richard II. 
II. 

[Candidates are exi^ected to attevipt the questions 

tnarked. "^.J 

1. Estimate the importance of the career of John of 
Northampton in the history of London. 

2. Give a careful account of the English invasion of 
Scotland in 1385. 

*3. Comment on the following passages from the 
Historia Anglicana : — 

(a) In tantum enim desolata est terra, ut nostrates 
veraciter fatebantur, nee avem quidem se vidisse ibidem, 
bubonibus solummodo dumtaxat CKceptis. 

(b) Et aliam duceret, quae cum Regina Anna venerat 
de Boemia, ut fertur, cuiusdam sellarii filiam, ignobilem 
prorsus atque foedam ; ob quam causam magna surrepsit 
occasio scandalorum. 

(c) Et requirit quod Rex statuta ilia tolli, et de 
capitularibus faciat aboleri maxime statuta, ' Quare 
impedit ' et ' Praemunire facias ' et hiis similia. 

(d) Sed et quemdam Lumbardum, volentem ac- 
commodare Regi dictam sum mam, male tractaverunt. 

4. Describe and illustrate from your authorities the 
movements of the royal forces and those of the Appellants 
in 1387. 

5. What light do your authorities throw on Richard 
II's Irish policy ? 

*6. Translate and comment on four of the following 
extracts from the chronicle of John of Malvern : — 

(a) Quod si pax inter duo regna posset procurari 
pro perpetuo et firmari mille libras ab eo reciperet 
annuatim ; sin autem mille marcas tantummodo ab eo 
perciperet annuatim. 

4 K 26 [Turn over. 



(l)) Et profecto eo extincto caeteri domini contra 
reofem erio-ere cornua non audebant quia eius sensu et in- 
dustria atque consilio hucusque sunt ducti. 

(c) Et puis le Maresdy touz les seignurs appellantz 
devant le roy en plein pai'leinent ont ewages les gaunz 
et toutz les seignurs piers du roiaume et plusours 
chevaliers et esquiers illoeqes gageront ensi lour gauntes 
et getteront devant le roy a nombre de ccc. gauntz et v. 

(d) Asserens dictum Simonem fidelem fuisse homi- 
nem in cunctis negotiis tarn regi quam regno, et si quis 
hoc vellet negare vel contradicere ipse affirmaret ipsum 
falsum dixisse et hoc probare duello. 

(e) Sed dominus Henricus Percy incaute irruit 
in eos circa horam vesperarum suis indispositis protunc 
ad pugnam. 

(/) Permissum est libere per parliamentum domino 
papae conferre omnia beneficia in curia vacantia in 
futurum non obstantibus quibuscunque statutis in con- 
trarium promulgatis. 

7. Sketch and illustrate from his ov^n chronicle the 
career of Adavi of Usk. 

8. In what respects did the constitutional crisis of 
1397-9 reproduce that of 1386-8 ? 

*9. Comment on four of the follov^^ng extracts from 
the Anncdes Ricardi Secundi : — 

(a) Burdegalenses nempe, et primores illius patriae, 
detrectabant ferre dominium cuiusdam nisi Regis Angliae, 
vel certe iilii sui, si filium genuisset. 

(b) Delatus tamen erga dictos dominos de eorum 
proditione extitit ; quod tamen, ob sanguinis sui propin- 
quitatem, et benevolentiam, et fidelitatem pristinam, sane 
sapientibus incredibile fuit. 

(c) Adveniente die dato, duello pugnatum est, et 
ThomaS; qui iustam fovit causam, victus, occulto Dei 
iudicio, Scotorum tripudio, Anglorum confusioni et 
opprobrio manifesto. 

(d) Curavitque thecam cypressinam. in qua corpus, 
balsamo delibutum, iacuit, aperire, faciem considerare, 
digitos contrectare; qui, ut fertur, ditati fuerunt annulis 
aureis pretiosis, cum corpore terrae tradendis. 



(e) ' Quicquid me videritis facere, consiiniliter etiam 
vos facere studete ; si me ad pugnam praeparavero, ad 
proeliandum vos praeparate ; sin alias, conquiescite, 
nemini damnum vel laesionem quomodolibet inferentes.' 

(/) 'Si', inquit, 'tarn familiaris existis Deo, vade et 
curre pedibus super aquam, ut habere possimus certitudi- 
nem quod verus es Dei nuncius '. 

10. Trace carefully with the help of your authorities 
the steps in the deposition of Richard II. 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY, 



Eevolution of 1688. 
I. 

[Questions marked * should he attempted,'] 

1. What light do your authorities throw on the move- 
ments of James and on his state of mind during the 
months which elapsed between the birth of his son and 
his own departure from England '? 

2. How far did the Whigs of the Revolution justify 
their actions by appealing (a) to history, and {h) to 
theories of an original contract ? 

3. * You have lost the hearts of great part of your 
people' (Wharton to King William, Dec. 25, 1689). 
What precisely were the mistakes which the Whigs 
condemned in William, and how far were their com- 
plaints reasonable ? 

4. Describe the religious settlement effected in Scot- 
land after the Revolution. How did its results compare 
with those of the reliorious settlement in England '? 

5. Discuss the part played by the Navy from the out- 
break of the war down to the battle of La Hogue. 

6. Discuss the trustworthiness of Burnet with special 
reference to his accounts of Nottingham and Marlborough. 

*7. Comment on/oiir of the following from Burnet : — 

(a) So that knowing nothing against any, even 
torture itself could not have drawn from me that by 
which any person could be hurt. 

(b) He asked me, why we had not an association 
signed by all that came to us, since, till we had that 
done, we were as a rope of sand. 

(c) He resolved neither to act for nor against the 
king's interest . . . but he was a poor-spirited and fear- 
ful man ; and acted a very mean part in all this great 
transaction. 

4 K 35 [Turn over. 



(d) So the first grievance, to which a redress was 
desired, was the power of the lords of the articles. 

(e) Some angry men at Oxford, who apprehended 
that those divines were likely to be most considered in 
this reign, took up the same method of calumny. 

*8. Comment on four of the following from Dal- 
rymple : — 

(a) We who subscribe this, will not fail to attend 
your Highness upon your landing. 

(h) If their fleet lie at St. Helens', whilst the rest 
land in Stokes Bay and Hampton Water, their fleet 
being so much superior, as I find they are, both in 
number and quality, I am at a stand what to do. 

(c) I know not whether the Queen does give Your 
Majesty any account of my lord Anandale's confession 
to her this day, concerning the transactions which have 
been since December last, betwixt the late king and 
sir James Montgomery, my lord Ross, and himself. 

{Caermarthen to K. William,) 

(d) The commissioners of the admiralty have been 
here in a body, at the cabinet councill, to name 4 
persons^ out of which they desired me to chuse two flags. 

(e) God knows whether the 12,000 Z. sterling had 
been better employed to settle the Highlands or to 
ravage them. (Secretary Stair to Lord Breadalhane.) 

*9. Comment on four of the following : — 

(a) And be it further enacted . . . That [if] any arch- 
bishop, or bishop, or any other person now having any 
ecclesiastical dignity, benefice or promotion shall neglect 
or refuse to take the oaths by this act appointed . . . 
every such person . . . is . . . suspended from the exe- 
cution of his . . . oflice by the space of six months. 

(Documents.) 

(b) And it was no wonder, when a Jesuit and Papist 
sat in council, that all corporations were subverted, and 
parliament-men closeted. (Sir Rob. Howard.) 

(c) For which Reason, my lords, the commons can- 
not agree to the first Amendment, to insert the word, 
' deserted ', instead of ' abdicated ' because it doth not, 
in any sort, come up to their sense of the thing. 

(Mr. SoMERS.) 



(d) And, in case that the said attack or molestation 
shall be followed with an open rupture, the ally who 
shall not be attacked shall be obliged to come to a rup- 
ture two months after the first demand made by the ally 
already engaged in a rupture. 

(e) We ought to come to some conclusion, how far 
Pardons are pleadable, against an Impeachment. 

(Sir W. Williams.) 

(/) The house has sent for you, to desire you to 

inform them, whether the Judges were sent to, to meet 

together in sir Edward Hales' case 1 (The Speaker.) 

(g) That it is the judgment of this Committee that 
two or three be appointed to wait on the Queen to know 
the cause of this difference, and to receive an answer 
from the Princess. (Mr. Wharton.) 

10. Do you consider that the policy of James II in 
Ireland was conceived in the best interests of the Irish 
people ? 



[T.T\ 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Bevolution of 1688. 

II. 

[Questions marked * should bs atterapted.] 

1. Illustrate from your authorities the military charac- 
teristics of the several nationalities which were repre- 
sented in the Irish Wars. 

2. What light do your authorities throw on the 
relations between the two Houses of Parliament and on 
their respective importance ? 

3. Compare the historical value of Cobbett and Bonnet 
with reference to the session of 1692-3. 

4. Sketch the character of the fij-st Duke of Shrews- 
bury, and describe his career from 1688 to 1697. 

5. 'The terms were too much to the advantage of 
France.' (Burnet.) Discuss the justice of this criticism 
of the Treaty of Ryswick in view of the military, naval, 
and financial situation of England, 1695-7. 

6. Sketch the history of the proposal for Triennial 
Parliaments. What led to the long delay before the 
Act was passed ? 

*7. Comment on four of the Ibllowing passages from 
Burnet : — 

(a) In it, he said, he looked on all as lost ; and 
ended it thus ; I have no hope in anything but in 
Jones s business, 

(b) The house of Commons passed a vote, to raise 
a million of money out of the forfeitures and confisca- 
tions in Ireland. 

(c) The French succeeded in the siege of Namur; 
a place of great importance, that commanded both the 
Maese and Sambre, and Covered both Li^ge and Maes- 
tricht. 

4 K 36 [Turn over. 



(d) Sunderland had brought the king to this change 
of councils, by the prospect he gave him of the ill con- 
dition his affairs were in, if he did not entirely both 
trust and satisfy those, who, in the present conjuncture, 
were the only party that both could and would support 
him. 

(e) There were indeed presumptions that the marquis 
of Caermarthen had taken a present of 5,000 guineas, 
which were sent back to Sir Thomas Cook, the morning 
before he was to make his discovery. 

(/) One bank working against another and the 
goldsmiths against both, put us to great straits. 

*8. Comment on three of the following : — 

(a) The Spanish minister does not concur in re- 
quiring the mediation, not being yet satisfied in the 
point of his re-unions : he would have this affair decided 
in the preliminaries. (Coxe.) 

(b) Peace never was the design of the Germans, but 
to keep England and Holland in an expensive war. 

(CoXE.) 

(c) II sera perm is aux sujets des Seigneurs Etats 
generaux d'apporter, faire entrer et debiter en France 
et dans les pais conquis, librement et sans aucun em- 
peschement, du Harang sal^ et ce nonobstant tous edits 
a ce contraires. (Vast.) 

(d) Lesquels ostages resteront entre ses mains jusqu a 
la restitution cy dessus conveniie des Chateaux de Mont- 
melian, de Suze et citadelle de Pinerol rasee. (Vast.) 

*9. Translate and comment on four of the following 
from Bonnet : — 

(a) lis pr^tendent memes qu'un AUid ne doit point 
mettre de nouveaux droits sur les marchandises, qu'on 
apporte du pays de I'autre sans son consentement. 

(b) Le dit Sr. Clarges accourut a la Chambre, et dit, 
qu'au lieu de 3 jours qu'il I'avoit accuse d avoir perdu 
aux Dunes, il savoit depuis qu'il y a avoit 6. 



3 

(c) II passa plus loin sur le Comte de Solmes (qui 
n'est point aim^ ici) et en le d^signant, il dit qu'il avoit 
este la cause de la perte de tant de braves Anglois, dans 
le combat de Steinkerke. 

(d) On a fait la distribution de quelques Charges 
importantes, qui ont toutes este pour des Whigs a bruler, 
ce qui est apparemment I'antidote qu'on leur reservoit 
pour le refus du Bill Triennal. 

(e) Les uns pretendirent qu'il n'y avoit point de 
proportion entre le nombre de 93/m hommes, dont on 
vouloit chai'ger I'Angleterre, et entre ce que les autres 
alliez fournissent, quoy qu'elle ne soit pas si directement 
interess^e dans une guerre par terre, comme ils le sont. 



[T, T, 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Brithh India. (1773-1805.) 

I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. Write an imaginary letter, based on your study of 
Hastings' letters and papers, in which he is to defend 
himself and his administration with regard to his treat- 
ment of (a) Cheit Sing, (b) the Rohillas. 

2. Compare the conception of the English power and 
position in India, as it is set forth by Hastings in his 
letters and papers, with that contained in Wellesley's 
Despatches and Minutes. 

3. State Grant Duff's views with regard to — 

(a) the dispute between the Bengal and Bombay 
Presidencies in connexion with the first Mahratta war. 

(b) the character and policy of Nana Furnuwees. 

4. Show how Wilks deals with — 

(a) the incompetence of the Madras government in 
the time of Hastings ; 

(6) the origin and justification of Cornwallis's war 
with Tippoo. 

5. ' On the authority of the orders conveyed in this 
letter, Lord Cornwal]is proceeded to notify to the land- 
holders the permanency of the settlements,' 

On what grounds did Cornwallis contend that it 
was expedient to do this, and what evidence as to the 
results is given in the Report of the Select Gomimittee^ 
1812^ 

6. * Forgive me the boast when I add that I have been 
the instrument of rescuing one presidency from infamy, 
and both from annihilation.' 

(Hastings to Lord Shelburne, 1782.) 
Do the action and policy of Hastings justify this 
boast 1 

4 K 27 [Turn over. 



7. Draw a map of India south of the Nerbudda, to 
illustrate the war against Hyder Ali and his son, 1780-4, 
and wiite explanatory notes. 

*8. Explain and comment on jive of the following 
extracts from Gleig : — 

(a) I expect to be much abused for my choice of the 
Dewan, because his father stands convicted of treason 
against the company, while he was the servant of Meer 
Jaffier, and I helped to convict him. 

(b) It would be a grievance to deprive the people of 
the protection of their own laws, bub it would be a wanton 
tyranny to require their obedience to others of which they 
are wholly ignorant. 

(c) I have just received yours^ and read in it with 
infinite pleasure that you had surmounted all your 
difficulties, and were preparing to proceed to Lahassa. 

{d) The subject which I allude to is the definition of 
the powers of the Governor- General as distinguished from 
the Board at large. 

{e) Sometime in the month of October a summons 
was granted by one of the judges of the Court against 
the Rajah of Cossijura, who applied to the Board for 
instructions. 

(/) It covered Carnac's expedition. It was the key 
of Hindostan. It opened a communication to Malwa; it 
was a pledge for the Ranna's fidelity. 

(g) Mr. Pitt with great ability defended the rights of 
the Company, but weakened his own argument, by main- 
taining a profound silence with regard to every argument 
of his adversary which bore any relation to me. 

*9. Explain and comment on five of the following 
extracts : — 

(a) The monopoly of the opium, produced from the 
culture of the poppy, is the third principal branch of the 
East India Company's territorial revenue in India. 

{Report of \^\2.) 

(h) The annual charge to the Vizier for the temporary 
brigade was about twenty-three lacs of rupees. 

(Malcolm.) 



(c) I should leave the subject imperfect, were I not 
to add, that the Mahrattas possess alone, of all the 
people of Hindustan and Decan, a principle of national 
attachment. (Hastings.) 

(cZ) At length, having certain accounts of the Governor- 
General's arrival at Lucnow, I was convinced that no 
better opportunity could ever occur for my going to him, 
to disclose the wishes of His Majesty. 

(Prince Jehandar Shah's Narrative.) 

(e) The system for the administration of criminal 
justice under the direction of a Naib Nazim has long 
attracted my serious attention. (Cornwallis.) 

(/) I never can or shall think it is good economy to 
put men into places of the greatest confidence, whej-e they 
have it in their power to make their fortunes in a few 
months, without giving them any salaries. (Cornwallis.) 

[g) I am not vain enough to suppose that the military 
operations would be conducted with more success by myself 
than by General Medows. (Cornwallis.) 

Qt) But the siege having actually advanced to the 
point which has been described, it is indisputable that 
the fate of the campaign, and perhaps of the war, was 
necessarily cast upon a single chance. (WiLKS.) 



{T, T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 

II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. What considerations appear to have influenced Sir 
John Shore in his policy of non-intervention with regard 
to the Nizam? Did events justify or condemn this 
policy ? 

2. Was the second Sindia more dangerous to English 
interests in India than the first ? 

3. Compare the difticulties caused respectively to 
Hastings, Cornwallis, and Wellesley by the legal and 
constitutional relations between the English Government 
at home and the Government in India. 

4. How far do the policy and actions of Lord Wellesley 
as Governor-General bear out and illustrate his brother 
Arthur's dictum that war between England and France 
was ' the hypothesis upon which all Indian politics 
should turn ' ? 

*5. Explain and comment on five of the following 
extracts : — 

(a) Whatever animadversions may be excited by 
the political measures of his (Cornwallis's) non-military 
successor, towards this declining and dependent power, 
it must in candour and justice be constantly remembered 
that he was left by his military predecessor in a predica- 
ment which liberal candour can scarcely be brought to 
justify. (WiLKS.) 

(b) The independent power of Madhajee Sindia was 
first recognized by the British Government in the Treaty 
of Salbhye. (Malcolm.) 

(c) The movements of the Afghan monarch, and the 
local weakness of the Mahrattas, induced the English 
Government to make some preparations. (Malcolm.) 

4 K 30 [Turn over. 



(d) It will gratify, in place of injuring the feelings 
of the Indian officers. It will promote in place of hurting 
their interest ; to obtain rank in the King's army is the 
great object of their ambition. 

{Memoranchim by Dundas.) 

(e) This demise, which happened on the 27th of 
October, 1795, occasioned the most serious divisions 
among the Mahratta chiefs. (Malcolm.) 

(/) It will be recollected, that from this fortress 
(now dismantled) to Seringapatam, there is a choice of 
three routes. (Wilks.) 

(g) His (Tippoo's) failure against the English arose 
from the false policy of neglecting his most efficient 
arm. (W1LK8.) 

(h) The principal cause which actuated the British 
authorities in accommodating matters with the Raja of 
Bhurtpoor was an apprehended rupture with Sindia. 

(Grant Duff.) 

6. Summarize the reasons given by Wellesley for — 
(a) the Treaty of Hyderabad ; 

(6) the Treaty of Bassein. 

7. Draw a map of India north of the Nerbudda, to 
illustrate the war against the Mahrattas during Wellesley 's 
administration, adding explanatory notes. 

8. How far do we find in Wellington's despatches 
proofs of his statesmanship, as well as of his military 
genius 1 

*9. Explain and comment on Jive of the following: — 

(a) A copy of a proclamation, issued at the Mauritius 
in the month of March last, has been transmitted to our 
several Presidencies. (Wellesley.) 

(6) To have divided the whole territory equally 
between the Companj^ and the Nizam, to the exclusion 
of any other state, would have affi^rded strong grounds 
of jealousy. (Wellesley.) 

((') The complete defeat and dispersion of the enemy's 
force, and, above all, the death of Dhoondiah, put an end 
to this warfare. (Wellington.) 



(d) A cypher was composed and actually introduced 
into the separate and secret correspondence between the 
Nabob Mahomet Ali and Tippoo Sultaun. (Wellesley.) 

(e) It would be extremely advantageous to furnish 
me with a distinct rule for my guidance with regard to 
the operation of my commission as Captain-General of 
the land forces over the island of Ceylon. (Wellesley.) 

(/) I should be without hope indeed, if I could be 
persuaded that so great an establishment, especially of 
a European description, was necessary to be kept up for 
the security of our Asiatic possessions. 

(DuNDAs to Wellesley.) 

(g) As you are a judge of military operation, and as 
I am desirous of having your opinion on my side, I am 
about to give you an account of the battle. 

(Wellington.) 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self-Government, 

I. 

[Candidates are ex'pected to atterri'pt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Explain the changes made in the Constitution of 
Nova Scotia in 1758; how far did they anticipate respon- 
sible government ? 

*2. How far was the proclamation of 1763 of practical 
effect in Canada ? 

*3. ^ I defy you to produce a single instance in which 
a conqueror went to take away from a conquered 
province, by one rough stroke, the whole of their con- 
stitution, the whole of their laws under which they lived, 
and to impose a new idea of right and wrong, of which 
they could discern neither the means or the end.' 

(TliURLOW.) 

' Now, sir, I never yet knew it was found a grievance 
to any nation to give them the English laws, the English 
constitution.' (Barre.) 

{Debates on Quebec Act, 1774.) 

Discuss the propriety and legality of the two views 
here stated. 

■^4. ' In fact the Assembly of Lower Canada, while they 
used all the weapons of freedom, while they used the 
constitutional arguments for the prevalence of free con- 
stitutions, were usiug those arguments in order to 
establish a gross monopoly in the hands of their own 
race and to exclude from the enjoyment of those rights 
— to which they were entitled — the general body of 
British inhabitants. ... In fact the Assembly used the 
weapons of Hampden in support of the principles of 
Wentworth.' (Lord J. Russell, March 23, 1840.) 

Explain and comment on these allusions. 

5. What different methods for constituting an Upper 
Chamber were put forward in the Constitutional Act of 
1791, and in the British North America Act of 1867? 
Give the reasons for the scheme eventually adopted in 
each case and estimate the practical success achieved. 

4 K 33 [Turn over, 



6. ' The policy of Sir Charles Metcalfe had the dangers 
of the S3^btem adopted )>y Sir Francis Head without the 
advantages of that adopted })y Lord Sydenham.' 

How far would you accept this criticism ? 

7. Explain the political importance of the Clergy 
Reserves Question. 

*8. ' The inhabitants of Lower Canada were un- 
happily initiated into self-government at exactly the 
wrong end, and those who were not trusted with the 
management of a parish, were enabled, by their votes, to 
influence the destinies of a state.' 

Give illustrations of this statement. 

9. ' I trust also that I have proved to your Lordship 
(Lord J. Russell) that the Colonial Constitutions, as they 
at present stand, are but a medley of uncertainty and 
confusion . . . and that, whether Sir Francis Head's 
interpretation or your own be adopted, neither offer 
a security for good government.' (Howe.) 

Explain and comment upon the allusion. 

10. Comment on jive of the following passages from 
Lord Durham's Report : — 

(a) It is not anywhere a virtue of the English race 
to look with complacency on any manners, customs, or 
laws which appear strange to them. 

(6) I know ... of no difference in the machinery of 
government in the old and new world that strikes an 
European more forcibly than the apparently undue im- 
portance which the business of constructing public works 
appears to occupy in American [i.e. Canadian] legislation. 

{c) It cannot be doubted, however, that there were 
many of the party who wished to assimilate the institu- 
tions of the Province rather to those of the United States 
than to those of the Mother Country. 

(d) The contest, which appeared to be thus com- 
menced on the question of the responsibility of the 
Executive Council, was really decided on very different 
grounds. ... A great portion of the people really imagined 
that they were called upon to decide the question of 
separation by their vote. 



(e) The Irish Catholics complain very loudly and 
justly of the existence of Orangeism in this Colony. 
They are justly indignant that, in a Province which 
their loyalty and bravery have materially contributed 
to save, their feelings are outraged by the symbols and 
processions of this association. 

(/) An elective executive council would not only 
be utterly inconsistent with monarchical government, 
but would really, under the nominal authority of the 
Crown, deprive the community of one of the great 
advantages of an hereditary monarchy. 

(g) I was fully aware that a federal union would, in 
many cases, produce a weak and rather cumbrous govern- 
ment ; that a colonial federation must have, in fact, little 
legitimate authority or business, the greater part of the 
ordinary functions of a federation falling within the scope 
of an imperial legislative executive. 



[T. T, 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self -Government, 

11. 

[Gandldates are recommended to attemiyt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Explain Dui-ham's views of the proper trade rela- 
tions between the Mother Country and British North 
America, and explain how, why, and when these were 
modified. 

2. Account for the failure of the legislative union of 
the two Canadas. 

3. ' This dependence of the Colonial Executive on the 
Colonial Parliament . . . constitutes . . . the essential 
divergence between the constitution of our self-govern- 
ing colonies and all foreign systems. From this point 
of view the charge of " official mendacity " brought 
by a learned writer against the preamble of the British 
North America Act 1867 because it recites the wish 
of the Canadian provinces to be federally united into 
one Dominion ("with a constitution similar in principle 
to that of the United Kingdom ") cannot be sustained.' 

(Sir H. Jionkyns' Britii<h Ride and Jurisdiction.) 
Criticize this statement. 

*4. ' The real desire among many statesmen in Canada 
was for a legislative union, but this being impracticable 
the closest form of federal union was sought for and 
attained ! ' 

How far do your authorities support this judgement ? 

5. ' There are persons in this country and some also 
in the North American Provinces, who are ill-natured 
enough to say that not a little of the loyalty that is said 
to prevail in Canada has its price. I think it is natural 
and reasonable to hope that there is in that country 
a very strong attachment to this country. But if they 
are to be constantly applying to us for guarantees for 
railways and for fortresses and for works of defence; if 
everything is to be given to a nation independent in 
everything except Lord Monck and his successors, and 
4 K 34 [Turn over. 



except in the contributious we make for these public 
objects, then I think it would be far better for them and 
for us — cheaper for us and less demoralizing for them — 
that they should become an independent state.' 

(John Bright, 1867.) 

Was the colonial policy here criticized adopted in 
practice by the Mother Country ? 

6. ' Every movement towards political union in British 
North America has had an economic stimulus.' 
Would you accept this judgement ? 

*7. At what points in the nineteenth century has 
the influence of the United States directly affected the 
political institutions of Canada? 

■^"8. What is meant by saying that the Canadian Con- 
stitution is ' amendment-proof ' ? 

9. ' In closing my observations on the distribution of 
powers, I ought to point out that just as the authority 
of the Central Parliament will prevail whenever it may 
come into conflict with the Local Legislatures, so the 
residue of legislation, if any, unprovided for in the 
specific classification which I have explained, will belong 
to the central body.' (Lord Carnarvon, 1867.) 

How far has this state of things been realized? 

10. ' So long as the United States think it desirable 
to hem themselves in with the bounties and restrictions 
of a jealously protective system, so long it will be the 
obvious interest of British North America to open her 
ports to the free entrance of commerce.' (lb.) 

Comment on this prophecy. 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OP MODEEN HISTORY. 



The French Republic of 1848. 

I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt questions marked *.] 

1. ' Guizot was himself persuaded that a measure of 
parliamentary reform was inevitable, since the opinion 
of the country was in its favour. But the opinion of 
parliament was against it, and he preferred to fall^ to- 
gether with the monarchy, in obedience to parliament 
rather than to triumph by public opinion.' (AcTON.) 

Do your authorities suggest that this is a true 
explanation of Guizot 's motives and policy in 1847-8 ? 

2. Account for the respect shown to religion by the 
Provisional Government of Feb. 24, 1848, and estimate 
the influence of the Church on the elections which 
followed. 

*3. Comment on the following passages from Lamartine, 
illustrating them, where possible, from your other authori- 
ties : — 

{a) En 11 n mot la garde nationale par ses murmures 
croyait faire de I'opposition dans la rue, quand clle faisait 
d^ja une revolution. 

{b) Les opinions pla^aient M. Barrot sur les dernieres 
limites de la monarchie. Son eloqi^ence ^tait de nature 
a faire la force et I'eclat d'un ministere ; son caractere 
d'une puret^ incontest^e, quelquefois flechi par des 
complaisances et des indecisions d'esprit, jamais par des 
faiblesses de coeur, faisait de lui une idole serieuse et 
inviolable de la bourgeoisie lib^rale. C etait I'opposition 
personnifi(^e, mais I'opposition desinteress^e de tout autre 
ambition que celle de la gloire honnete. 

(c) 'Allons, lui dit-il, mon cher Dumoulin, voila 
I'abdication du roi et la regence de la duchesse d'Orl^ans 
que j'apporte au peuple. Aidez-moi a les faire accepter.' 
En disant ces mots, le marechal [Gerard] tend un papier 
au colonel Dumoulin. Mais le rt^publicain Lagrange, 
plus leste que Dumoulin, arrache la proclamation de la 
main du general, et disparait sans la communiquer au 

4 K 17 [Turn over. 



peuple. Ce geste enleva la r^gence et le tr6ne a la 
dynastie d'Orleans. La Republique se fut peut-etre 
arret^e devant un nom de femme. 

(d) Le jour ou Ton apprit ce pretendu triomphe de 
la dynastie d' Orleans Lamartine s'dcria devant plusieurs 
hommes politiques : ' La maison d'Orleans aura cess^ de 
r^gner en France pour avoir voulu regner aussi en 
Espagne. Avant deux ans la revolution sera faite a Paris.' 

4. Dans toute Industrie capitale, celle des machines, 
par exemple, ou celle de la soie ou celle du coton, ou 
celle de Timprimerie, il y aurait un atelier social faisant 
concurrence a 1' Industrie privt^e. La lutte serait-elle 
bien longue ? Non, parce que I'atelier social aurait sur 
tout atelier individuel I'avantage qui resulte des econo- 
mies de la vie en commun, et d'un mode d'organisation 
ou tons les travailleurs, sans exception, sont interesses a 
produire vite et bien. La lutte serait-elle subversive? 
Non, parce que le gouvernement serai t toujours a meme 
den amortir les effets, en empechant de descendre a un 
niveau trop bas les produits sortis de ses ateliers. 

(Lours Blanc, Organisation du travail.) 
Comment on this passage. Was any attempt made 
to carry out this scheme in 1848 ? 

*5. Comment on the following passages from Oclilon 
Barrot, illustrating them, where possible, from your other 
authorities : — 

(a) C'^tait une anarchic administrative complete. 
Souvent deux commissaires se rencontraient dans le meme 
siege, s'y disputaient le pouvoir et donnaient le spectacle 
grotesque de leurs luttes aux populations, qui se permet- 
taient quelquefois de les chasser tons deux. 

(b) lis (ces membres moderns du Gouvernement 
provisoire) ont beaucoup dit, pour leur justification, 
qu'ils avaient et6 entraines par un mouvement devenu 
irresistible, et qu'ils n'avaient fait que ceder a la ndcessit^. 
L'excuse manque de \4rii6, en fait. L'efFet de quelques 
enfants perdus des societ^s secretes, s'il eut ^t^ laisse 
a lui-meme et a ses propres forces, n'eiit produit qu'un 
ddsordre passager. Ce sont eux qui ont procure a cette 
folic entreprise la consistance d'une revolution. Cela 
suffit pour leur en faire supporter moralement la respon- 
sabilite. 



(c) ' Ci toy ens, il ne faut pas que vous veniez a en 
etre forces de violer vous-memes le principe de voire souve- 
rainetd' (Seizieme Bulletin, IGavril 1848. Barrot.) 

(d) * On a proclame le suffrage universel . . . est-il 
I'expression de la volonte du peuple? Oui, dans une 
socyt^ ou toutes les conditions seraient egales.' 

(Louis Blanc.) 

6. Account for Louis Blanc's unfavourable criticism of 
the social and industrial condition of England. 

7. ' Sachez bien que, pour briguer I'honneur de singer a 
I'Assembl^e nationale, il faut etre pur de la tradition du 
passe.' (Ledru-Rollin, 12 March, 1848. Barrot.) 

Point out the effects of this declaration on tlie 
policy of the Provisional Government. 

*8. L'esprit de violence, difficile a contenir, datait seu le- 
nient du 24 f^vrier, ct pourtant pendant trois mois je 
I'avais contenu, et si j 'avals obtenu la seule chose que 
demandaient les ouvriers, et que je reclamais pour eux, 
du travail professionnel, il eut disparu. (fiMiLE Thomas.) 
Explain and justify this assertion, showing how far 
it conflicts with the views of Ducamp and Falloux. 

9. ' If France rejects thee, 'tis not thine 
But her own exile that she utters. 
Ideal France, the deathless, the divine, 
Will be where thy white pennon flutters.' 

(J. R. Lowell to Lamartine in 1848.) 
Discuss this estimate in conjunction w^ith the 
characterization of Lamartine by Tocqueville, Banot, 
and Ducamp. 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



The French Eefullk o/1848. 

n. 

[Gandidatea are expected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

*1. Comment on four of the following passages from 
the Rapport de la Commission de VEnquete sur Vln- 
svrrection : — 

(a) Les excitations de certains clubs ont engendrti 
la guerre civile : c'est sur eux que doit retomber le sang 
verse. 

(h) En admettant qu'il y ait un complot pour d^- 
tourner la manifestation de son but, la reconstitution de 
la Pologne, tous les partis paraissent d'accord pour en 
attribuer I'initiative a Blanqui. 

(c) Le secretaire lit le recit des massacres de Rouen. 
Cette lecture excite dans I'Assemblee un vif sentiment 
d'indignation. 

(d) Une des fautts les plus graves . . . est d'avoir 
mis les brigadiers a I'^lection. 

(e) Le Luxembourg taille une besogne surhumaine 
au Ministre de I'lnterieur, et la direction de la police fait 
aujourd'hui I'ouvrage de Penelope. 

(/') Les hommes des groupes a la porte Saint-Denis 
te'moignent du mecontentement de la demission de Louis 
Bonaparte. 

2. ' Les insurges combattirent sans cri de guerre, sans 
chefs, sans drapeaux, et pourtant avec un ensemble 
merveilleux et une experience militaire qui ^tonne les 
plus vieux ofiicieis.' How do you account for this 
characteristic of the June insurrection '? 

3. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the part of 
Paris occupied by the insurgents in June 1848, and 
explain in outline the attack carried out under 
Cavaignac's orders. 

4 K 18 [Turn over. 



*4 CoDiment on five of the following passages, illustrat- 
ing them, where possible, from your other authorities : — 

(a) Les plus vifs ^taient, sans contredit, ces memes 
gardes mobiles dont nous nous ^tions tant d^fids. 

TOCQUEVILLE. 

(6) Moi, qui d^testais les montagnards et ne tenais 
guere a la republique, mais qui adorais la liberte, je 
con9us, des le lendemain de ces journees, de grandes 
apprehensions pour elle. Tocqueville. 

(c) Cette revision ne pourrait avoir lieu que si 
I'Assembl^e nationale la demandait par une deliberation 
expresse, prise trois fois de suite aux quatre-cinquiemes 
des voix. Tocqueville. 

(d) La journ^e du 13 juin fit pousser des cris de dou- 
leur et de joie d'un bout du continent a I'autre. 

Tocqueville. 

(e) L'Assemblee nationale d^creta . . . que to us les 
insurges qui avaient ^te pris les armes a la main seraient 
immediatement deportds. Odilon Barrot. 

(/") Jem'opposai a cet ordre de proceder et demandai 
que la commission commen9at par constituer la commune. 

Odilon Barrot. 

(g) La Montagne elle-meme ne doutait pas a ce 
moment qu'au seul bruit de notre intervention armee la 
population romaine ne renon9at a sa republique et ne se 
jetat dans nos bras. Odilon Barrot. 

(h) Le jour ou un ministere vraiment parlementaire, 
et en pleine possession de la majorite, avait ^te remplac^ 
par des ministres, vdritables commis subordonnes, c'est 
bien ce jour-la que la premiere assise du trdne imperial 
avait 4t6 i-elev^e. Odilon Barrot. 

5. State and illustrate from your authorities the 
arguments for and against the establishment of two 
Chambers in the Constitution of 1848. 

6. What do you consider to have been the chances of 
a monarchist revival during the Second Republic ? 

7. * Les Idees Napoleoniennes is a programme rather 
than a history.' Examine this statement. 



*8. Comment on four of the following passages, illustrat- 
ing them, where possible, from your other authorities : — 

{a) As we passed the embarcadere of the Kouen 
railroad Mole and I got out of the carriage and walked 
up and down in the colonnade until we had decided who 
should be the ruler of France. Thiers. 

(5) I remember a meeting at which only Molt^, 
Broglie, Changarnier, the President and I were present, 
about six weeks after his election. The question was 
whether the time was not come 'pour en finir avec 
I'Assembl^e '. Thiers. 

(c) This was not a military revolution. It was 
a civil conspiracy employing a fraction of the army as 
its instrument. Lamoriciere. 

{d) M. Odilon Barrot qui est mort a quatre-vingts 
ans sans s'etre rendu compte de la revolution de F^vrier. 

Falloux. 

(e) Ne craignez-vous pas que I'histoire en r^pdtant 
votre mot: ' L'Empire est fait!' n'y ajoute: — ' Et 
M. Thiers I'a bien voulu "? Falloux. 

(/) A partir de ce jour (Nov. 17, 1851) la lutte 
etait termin^e. Les r^publicains s'immolaient eux- 
memes, tout en declarant la R^publique imp^rissable. 

Falloux. 

9. What light do your authorities throw on : the 
dismissal of General Changarnier, the election of Eugene 
Sue, the electoral law of May 31, 1851 ? 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy and Economic History, 

[Candidates must ansvjer questions from Loth jmHs 

of the paper ^ 

ft 

A. 

1. ' The changes in Mill's own convictions are a sign 
of the transition from the individualism of 1830-65 to 
the collectivism of 1900' (Dicey). What evidence of 
this transition do you find in Mill's Principles of Political 
Economy 1 

2. Discuss the ideas involved in anj^^icoof the follow- 
ing phrases : — (a) fixed capital, (6) unproductive labour, 
(c) normal value, {d) elasticity of demand. 

3. Indicate the chief points of similarity and differ- 
ence between wages and (a) profits, [h) rent. 

4. Work out the probable economic effects of raising 
by state authority the wages of agricultural labourers 
throughout England by 15 per cent. 

5. What principles should regulate the attitude 
adopted by a state towards trusts 1 

6. How far can fluctuations in trade be traced to the 
monetary and banking systems ? 

7. Explain the ambiguities underlying the phrase 
' equality of taxation '. In what way is it interpreted in 
our existing system of taxation 1 

8. Discuss the attitude of Mill towards the protection 
by tariffs of the infant industries of a colony or of 
an undeveloped country. Has recent evidence modified 
the view which he advocated ? 

4 K 38 [Turn over. 



2 



B. 

9. Estimate the importance of the communal element 
in the manorial system. 

Or, 
' In their assaults upon wealth some mediaeval 
writers assail the institution of private property.' How 
far do you consider this statement true ? 

10. ' The Navigation Acts began not with the Common- 
wealth but with Richard II, and are in reality the oldest 
of economic laws on a national basis.' Criticize this 
statement. 

11. Estimate the extent and examine the nature of 
the social and industrial evils in the reigns of the first 
three Tudors. 

12. Give the arguments for and against the utility 
of a national debt, illustrating your answer from the 
seventeenth and eiohteenth centuries. 

13. 'The Poor Law of 1834 was not, in the main, the 
product of economic theory, but was merely the extension 
of principles formerly applied in practice.' How far do 
you consider this statement a true one '^. 

14. Account for the rise and development of Trade 
Unionism from 1800-75. 

15. ' The Free Trade policy of England began not in 
1846 but in 1825.' Justify this statement. 

16. What do you know of any three of the following : — 
The Staple, King's Aulnager, Merchant Adventurers, 
Non- Enumerated Commodities, Walter of Henley's Hus- 
bandry, Libelle of English Policy. The Steel Yard. 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military Ilidory and Strategy. 

I. Campaign of 1796. 

[Candidates are reconionended to attempt the questions 

TYiarked *.] 

1. Describe the positions and condition of the Austro- 
Sardinian forces at the opening of the campaign of 1796. 

2. 'Jamais dans sa Correspondance ou dans ses 
Mem oi res, Napoleon ne parle de percer ou de rompie 
le centre des forces ennemies' (Colin). What does Colin 
regard as the chief object of the movements with which 
Napoleon opened the campaign of 1796 ? 

3. ' Wurmser's second attempt to relieve Mantna was 
as unnecessary and ill-advised as it was ill-executed and 
disastrous.' Discuss this statement and illustrate your 
answer with a sketch-map of the operations. 

4. ' Entrer en Allemagne ou se borner a I'Adige, c'cst 
pour lui une question d'eftectifs et pas autre chose ' 
(Colin). Would Clausewitz agree with this judgement? 

5. How far was Bonaparte in agreement with the 
Directory as to the course to be pursued in dealing with 
the other powers of Italy, and how far did the attitude of 
those powers influence his operations ? 

6. ' Clausewitz a le plus souvent compris, dans Ics 
operations de 1796, ce qui est audace ; mais ce qui est 
prudence lui e'chappe.' Do you consider this ciiticijsm 
of Colin's justified 1 

*7. Comment uiponfour of the following passages from 
Clausewitz : — 

(a) ' C'est cette situation meme que sut exploiter un 
general de 28 ans.' 

(b) ' Ce parti accueillit le general fran9ais comme le 
Messie.' 

(c) ' La honte de Lodi ne retombe que sur les 
troupes.' 

4 K21 [Turn over. 



{d) ' N'ayant plus de pare de siege et ne pouvant en 
rcconstituer, il fallut renoncer a reprendre le siege r^gu- 
lier/ 

(e) ' Bonaparte s'dlance, saute a bas de son cheval, 
harangue les troupes, leur rappelle Lodi.' 

(/) ' Get enveloppement est une caracteristique 
remarquable des Autrichiens ... lis veulent toujours 
moissonner avant d'avoir seme. ' 

(g) * Bonaparte a prdtendu, dans ses Memoires, que 
sa situation, a la veille de Tarmistice de Leoben, ne lui 
avait pas paru pdrilleuse.' 

*8. Comment upon any tuv of the following passages 
from Krebs et Moris : — 

(a) ' Cette operation donnait aux troupes une plus 
grande cohesion, mais elle n'augmentait pas le nombre 
des combattants.' 

(b) ' Bonaparte avait r^solu de percer ce cordon.' 

(c) ' Get echec assez grave etait du principalement 
a I'indiscipline des soldats, qui croissait de jour en jour.' 

*9. Gomment upon four of the following passages from 
Golin : - 

(a) ' II cherche done dans la victoire plus que la 
vietoire meme.' 

(h) ' Bonaparte e^tendit done son armde le long du P6 
pour obliger, avant tout, Beaulieu a diviser ses forces et 
son attention.' 

(c) ' Les Anglais eurent assez a faire en Corse pour 
ne donner d^sormais aucune inquietude a Livourne.' 

(d) ' Ce general pretend, dans ses Memoires, avoir 
trouv^ Bonaparte d^sesp^re, et lui avoir inspire la reso- 
lution de reprendre TofFensive contre Quasdanovitch.' 

(e) 'Les operations du 7 au 21 novembre ont pour 
but la defense sur la ligne de TAdige. V^rone en est le 
centre, le point essentiel.' 



^ ^ (/) C est un des principanx avantages qu'il trouve 
a sentourcr de detachements dune force respectable 
plutot que de simples postes.' 

^ (g)^ ' Intrigue et un peu inquiete par cette eonduite 
singuhere, Bonaparte suit I'armde autrichiennne dans sa 



retraite.' 



[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Military History and Strategy. 

II. Gamjxdgn of 1870. 

[Candidates are recommended to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Give some account of the organization and condition 
of the French Army in 1870. What were its special 
sources of weakness ? 

2. What account does Foch give of Moltke's pian of 
campaign for ISZO? How far does his version agree 
with that given by Moltke himself ? 

3. ' Mistakes in the original massing of the armies can 
hardly be retrieved in the whole course of the campaign ' 
(Von dfr Goltz). Apply this to the operations of 
Macmahon up to his arrival at Chalons. 

4. ' Batailles imprevues, improvisdes, impossibles a 
conduire ' (Foch). If this is a fair description of the 
battles of August 6-18, how do you account for the 
German victories 1 

5. ' Un chef fran9ais en Lorraine, s'inspirant du 
principe le plus ^l^mentaire de la guerre, . . . eut en 
attaquant le 8 aout, au plus tard, chavir^ a Forbach la 
strategic de Moltke basee sur une hypothese fausse en 
tout point ' (Foch). Discuss this statement. 

6. Explain the object and account for the result of 
Macmahon's attempt to reach Metz. Illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map. 

*7. Comment upon any four of the following passages 
from Foch : — 

(a) II ne se borne pas a preparer la journee du 
lendemain — ses vis^es s'etendent plus loin — mais celle du 
surlendemain. 

(h) Au moment oil Moltke prendra I'ofFensive, il n'y 
aura plus de reserve strat^gique. 

(c) Une arm^e est bien pres d'etre victorieuse quand 
du haut en bas de I'e'chelle un pareil ^lan T^lectrise. 

4 K 22 [Turn over. 



(d) La partie entreprise sur la rive gauche de la 
Moselle est done par organisation tr^s risqu^e. Elle ne 
pent r^ussir que dans le cas de I'immobilit^ complete 
de I'adversaire. 

(e) C'^tait par un appel constant a I'ascendant moral 
et, pour ce faire, par I'emploi continuel de I'ofFensive, 
qu'Alvensleben entreprenait et devait continuer de 
trancher la difficulte. 

(/) La IP arm^e avait re9u I'ordre de tourner I'aile 
droite ennemie avec le IX^ corps, la Garde devant servir 
de reserve. 

(g) Ne faut-il pas alors le reconnaitre pour le veritable 
vainqueur de la journ^e ? 

*8. Comment on any three of the following passages 
from Rousset : — 

(a) Ce fusil avait fait ses preuves en 1864 et 1866, et 
I'opinion g^n^rale lui attribuait la meilleure part des 
succes foudroyants obtenus dans cette derniere campagne. 

(b) Les pertes causees a I'adversaire par cette charge 
h^roique, dont le souvenir se perp^tue dans nos jeunes 
generations avec son aureole brillante de devouement et 
de grandeur, se bornaient a quelques hommes ; mais 
cependant le sacrifice de nos braves n'avait pas ^te 
sterile. 

(c) En laissant les 3^ et 4^ corps accepter la bataille, 
le marechal Bazaine avait singulierement compromis le 
succes de la retraite sur Verdun. 

(d) Grace aussi aux nouvelles si inconsiddr^ment 
donnees par les journaux, il savait maintenant ce qu'il 
lui importait tant de connaitre. 

(e) Ce chemin, qui ne figurait pas sur nos cartes^ 
etait au contraire d^ja porte sur les leurs. 

*9. Comment on not more than three of the following 
passages from Moltke's History : — 

(a) When war was declared it needed only the 
Royal signature to set the entire apparatus in motion 
with undisturbed precision. 

{h) The extended position of the First Army in 
a southerly direction towards the Saar had not been 
intended by the Commander-in-Chief. 



(c) The Army head- quarters restricted itself in the 
main to issuing general instructions, but in this instance 
it was deemed necessary to regulate the movements of 
each separate corps by direct orders. 

(d) Only one half of the men reached Flavigny 
alive . . . having succeeded by their devoted bravery in 
stopping further attack on Vionville. 

(e) At half past one, while the officers and men were 
at dinner, the Prussian shell dropped into the lines of the 
incautious enemy. 

*10. Comment on three of the following passages from 
Moltke's CorrespondancG militaire : — 

(a) Si les Fran9ais ont en vue un ddbarquement, il 
sera vraisemblablement efFectud sur les cotes de la mer 
du Nord et sans doute des le d^but des hostilit^s. Une 
fois les troupes de la France prises k partie sur leur 
propre territoire, une telle operation ne sera plus guere 
tentt^e. 

(h) Si les Fran9ai8 veulent utiliser completement 
leur r^seau ferre pour concentrei* toutes leurs forces le 
plus tot possible, ils sont forces de debarquer ... en deux 
groupes s^pards par les Vosges. 

(c) Les hauteurs de Spicheren seront occupies et 
d^fendues en cas d'attaque. 

(d) Cette derniere, qui se trouve a gauche, se main- 
tiendra en general a une ^tape en avant, de maniere 
a attaquer I'ennemi de front et sur son flanc droit s'il 
venait a faire tete, et a le refouler au nord de Paris. 

(e) Les francs-tireurs, n'etant pas des soldats, tom- 
bent, conformement a 1' article 2 de la Proclamation, sous 
le coup des lois de la guerre et sont passibles de mort. 

(/) Si I'ennemi p^n^trait sur le territoire beige sans 
etre immddiatement ddsarme, on devrait I'y poursuivre 
sans hesiter. 

[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Political Science, 



[Candidates are reminded that they are required to shoio 
a knoiuledge of the prescribed texts.] 

1. * The good citizen is not necessarily a good man ' 
(Akistotle). Explain and discuss this judgement. 

2. Show how Aristotle's conception of a deliberative 
assembly differs from the modern. 

3. Comment on the following passages from the Poli- 
tics of Aristotle : — 

(a) 'A multitude is a better judge of many things 
than an individual.' 

(6) ' The goodness or badness, justice or injustice, 
of laws is of necessity relative to the constitutions of 
states.' 

(c) * He who bids the Law rule may be deemed to 
bid God and Reason alone rule, but he who bids man 
rule adds an element of the beast.' (III. 16.) 

(d) ' The encroachments of the rich are more 
destructive to the state than those of the poor.* 

4. Show how the principles of the Constitution of 
Sparta approached the Aristotelian ideal of a City State. 

5. ' It was not unreasonable for Aristotle to maintain 
that the compact City State of Ancient Greece was the 
social home of all the individuals composing it ... In 
the modern world no such assertion is possible ' (Figgis). 
Explain and discuss this statement. 

6. ' Despite their differences as to political sovereignty 
both Hobbes and Locke were defenders of private pro- 
perty.' Account for the similarity of their views. 

7. Give the views of Hobbes on the liberty of the 
Press and of political opinion. 

4 K 37 [Turn over. 



8. ' Neither Ancient Law nor any other source of 
evidence discloses to us society entirely destitute of the 
conception of contract/ (Maine.) 

Show the bearing of this admission upon Maine's 
own opinion concerning the progress of society from 
Status to Contract. 

9. ' The attempt to construct a normal programme for 
all portions of mankind is idle and unscientific' 

(Maitland.) 

What bearing has this assertion on Maine's view of 
the origin of political society ? 

10. Distinguish between ius gentium and ius naturale, 
and show how far the distinction is of real importance. 

11. What should be the objects of State-punishment? 

12. Would the application of a Federal system to 
England and her self-governing Colonies necessarily 
destroy the flexibility of the Constitution ? 

13. ' Hobbes's theory of sovereignty finds its greatest 
justification in the centralizing tendencies of all modern 
governments.' How far would you consider this state- 
ment to be true ? 

14. ' The modern state must be based on racial unity. ^ 
Discuss this statement. 



[T, T, 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



Political Economy, 

Paper A. 

Currency and BanJcing. 



{Candidates are exjjected to attempt questions 
marked "^.J 

1. 'What is the engagement to pay a "pound"?' 
Describe the controversy suggested by this sentence. 

What bearing has the action of the Indian Govern- 
ment in fixing the Exchange value of the rupee upon 
that controversy ? 

2. Illustrate from your authorities the importance 
of the foreign exchanges in questions of Banking and 
Currency. 

3. Summarize the historical evidence afforded by your 
authorities — 

either, upon (a) The possibility of Bimetallism ; 

or, upon (b) The economic effects of high and low 
prices 1 

4. ' I wish to say as little as is fairly possible of the 
Act of 1844 ... so that those who have had enough of 
that well-worn theme . . . may not be wearied, and that 
the new and neglected parts of the subject may be seen 
as they really are.' (Bagehot.) 

How does Bagehot treat these ' new and neglected 
parts ' ? 

5. On what grounds did Huskisson argue that 
Mr. Western's motion of June 11, 1822, contained 
suggestions ^ which appear to be incompatible with 
every principle, not only of private right and individual 
justice, but of public honour and national faith ' ? 

*6. Explain, in reference to the context, five of the 
following : — 

(a) To ascribe the high price of gold in this country 
to its scarcity, seems to your committee to involve a 
misconception, which they think it important to explain. 

{Report 0/I8IO.) 

4 K 28 [Turn over. 



(h) Every Jewish pedler in Europe, indeed, was 
aware of our actual circumstances, and of the means 
of deriving profit from them. (Peel, 1819.) 

(c) Whenever the market price of gold should be at 
or below the mint-price of £3. 17s. lOjc?., I conceive 
that the circulation of paper cannot be excessive. 

(TOOKE, 1819.) 

(d) My first preference is to have nothing but 
a paper circulation, and the expedient I have proposed 
had that for its object. (RiCARDO, 1819.) 

(e) Tiie House did not withdraw its confidence from 
the Bank from any doubt of its wealth or integrity, but 
from a conviction of its total ignorance of the principles 
of political economy. (Ricardo^ 1819.) 

(/) John Bull can stand many things, but he cannot 
stand two per cent. (Bagehot.) 

(g) The price of gold is the index of the deprecia- 
tion of the currency, not the index of the value of the 
currency. (Ricardo, 1822.) 

7. Describe the objects of Peel's Act of 1844 as dis- 
closed in his speech. On what grounds did Mill argue 
that the theory of the Act was wholly erroneous, and 
that the Act ought to be repealed ? 

8. How far did the fall in the gold price of silver 
before 1893— 

(a) cause serious financial trouble to the Government 
of India ; 

(b) produce a serious effect upon the trade and com- 
merce between India and other countries ? 

•^9. Explain, in reference to the context, five of the 
following : — 

(a) I think it is much better that there should be 
no notes below £5 in England. (Mill.) 

(h) This one scheme of the fixed ratio mintage has 
had the monopoly of discussion . . . partly because it got 
the unfair advantage of calling itself by a name to 
which it had no title, calling itself bi-metallic. 

(Marshall.) 



(c) Mr. Palgrave has endeavoured to free the total 
index numbers from the objection that they fail to con- 
sider the relative importance of commodities. 

(Report of Gold and Silver Goononission.) 

(d) A Manchester merchant said to me, * We never 
heard of this silver question before 1873 '. (Foxwell.) 

{e) In the Indian currency system, as established in 
1835, silver takes the place wliich gold occupies in the 
English system, {Report on Indian Currency , 1893.) 

(/) The principal points of similarity are first of all 
the heavy annual indebtedness to foreign countries which 
exists both in Egypt and in India. 

(Sir Edgar Vinceist, 1898.) 

[(j) The general rate of interest will be raised by 
a gradual and anticipated fall in the value of currency. 

(Marshall, 1899.) 

(Ji) Custom does rule the general tenor of life in 
India, but it does uot, in my opinion, rule prices. 

(Marshall, 1899.) 

[T. T. 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Political Economy. 
Paper B. 

Piiblic Finance. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked "^.J 

1. 'The real enemy of sound finance is ignorance on 
the part of rulers and ruled' (Bastable). Do you 
consider that this dictum can fairly be illustrated by 
the history of Pitt's Sinking Fund scheme ? 

2. Describe and illustrate from your authorities the 
characteristics of the English financial system in the 
period succeeding the great war. Compare these 
characteristics with those of our modern financial 
system. 

3. Explain, shortly — 

{a) what advantage Pitt sought to derive from his 
plan for redeeming the Land Tax ; 

(b) the fiscal argument against export duties ; 

(c) the reasons for and against ad valorem duties. 

4. State briefly the Canons of Taxation laid down by 
Adam Smith, and consider whether either the Income Tax, 
or the Death Duties, as you find them in your authorities, 
conform to these canons. 

^5. Explain, with reference to the context, j^^-e of the 
following : — 

(a) Sie bilden so eine vermogenssteuerartige Ergan- 
zung der Einkommensteuer. (Wagner.) 

(6) Direct taxes on income should be reserved as an 
extraordinary resource for great national emergencies. 

(Mill.) 

(c) Twenty-seven years is too long a period to look 
forward to for the efiect of the plan. (Fox, 1786.) 

4 K 29 [Turn over. 



(d) The country ought to take warning, and prevent 
the right hon. gentleman and his colleagues from again 
inforcing upon them the burthen of the Property Tax. 

(Parnell, 1817.) 

(e) It seemed now to be his (Napoleon's) great object 
to destroy commerce altogether. (Huskisson, 1810.) 

(/) By which it will appear, that in the latter jea^r 
(1818), the debt to be redeemed would exceed the debt 
to be probably incurred, by the sum of £2,392,806. 

(Report of Govionittee oil Finance, 1S17.) 

(g) The great mass of the property of the nation is 
thus constantly increasing at compound interest . . . 
mobilitate vlget, viresque acquirit eundo. (Pitt, 1792.) 

6. Does the ' baffling problem of incidence ' appear to 
be (a) insoluble, (b) unimportant? 

7. 'In 1888 Mr. Goschen made a real effort to put the 
question of Local and Imperial Taxation upon a better 
business footing.' 

Explain the plan referred to in this statement, and 
the reasons which induced Goschen to resort to it. Do 
you know whether it has proved to be a success ? 

8. State and illustrate the principles upon which 
Peel began and Gladstone completed the Reform of the 
Tariff. Do Gladstone's budgets show a neglect of in- 
direct and an expansion of direct taxation ? 

*9. Explain, with reference to the context, five of the 
following : — 

(a) 1 think, Sir, we should not omit to take into 
consideration the effect that will, be produced by the 
termination of the contract with the Bank of England, 
with reference to the naval and military pensions. 

(Peel, 1828.) 

(h) These payments (bounties) are perhaps not more 
expensive than erroneous. 

(Report of Finance Committee, 1828.) 

(c) The present holders would continue to pay the 
tax (on realized or invested property) after they had 
parted with the property. I conceive therefore that the 
tax would be simple confiscation. (Mill, 1852.) 



(d) Take the great change in the Corn Laws ; it may 
be doubted whether, up to this time, you have given 
them cheaper bread ; but you have created a regular and 
steady trade in corn, which maybe stated at £15,000,000 
a year. (Gladstone, 1860.) 

(e) I think the finances of this country never gave 
stronger evidence of vitality, soundness, and elasticity 
than has been shown by what has happened since the 
war commenced. (Lowe, 1871.) 

(/) Two difierent sets of persons believe that they 
are paying the same rates at the same time. 

(GoscHEN, Draft Report on Local Taxation, 1870.) 

(g) The question of rating vacant building land 
remains to be considered. 

{Committee on Town Holdings, 1892.) 

{h) The tax (Land-Tax) is imposed upon the un- 
improved value of the land subject to the tax. 
(Answers of Self- Governing Colonies, New South Wales.) 



[T, T 1914.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Unseen Translations. 

[Two hours are allov:ed for this paper. Candidates are 
not required to offer more than one laagaage.l 

Translate : — 

(a) Oui, mon amour pour ma ville fut aussi fort 
que vous dites, Fra Ambrogio. Et les actions qu'il 
m'inspira sent dignes d'etre donn^es en example a nos 
fils. Pour que le souvenir ne s'en perdit point, je les 
ferais moi-meme e'crire, si j'avais la tete aux c'critures. 
Quand j'etais jeune, je trouvais des chansons d'amour 
dont s'dmerveillaient les dames et que les clercs 
mettaient dans leurs livres. A cela pres, j'ai tou- 
jours m^prise les lettres a Tegal des arts et Je ne 
me suis pas plus souci(^ d'dcrire que de tisser la laine. 
Que chacun, a mon exemple, agisse selon sa condition. 
Mais vous, Fra Ambrogio, qui etes un scribe tres savant, 
ce serait a vous de faire un recit des grandes entreprises 
que j'ai conduites. II vous en reviendrait de Thonneur, 
si toutefois vous les contiez non en religieux, mais en 
noble, car ce sont des gestes de noble et de chevalier. 
On verrait par ce discours que j'ai beaucoup agi. Et de 
tout ce que j'ai fait je ne regrette rien. J'etais banni, 
les guelles avaient massacre trois de mes parents. 
Sienne me re9ut. Mes ennemis lui en firent un tel grief 
qu'ils exciterent le peuple florentin a marcher en armes 
centre la ville hospitaliere. Pour Sienne, pour les 
bannis, je demand ai secours au fils de C^sar, au roi de 
Sicile. Je ne sais si Manfred avait appris a lire les 
destinees dans les ^toiles, mais il est vrai qu'il faisait 
grand cas de ses cavaliers sarrasins. II etait aussi 
prudent que brave, sage prince, avare du sang de ses 
hommes et de Tor de ses coffres. II rdpondit aux Siennois 
qu'il leur donnerait secours. II lit la promesse grande 
pour inspirer une egale reconnaissance. Quant a I'efFet, 
il le tint petit par cautele et de peur de se demunir. 
II envoy a sa banniere avec cent cavaliers aliemands. 
Les Siennois, de9us et depites, parlaient de rejeter ce 
secours d^risoire. Je sus les rendre mieux avise's et 
leur enseignai I'art de faire passer un drap dans une 
baorue. 

4 K .S9 [Turn over. 



(h) De Neufchateau a Vaucouleurs la Meuse coule 
libre et pure entre les peupliers qu'elle arrose, se joue tan- 
tot en brusques detours, tantot en longs circuits, et divise 
et reunit sans cesse les glauques filets de ses eaux, qui 
parfois se perdent tout a coup sous terre. L'ete, ce n'est 
qu'un ruisseau paresseux qui courbe en passant les 
roseaux du lit qu'il n'a presque pas creuse ; et, si Ton 
approche du bord, on voit la riviere, ralentie par des 
ilots de joncs, couvrir a peine un peu de sable et de 
mousse. Mais dans la saison des pluies, grossie de 
torrents soudains, plus lourde et plus rapide, elle laisse, 
en fuyant, une rosee souterraine qui remonte 9a et la, en 
flaques claires, a fleur d'berbe, dans la valine. Cette 
valine s'^tend, toute unie, large d'une lieue a une lieue 
et demie, entre des coUines arrondies et basses, cou- 
ronndes de chenes et de bouleaux. Bien que fleurie au 
printemps, elle est d'un aspect austere et grave et prend 
parfois un caractere de tristesse. L'herbe la revet avec 
une monotonie egale a celle des eaux dormantes. On 
3^ sent, meme dans les beaux jours, la menace d'un 
climat rude et froid. Le ciel y semble plus doux que 
la terre. II I'enveloppe de son sourire humide ; il est le 
mouvement, la grace et la volupte de ce paysage tran- 
quille et chaste. Puis, quand vient I'hiver, il se mele 
a la terre dans une apparence de chaos. Les brouillards 
y deviennent epais et tenaces. Aux vapeurs blanches et 
legeres qui flottaient, par les matins tiedes, sur le fond 
de la vallee, succedent des nuages opaques et de sombres 
montagnes mouvantes, qu'un soleil rouge et froid dissipe 
lentement. Et, le long des sentiers du haut pays, le 
passant matinal a cru, comme les mystiques dans leurs 
ravissements, marcher sur les nu^es. 

(c) Es ist schwer, Gregor gerecht zu beurteilen. 
Zwar daran zweifelt niemand, dass er unter den vielen 
grossen Papsten einer der gewaltigsten war, fast un- 
erreicht in dem hohen Flug seiner Gedanken und in der 
nachdriicklichen Kraft seines Willens. Aber damit ist 
nicht viel gesagt. Denn man kann die Grosse eines 
Mannes nicht nach der Starke seines Wollens und nach 
der Konsequenz und der Klilinheit seines Denkens allein 
bemessen. Nur der ist wahrhaft gross, bei dem Gedanke 
und Wille ihr Mass erhalten durch das GefUhl fiir das, 
was moglich ist, und durch das Streben nach dem, was 



3 

frommt. Wenn man Gregor mit diesem Massstab misst, 
so muss man urteilen, class die Geschichte reclit gerichtet 
hat, indem sie den Namen des Grossen nicht dem sie- 
benten, sondern dem ersten Gregor gab. Er gehort zu 
den Mannern, bei denen die Energie des Charakters 
tauscht uber die Grosse des Talents. Man kann das 
Urteil linden, dass er die Macht Roms gross gemacht 
habe, wie nie zuvor. Der Satz ist ein interessantes 
Beispiel flir jenen leicht verstandlichen Irrtum. Denn 
ganz vergeblich fragt man, wo der Gewinn liegt, den 
Rom von dem Regiment Gregors VII. gehabt hat. Sein 
Pontifikat war eine Kette von Niederlagen : nichts von 
dem, was er erstrebte, weder die Unterwerfung des 
Episkopats, noch die Beseitigung der fiirstlichen Macht 
in der Kii'che, noch die Unterordnung der weltlichen 
Gewalt unter die geistliche hat er erreicht : hier Uberall 
waren seine Absichten im Jahre 1085 von ihrer Ver- 
wirklichung weiter entfernt als im Jahre 1073. Sucht 
man den Grund, so ist unleugbar, dass die Schuld zum 
Teil ihn selbst trifi't. Indem er in seiner Leidenschaft- 
lichkeit einem immer hoher, umfassender gedachten Ziele 
zudrangte, machte er selbst jeden Erfolg seiner Bestre- 
bungen immoglich : er wollte die zweite Stufe be- 
schreiten, ehe die erste erreicht war. So handelt der 
grosse Politiker nicht. 

(d) Noi redammo le tradizioni dotte e gentili, e agli 
altri popoli le tramandammo ; fummo in gran parte 
i conservatori delle classicbe scritture e i primi loro 
chiosatori cd interpreti nelle nuove lingue ligliate o 
nobilitate dal Cristianesimo. Noi custodimmo e in- 
staurammo i miracoli dei latini e dei greci artefici ; e se 
molti di essi furono guasti, o predati o barbaramente 
distrutti, lo spoglio e lo sperpero, se place a Dio, non fix 
opera di mani italiche. Noi rinnovammo lo studio pelle- 
grino e fecondo delle belle arti e delle Lettere amene, 
e non solo emulammo, ma pareggiammo, e forse giun- 
gemmo in qualche parte a superare gli antichi ; perche 
i nomi di Dante, di Michelangelo e di RafFaello, o non 
han pari al mondo, o non han superiori in alcun luogo 
e tempo. Qual e, in qualsivoglia genere di sapere o di 
artifizio nobile e proficuo, il trovato o il rinnovamento, 
che non sia stato fatto e maturato, o almeno presentito 
e pieparato in Italia ? Tal fu la virtu dell' ingegno 



pelasgico risvegliato dalla clivina scintilla dopo un sonno 
di pareccbi secoli. Onde pare che all' Italia futura pih. 
ancora che a quella de' suoi tempi mirasse Plinio, qiiando 
scrisse le seguenti parole eloquenti e fatidiche : ' Terra 
alunna e madi-e insieme d'ogni paese, eletta dagl' Iddii 
per rendere piii bello il cielo, accozzare le genti sparse, 
addolcire i riti, afFratellare colla parola i popoli discordi 
e da barbare favelle disgiunti, dare a ciascuno consorzio 
umano e gentilezza, e brevemente, esser patria comune 
a tutte le nazioni del mondo.' 



[1\ 2\ 1914] 



No. 1737 Sixpence net 



OXFOED UNIYEESITT 

EXAMINATION PAPEES 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAIINATION 



HONOUK SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 
PREVIOUS EXAMINATION 



MICHAELMAS TERM, 1914 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 
116 HIGH STREET 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Outlines of European History^ 800-1494. 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions in 
each part of the paper, and among them one of 
those marked with an asterish^.^ 

A. 

1. ' The union and stability of his Empire depended on 
the life of a single man' (Gibbon). Discuss this verdict 
on the Empire of Charlemagne. 

2. Compare the effects on Gaul of the ravages of the 
Northmen in the ninth century with the effects on 
Germany and Italy of the ravages of the Magyars in the 
tenth century. 

3. Trace the growth and explain the causes of the 
schism between the Western and Eastern Churches 
down to the final rupture in 105 4. 

4. Discuss the importance in the history of the Middle 
Ages either of Paris or of Cordova. 

5. How far did the conception of Empire entertained 
by Otto III differ from that of Otto I ? 

6. Account for the rapid rise of the Papacy from the 
accession of Henry III to the Empire down to the acces- 
sion of Gregory VII to the Papacy. 

*7. How far can it be said that geography either {a) 
ruined the mediaeval Empire, or (b) made the success of 
the Capetian dynasty ? 

B. 

8. For what reasons may the latter half of the eleventh 
century be regarded as a great landmark in European 
history ? 

10 M 9 [Turnover. 



2 

*9. Discuss the importance of the reign of Alexius 
Comnenus in the history of the Byzantine Empire. 
Illustrate by a sketch-map the extent of that Empire at 
the end of his reign. 

10. Give some account of the political power and the 
culture of Norman Sicily in the twelfth century. 

11. Which reign would you regard as marking the 
zenith of the mediaeval Empire — that of Henry III, or 
that of Frederic I ? 

12. What signs of weakness or of failure may be 
traced in the pontificate of Innocent III ? 

13. Discuss any one of the following theses : — 

(a) Feudalism was not a disease. 

(b) A part of the serious historian's task is to get rid 
of renaissances. 

(c) Communia est tumor plebis, timor regni, tepor 
sacerdotii. 

(d) Abelard was the first Protestant. 
[M. T, 1914.] 



10 M 9 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

Previous Examination. 



Outlines of European History, 800-1494. 

II. 

[Candidates should attemipt at least two questions in 
each part of the paper, and among them one of 
those marked with an asterisk^.'\ 

A. 

1. What is the significance in German history of the 
reign of the Emperor Frederick II ? 

2. Examine the causes that led to the downfall of the 
Latin Empire of Constantinople. What were its per- 
manent results in Greece and the Levant ? 

3. Examine the influence exercised by St. Francis and 
the Franciscan Order during the thirteenth century. 

4. What was the conception of the papal office enter- 
tained by Pope Boniface VIII ? How far was he success- 
ful in giving effect to that conception ? 

*5. Illustrate, with the aid of a sketch-map, the 
territorial gains and losses of the French monarchy from 
the accession of Louis IX to the peace of Bretigny. 

6. How was Florence governed in the fourteenth 
century, and in what ways was her system of govern- 
ment affected by considerations of foreign policy ? 

B. 

7. How would you explain the success of the House 
of Habsburg in attaining the position which it had 
reached by the year 1440 ? 

*8. What were the reasons for the absorption of the 
Low Countries by the Dukes of Burgundy ? Show by 
means of a sketch-map the stages of this process. 

9. ' The Council of Constance is the end of the Middle 
Ages.' Explain this statement. 

10. Compare the constitutional development of France 
under Charles VII and Louis XI with that of Spain under 
Ferdinand and Isabella. 

11. Discuss the part played in the history of Europe 
by the House of Anjou after the year 1266. 

12. Describe the chief characteristics of the revival 
of learning in Italy during the fifteenth century. 

10 M 2 [if. r. 1914.] 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 
Previous Examination. 



Outlines of European History. 1494-1789. 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two Questions in 
each part of the paper , and among them one of those 
marked with an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. In what ways was the attitude of the Emperor 
Maximilian I towards the proposed reforms of the 
Empire affected by his foreign policy ? 

2. To what causes is the loss of her Mediterranean 
trade by Venice to be attributed ? 

3. Account for the rapid conquest of Naples by 
Charles VIII, and for his failure to retain possession of 
the kingdom. 

4. Describe the part taken by the Swiss in the Italian 
wars of Louis XII and Francis I. 

5. Is the policy of the Emperor Charles V towards the 
German Protestants open to the charge of being dis- 
honest ? 

*6. Why did Philip II succeed in suppressing the 
revolt of the Southern Netherlands'? Illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map. 

B. 

7. Compare the influence exercised by Calvin with 
that of Ignatius Loyola. 

8. To what causes would you attribute the arrest of 
Turkish advance in Europe after the death of Solyman 
the Magnificent ? 

9. Explain the importance of the Dukes of Guise in 
the religious wars of France. 

10 M 4 [Turn over. 



10. What were the contributions of Holland to Euro- 
pean thought and civilization in the first half of the 
seventeenth century"? 

11. Were the aims of Wallenstein wholly selfish? 

*12. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, the im- 
portance of the French acquisitions at the Peace of 
Westphalia. 



[M. T. 1914.] 



10 M 4 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY, 
Previous Examination. 



Outlines of European History. 1494-1789. 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two Questions in 
each part of the paper, and among them, one of 
those marked with an asterisk ^.^ 

A. 

1. Criticize the policy of Louis XIV towards the 
Jansenists. 

2. Explain the circumstances which led to the murder 
of John de Witt. 

*3. What were the terms of the Second Partition 
Treaty (1 700) ? Why did it fail ? Illustrate your answer 
by a sketch-map. 

4. Sketch the course of the struggle between Charles 
XII and Peter the Great. 

5. In what ways did the Regency 1715-23 mark 
a change in the domestic and foreign policy of France ? 

6. Is there any justification for the policy of Frederick 
the Great with regard (a) to Silesia in the War of the 
Austrian Succession, (h) to Saxony in the Seven Years' 
War, (c) to the first partition of Poland ? 

B. 

7. Can it be said that the Parlement of Paris re- 
presented the true interests of the country in its 
opposition to the crown during the reigns of Louis XV 
and Louis XVI ? 

8. * Here lies a man who never succeeded in anything 
he attempted/ Is this a true view of the life of the 
Emperor Joseph I1 1 

9. Discuss the significance of the suppression of the 
Jesuits. 

10 M 5 [Turn over. 



''^lO. What part did Russia play in the affairs of Western 
Europe between the opening of the Seven Years' War 
and the year 1789 ? Illustrate by means of a sketch-map 
her acquisitions of territory during this period. 

11. Compare the characters of Spanish and Austrian 
rule in Italy during the eighteenth century. 

12. How far was the growth of the Revolutionary 
Spirit in France due to the influence of men of letters ? 



[M. T. 1914.] 



10 M 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Original Texts. 

Aristotle, Politics I and III ; Tacitus, Germania. 

[Candidates should attempt at least three questions in 
each part, and among them, those marked with an 
asterisk *.] 

A. 

*1. Translate, and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) ^varei /leu ovv rj op/irj kv ttolo-lv eirl ttjj/ roiavrrju 
KOLvoaviav 6 8k Trpcoro? avcrri^a-a? /xeyLarcou dyadcoj/ aLTLo<s. 
axnrep yap Kal reXecodev ^(Xtlcttou tS>v ^Scou dpOpcoTro^ 

kcTTLV, OVTCO Kal )(^COpL(rOeU UOJjLOV Kal SiKTJS \eipL(TTOV 

TrdvTOiiv. 

(b) Kal €OLK€u S y' d\r)0Lvos 7rXovT09 €/c rovrcou 
eJuai (sc. xpr) fjLaTCou npb? ^o^)^^' dvayKatcou Kal ^p-qa-LjKxw 
eh KOLvcovtav TroXecoy rj oiKia^)' rj yap ttJj Toiavrrj^ 
KTrj(T€(i>s avTapKeLa 7rpo9 dyaOrju ^(or)u ovk dneLpos kcmv. 

(c) TpLa fjL€pr) Trj9 OLKOUOfjLLKrj? rjuf €U fxeu SeawoTLKrj 
, , , €v Se irarpLKij, Tphov 8\ yaynKri. 

*2. Translate, and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Eltt^p yap kcrri KOLvcovia tls t) TroAiy, eVr^ 81. 
KOLvcdvia ttoXltcov TToXLTeias, yLVOfievrj^ ire pa? rco €l8€l Kal 
8La(j>epova-r]S rrjs TroXireta? dvayKalov eluai 86^euv dv Kal 
rrfv ttoXlu eluai fxrj rrju avrrji/. 

(b) UoXXcou yap outcou eKaarou (sc. €u8e)(€TaL) fiopLov 
€)(eiJ' dperrjs Kal (Ppourjaeo)?, Kal ytveaOaL a-vfeXOovToau 
axnrep 'iva dvOpcoirov to ttXtjOo?, iToXv7ro8a Kal iToXv)(^€ipa 
Kal TToXXd? €)(out' al(T0r](T€L9, ovTco Kal rrepl rd rjOrj Kal 
TT^i/ 8LdvoLav. 

(c) Tov dpa vofjLOU dp^eiv alpeTdoTepou fidXXov rj tcou 
7ToXLTa>u eVa riud . . . Kav u Tiuas dp^eiv ^iXnou, tovtovs 
Karacrrarkov uo/xocpvXaKa?. Kal VTrrjpeTa? T0T9 u6fj.oi9, 

10 M 10 [Turn over. 



3. Contrast the application by Aristotle of the con- 
ception of * nature ' to politics with his application of that 
conception to economics. 

4. What light does the third book of the Politics 
throw on Aristotle's attitude to the principle of popular 
government ? 

5. What is Aristotle's view of the following : — 
17 opoXoaTaTLKT], TO uofjLLcr/jLaf TrapiKJSda-eLS tcou opOcov 
TroXiTeiSiv, oaTpaKia/jLO? ? 

B. 

*6. Translate, and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) lUud ex libertate vitium, quod non simul nee ut 
iussi conveniunt, sed et alter et tertius dies cunctatione 
coeuntium absumitur. Ut turba placuit, considunt ar- 
mati. 

(b) Sed et levioribus delictis pro modo poena : 
equorum pecorumque numero convicti multantur. Pars 
multae regi vel civitati, pars ipsi qui vindicatur, vel 
propinquis eius exsolvitur. 

(c) Exigunt enim a principis sui liberalitate ilium 
bellatorem equum, illam cruentam victricemque frameam ; 
nam epulae et quamquam incompti, largi tamen appa- 
ratus pro stipendio cedunt. 

^7. Translate, and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Sororum filiis idem apud avunculum qui apud 
patrem honor. Quidam sanctiorem artioremque hunc 
nexum sanguinis arbitrantur et in accipiendis obsidibus 
magis exigunt. 

(b) Multum, ut inter Germanos, rationis ac soller- 
tiae : praeponere electos, audire praepositos, nosse ordines, 
intellegere occasiones, differre impetus, disponere diem, 
vail are noctem, . . . quodque rarissimum nee nisi Romanae 
disciplinae concessum, plus reponere in duce quam in 
exercitu. 

(c) State tempore in silvam auguriis patrum et 
prisca formidine sacram omnes eiusdem sanguinis populi 
legationibus coeunt, caesoque publico homine celebrant 
barbari ritus horrenda primordia. 

lOMlO 



8. What traces can be found in the Germania of the 
idea of feudal relations between lord and man ? 

9. Discuss the position among the early Germans as 
described by Tacitus of (a) priests, (6) women, (c) slaves. 

10. What account does Tacitus give of the following : — 
decumates agri, Nerthus, the Cimbri, the concilium 
populi ? 



[M. T. 1914.] 



lOMlO 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Pkevious Examination. 



Original Texts. 

EiNHAED, Vita Caroli ; Joinville, Vie de Saint Louis ; 
Dante, De Monarchia I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions in each 
part of the paper, and among them those marked 
with an asterisk"^.] 

A. 

1. State what you know of the life of Einhard, and of the 
condition of arts and letters at the Carolingian Court. 

*2. Translate and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Franci siquidem facto sollemniter generali con- 
ventu ambos sibi reges constituunt, ea conditione prae- 
missa, ut totum regni corpus ex aequo partirentur, et 
Karolus earn partem, quam pater eorum Pippinus tenuerat, 
Karlomannus vero earn, cui patruus eorum Karlomannus 
praeerat, regendi gratia susciperet. 

(b) In quo proelio Eggihardus regiae mensae prae- 
positus, Anshelmus comes palatii et Hruodlandus Brit- 
tannici limitis praefectus cum aliis compluribus inter- 
ficiuntur. 

(c) Cum Aaron rege Persarum, qui excepta India 
totum poene tenebat orientem, talem habuit in amicitia 
concordiam, ut is gratiam eius omnium, qui in toto orbe 
terrarum erant, regum ac principum amicitiae prae- 
poneret solumque ilium honore ac munificentia sibi 
colendum iudicaret. 

(d) Franci duas habent leges, in plurimis locis valde 
diversas. 

3. What light is cast by Einhard's Vita Caroli on the 
government and administration of Charles the Great ? 

4. Estimate the true significance of the Coronation of 
Charles by Pope Leo. 

B. 

*5. Translate and comment on the following passages :^- 
(a) Sire, il nous semble que vous perd^s la terre que 
vous donnez au roy d'Angleterre, pour ce que il n'i a 
droit; car ses peres la perdi par jugement. 

10 M 1 [Turn over. 



(h) Li Beduyn ne croient point en Mahommet, 
ain9ois croient en la loy Haali, qui f u oncles Mahommet ; 
et aussi y croient li Vieil de la Montaigne, cil qui 
nourrissent les Assacis. 

(c) A ! seneschaus, j'ai pardue ma mere ! 

(cZ) Meismement les bones villes et les communes de 
ton royaume garde en I'estat et en la franchise oii ti 
devancier les ont gard^es. 

6. Summarize the effects of the fifth and sixth Crusades, 
and illustrate your answer by a map. 

7. Discuss the character of St. Louis, and estimate his 
services to France. 

8. Illustrate the relations of the Crown to the feuda- 
tories, as revealed by Joinville. 

C. 

9. What events led Dante to hope for a victory of 
the Ghibelline cause? 

10. Criticize the methods of reasoning adopted in the 
De Monarchia. From what sources did Dante draw his 
political ideas ? 

11. What was the position of Italian affairs which 
led Dante to write his De Monarchia ? 

*12. Translate and comment on the following passages 
from the De Monarchia, Book I : — 

(a) Secundo, an Romanus populus de iure monar- 
chiae officium sibi asciverit. 

(b) Si [consideremus] unam civitatem, cuius finis 
est bene sufficienterque vivere, unum oportet esse 
regimen ; et hoc non solum in recta politia, sed et in 
obliqua. 

(c) Sed homines propinquius monarchiae sunt, quam 
aliis principibus. 

{d) Rationibus omnibus supra positis, experientia 
memorabilis attestatur ; status videlicet illius mortalium, 
quem Dei Filius in salutem hominis hominem assum- 
pturus vel expectavit, vel cum voluit ipse disposuit. 

10 Ml [If. r. 1914.] 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Original Texts. 

Sully, Economies royales. 

Saint-Simon, Memoires, 

Rousseau, Contrat social. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions from 
each part of the "paper ^ and among them those marked 
with an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. Summarize the chief defects in the financial system 
of France at the accession of Henri IV. How far were 
they removed during his reign 1 

2. Explain : — Les cinq grosses fermes ; fermiers g^n^- 
raux ; parties casuelles ; phages de rivieres ; chambres 
des comptes ; le trdsorier des ligues de Suisse. 

*3. Translate and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Et en chemin faisant si Ton leur fait plainte de 

ceux qui font les faux-saunages, et qui en usent, je ne 

doute point qu'ils n'en condamnent quelques-uns en 

I'amende. 

(6) Je S9ai3 bien que mon peuple est tres-pauvre, de 
sorte qu'il est difiicile qu'il paye sa taille entierement 
comme il faisoit devant la guerre, et que cette pauvret^ 
engendre des non-valeurs qui sont inevitables. Toutes 
fois plusieurs m'ont remonstrd et fait entendre qu a la fin 
Ton le fait bon payeur en une sorte ou autre, et que 
comme le temps fait perdre la memoire et cognoissance 
desdits deniers passez en non-valeurs, ils servent apres a 
acquitter des parties esgar^es a moiti^ gain. 

(c) Premierement, Sa Majesty estant resolue, suivant 
ce qu'il luy a pleu de m'en dire, de se contenter de la 
seule gloire en toute son entreprise, qui ne tend qu'a de- 
li vrer tons les potentats de la chrestiente de la terreur 
des armes et domination d'Espagne, fera partager le plus 
proportionnellement qu'il se pourra, suivant I'advis 
commun de ses associez, toutes les conquestes qui se 
feront sur la maison d'Austriche et ceux de leur faction. 

10 M 6 [Turn over. 



4. State and criticize Sully's objections to the 
establishment of the manufacture of silk in France. 

B. 

5. In what ways do the extracts from the Memoirs of 
Saint-Simon, given in the prescribed text, illustrate the 
different positions held by the author under Louis XIV 
and the Regency ? 

6. Summarize the characters of the following men as 
described by Saint-Simon : — the Due de Bourgogne, 
Fdnelon, d'Aguesseau, Dangeau. 

*7. Translate and comment on any two of the following 
passages : — 

(a) C'^toient sans doute de grands coups, incompa- 
rables pour la grandeur solide de TAngleterre aux depens 
de toutes les nations de 1' Europe, de celles surtout dont 
elle avoit le plus de jalousie, la fran^oise et I'espagnole, 
avec I'avantage encore de les brouiller et de les diviser. 
Mais le grappin une fois attach^ sur celui qui peut tout, 
qui attend un chapeau pour lequel il brule de d^sir 
depuis tant d'ann^es, et qui a tons les ans quarante mille 
livres sterling a recevoir, dont il n'ose rien montrer, et 
dont il redoute au contraire jusqu'au soup9on, qui craint, 
par consequent, des retardements, et plus encore une 
Boustraction dont il n'oseroit ouvrir la bouche, il n'est 
rien qu'on ne puisse obtenir. 

[h) On vint a vouloir, d'autorit^ coactive, a supprimer 
tout usage d'or, d'argent et de pierreries, je dis d'argent 
monnoy^, a pr^tendre persuader que depuis Abraham, 
qui pay a argent comptant la sepulture de Sara, jusqu'a 
nos temps, on avoit ^i6 dans I'illusion et dans I'erreur la 
plus grossiere, dans toutes les nations policies du monde, 
sur la monnoie et les metaux dont on la fait ; que le 
papier ^toit le seul utile et le seul ndcessaire, qu'on ne 
pouvoit faire un plus grand mal a nos voisins, jaloux de 
notre grandeur et de nos avantages, que de verser et faire 
passer chez eux tout notre argent et toutes nos pier- 
reries. 

(c) Ce parlement, qui sous le feu roi meme avoit 
souvent mand^ ce meme d'Argenson et lui avoit, comme 
lieutenant de police, donn^ ses ordres debout et d(^couvert a 

X0M6 



la barre ; ce parlement, qui depuis la r^gence avoit d^ploy^ 
sa mauvaise volont^ contre lui, jusqua donner tout a 
penser, et qui retenoit encore des prisonniers et des 
papiers pour lui donner de I'inqui^tude ; ce premier pre- 
sident, si sup^rieur a lui, si orgueilleux, si fier de son due 
du Maine, si fort en esperance des sceaux ; ce Lamoignon 
qui s'^toit vante de le faire pendre a sa chambre de 
justice, oil lui-meme s'etoit si completement d^shonor^ ils 
le virent revetu des ornements de la premiere place de la 
robe, les prdsider, les efFacer, et, entrant en fonction, les 
remettre en leur devoir et leur en faire le9on publique et 
forte, d^s la premiere fois qu'il se trouvoit a leur tele. 

C. 

8. ' II s'agit done de bien distinguer les droits respectifs 
des cito3^ens et du souverain.' 

What is Rousseau's distinction ? Is it satisfactory ? 

9. Translate and comment on the following passages: — 

(a) Aristote a dit que les hommes ne sont point 
naturellement egaux, mais que les uns naissent pour 
Tesclavage et les autres pour la domination. Aristote 
avait raison ; mais il prenait I'effet pour la cause. 

(6) C'est le tracas du commerce et des arts, c'esfc 
I'avide int^ret du gain, c'est la mollesse et Tamour des 
commodit^s qui changent les services personnels en 
argent. On cede une partie de son profit pour I'augmenter 
a son aise. Donnez de I'argent, et bientot vous aurez 
des fers. 

10. Give Rousseau's views as to — 

(a) The relations between the Sovereign Power and 
the Government. 

(b) The proper relations between Church and State. 

(c) The rights of minorities. 



[M, T. 1914] 



10 M 6 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Pkevious Examination. 



Unseen Translation. 
I. 

Latin and Greek. 
Translate : — 

(a) Eodem anno mancipii unius aiidacia, ni mature 
subventum foret, discordiis armisque civilibus rem pub- 
licam perculisset. Postumi Agrippae servos, nomine 
Clemens, comperto fine Augusti pergere in insulam 
Planasiam et fraude aut vi raptum Agrippam ferre ad 
exercitus Germanicos non servili animo concepit. ansa 
eius inpedivit tarditas onerariae navis ; atque interim 
patrata caede ad maiora et magis praecipitia conversus 
furatur cineres vectusque Cosam Etruriae promunturium 
ignotis locis sese abdit, donee crinem barbamque pro- 
mitteret : nam aetate et forma baud dissimili in dominnm 
erat. tum per idoneos et secreti eius socios crebrescit 
vivere Agrippam, occultis primum sermonibus, ut vetita 
Solent, mox vago rumore apud inperitissimi cuiusque 
promptas auris aut rursum apud turbidos eoque nova 
cupientis. atque ipse adire municipia obscuro diei, 
neque propalam aspici neque diutius isdem locis, sed 
quia Veritas visu et mora, falsa festinatione et incertis 
valescunt, relinquebat famam aut praeveniebat. 

(h) Nos manet Oceanus circumvagus : arva, beata 

petamus arva, divites et insulas, 
reddit ubi Cererem tell us inarata quotannis 

et imputata floret usque vinea, 
germinat et numquam fallen tis termes olivae, 

suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem, 
mella cava manant ex ilice, montibus altis 

levis crepante lympha desilit pcde. 
illic iniussae veniunt ad mulctra capellae, 

refertque tenta grex amicus ubera ; 
nee vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, 

neque intumescit alta viperis humus : 
pluraque felices mirabimur ; ut neque largis 

aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
pinguia nee siccis urantur semina glaebis, 

utrumque rege temperante caelitum. 
non hue Argoo contendit remige pinus, 

neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 

10 M 7 [Turn over. 



non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua nautae 

laboriosa nee eohors Vlixei : 
nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

^regem aestuosa torret impotentia. 
luppiter ilia piae seerevit litora genti, 

ut inquinavit aere tempus aureum ; 
aere, dehinc ferro duravit saecula, quorum 

piis secunda vate me datur fuga. 

(c) OvTco St] 7rap€(TKeva(r/x€uoL Kar dp\a^ dvBpoDTTOL 
(oKOvv (nropdSrju, TroXeiS" Se ovk rjaaw dircoWvuTo ovv vtto 
Tcov Orjpicou Sid TO navTayrj avrSiv dadeuicTTepoL eJuai, koI 
rj Stj/novpyLKr] re^vrj avToTs Trpos [ikv Tpo(p^u tKavr) PorjBos 
rfV, TTpb? Se Tou tS>v Orjpicou iroXejiov euSerj^ — ttoXltlktiv 
yap reyvrfv ovttco €l)(ou, rj^ fxepos noXe/xiKi] — e^ijrovv 8r} 
dOpoL^ecrdaL kul crcp^^crOaL kti^out€9 ttoX^l?' 6t ovv 
dBpoLcrOeUv, tjSlkovu dXXijXovs dre ovk €)(ovt€9 Trjv 
TroXiTLKrju Teyvr]v, dxrre irdXiv cTKeBavvvfievoL SLe^detpouTO. 
Zeijs ovv Setaa? irepl t(£> ykv^i rjficov fxr) dnoXoLTO rrdu, 
^EpfjLTJv 7r€/X7r€L dyouTtt e/y dvOpcowov? alSoo re Kal SiKrji/, 
IV eUu TToXecou Kocr/JLOL re Kal Secrp,ol (fnXtas crvvaycdyot, 
epcora ovv ^Ep/xfj? Aia riva ovv rpoTTOv Solt] Slktjv Kal alSco 
dvOpooTTOL^' '* UoTepov coy al Te)(vaL vevefirjvraL, ovroa Kal 
ravra? vei/xco ; vcvejxrjvraL 8e w^e* ely '4\oav laTpLKrjv 
TToXXoL9 LKavos ISicoTaLSj Kal 01 dXXoi SrjfjLLovpyol' Kal Slktjv 
Srj Kal al8<o ovrco 0S> kv T0I9 dvOpconoL^i rj em wavras 
v€i/x(o ; " ^' 'Em ndvTa^" '^(prj 6 Zev?, ^' Kal jrdvre? /^er- 
exovTCoV ov yap dv yivoivro TroAeiy, el oXtyoL avrchv 
\ieTkyoiev cocnrep dXXcov Te\va>v' Kal vofiov ye ^ey Trap* 
ep,ov Tov fjiT} Bvvdjievov alSovs Kal Slktjv fjLeTe)(eLv KTetveiv 
coy voaov TroXecoy." oi/rco Srj, <h ^ooKpare?) Kal Sid ravra 
OL re dXXoL Kal jiOrjvaToLy orav /xev irepl dperrj? TeKToviKrjs 
fj Xoyoy 17 dXXrj^ tlvos SrjfiLovpyiKrj?, oXiyoL? oiovrai 
/lereTvaL av/jL^ovXrjSi Kal edv tls e/croy a)V tcov oXiycov 
avulSovXevr], ovk dve)(ovTai, coy av (pfj? — eZ/corcoy, coy eyco 
(brjfiL — OTav 8e eh crvfj,l3ovXr)v noXiTLKfj? dperrjs looaLv, fjv 
Set Sid 8LKaLO(Tvvr]9 Trdaav levaL Kal acocppoa-vvr]^, eiKOTOOS 
dnavTO? dv8po9 dvexovrai, coy iravrl TrpocrrJKov ravrrj^ ye 
fxerix^Lv Trj9 dpeTrjs rj /jltj elvai TroXety. 

10 M 7 



(d) ^fl T€KU0Vi ov\ dnavTa tco yr\pcL KaKa, 
' EreoKXee?^ wpocrcaTiu' dW rjfXTretpLa 
€^ei Ti Xe^aL tcou uicov aocpcoTepou. 

TL T7]9 KaKicrTTjs Saifzoucoi/ ^(puaaL 
^L\oTi/jiia9, waT; /jltj av y* dSiK09 ^ ^€oy* 
TToXXovs S' €9 01K0V9 Kol TToXei? ^vSatfiova^ 
ia-rjXOe Kci^fjXO' err* oXeOpco Ta>u )(p(Ofiii^(ou' 
k(j)* fi (TV fiaiur}. KeTuo kolXXlov, riKuov, 
'laoTrjTa tl/jlccu, fj (f)LXov9 del (J)lXol9 
ttSXcl? t€ TToXea-L (rvfMfid)(ovs re <rv/xfj,d)(0L9 
avuSer to yap lcov iiovLfiov dvOpa>TroLS €0i/, 
TO) nXiouL 5' aUl TroXe/iLou KaOtcTTaTaL 
TOvXaa-(TOV e^Opd^ 0* rj/iepa^ KaTdp)(€Tai, 
KOL yap fi^Tp* dvOpooTTOLo-L Kal p-iprj (rraOfioty 
'I(T6rr]S €Ta^€ KdpiOfjLov SicopKre, 
vvKTOs T d(f)€yye9 ^Xi(f)apou tjXlov re 0<Sy 
laou ^a8i^€L Tov euiavaiov kvkXou, 
KovSeTcpou avTcou (pOouou e^^^ vLKcoiievov, 
elO' ijXio9 fJikv vv^ re 8ovXev€L fipoTols 

(TV 8' OVK due^U 8cop.dT(OV €)((0U LO-QV 

Kal Ta>8€ vujiaL ; Kdra nov *(ttlv rj 8iKrj ; 
[M. T. 1914.] 



10M7 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 
Previous Examination. 



Unseen Translation. 
11. 

French, German, and Italian. 
Translate : — 
(a) Tu ne dois pas chercher le pouvoir, tu dois faire 
Ton CBUvre ailleurs ; tu dois, esprit d*une autre sphere, 
Devant Toccasion reculer chastement. 
De la pensde en deuil doux et s^v^re amant, 
Compris ou d^daign^ des hommes, tu dois etre 
Patre pour les garder et pour les b^nir pretre. 
Lorsque les citoyens, par la mis^re aigris, 
Fils de la meme France et du merae Paris, 
S'egorgent ; quand sinistre, et soudain apparue, 
La morne barricade au coin de cbaque rue 
Monte et vomit la mort de par tout k la fois, 
Tu dois y courir seul et d^sarme ; tu dois 
Dans cette guerre impie, abominable, infame, 
Presenter ta poitrine et r^pandre ton ame, 
Pai-ler, prier, sauver les faibles et les forts, 
Sourire a la mitraille et pleurer sur les morts. 

(b) La rigiditd toujours croissante du froid, p^n^- 
trant dans les entrailles du sol, engourdissait la seve ali- 
mentaire des arbres ; quelquefois, a I'beure rouge du 
coucbant, lorsque le soleil avait disparu dans un cr^pus- 
cule frigide, on entendait le tronc des noyers ^clater 
soudainement comme s'ils eussent ^t^ frapp^s par la 
bacbe d'un blicheron invisible. La aussi, comme dans 
le bois, r^gnait la faim destructive. Aucune trace de 
v^g^tation, pas un brin d'berbe, pas une graine, pas 
une bale que le vent eut laiss^e au buisson, pas 
un insecte. Rien que la glace ou le givre ; rien que 
la neige, nappe uniforme moirde par le souffle des bises, 
damassde par le pi^tinement d'un passage d'alouettes ou 
de grives. Partout la st^rilit^; partout I'absence de vie, 
image de la mort. Aucun bruit bumain ne s'^veillait au 
milieu de ce silence des cbamps, triste comme une veillde 
fun^bre. Seule au fond de la valine, oh la roue du 
moulin restait immobilis^e, la riviere murmurait une 

10 M 3 [Turnover. 



sourde lamentation causae par le brisement des lourds 
gla9ons aux piles d'un pont lointain. Sans abri, sans 
p^ture, les animaux les plus prudents se rapprochaient 
chaque jour de la demeure de Thomme, et venaient, 
attires par le besoin, lui demander une dangereuse hospi- 
tality. Le gibier le plus craintif s'aventurait dans les 
jardins, cherchant un refuge dans, les haies de cloture. 
Le li^vre pdn^trait dans les vergers, oh sa trace indiquait 
son gite au paysan qui le tuait d'un coup de baton. La 
perdrix, rasde sous le buisson, se laissait prendre a la 
main. 

(c) In povera capanna amico scende 

Ospite il sole, e il verde in ciel si vede : 
Varca i fiumi lo sguardo, i monti ascende : 
Ecco la Fede. 
S^ del suo canto e i viator consola 

L'uccel volando, e 1' aure e il ciel non teme : 
Posa sul ramo e canta, e poi rivola : 
Ecco la Speme. 
Delia luce di Dio poche scintille 

Empiono i cieli immensi ; e a quel calore 
Spuntano i mondi, come fogiie, a mille : 
Ecco I'Amore. 

{d) Essendo disfatta la citt^ di Fiesole salvo la rocca, 
come di sopra e detto, molti Fiesolani vennero a abitare 
in Firenze, come faremo menzione, e accio che i Fiesolani 
venuti in Firenze fussino con piti fede e amore una co' 
Fiorentini, si raccomunarono I'armi de' detti comuni, e 
fecero allora una arme dimezzata vermiglia e bianca, 
come oggi a' nostri di si vede, e portasi in oste, cioe il 
carroccio del comune di Firenze. La parte vermiglia del 
carroccio si h I'arme, che Fiorentini ebbono da' Romani, 
come dicemmo adrieto, dove soleano usare il giglio bianco ; 
I'altra meta del carroccio feciono bianca, che era de' 
Fiesolani Tarme loro, e dove portavano una luna cilestra ; 
ma alia detta arme comune levarono il giglio bianco, e 
la luna cilestra, rimanendosi cosi dimezzata, rossa e 
bianca ; e fecero leggi e statuti comuni vivendo a una 
signoria di due consoli cittadini col consiglio del senate, 
cib era di cento uomini i migliori della citta, come era 
r uso de' Romani dato e conceduto a' Fiorentini, 

lOMs 



(e) Des Kleinen Wiege stand zu Nacht 

An meinem Bett ; es durfte kaum sich regen, 

War ich erwacht ; 

Bald musst' ich's tranken, bald es zu mir legen, 

Bald, wenn's nicht schwieg, vom Bett' aufstehn, 

Und tanzelnd in der Kammer auf und nieder gehn, 

Und friih am Tage schon am Waschtrog stehn ; 

Dann auf dem Markt und an dem Herde sorgen, 

Und immerfort, wie heut so morgen. 

Da geht's, mein Herr, nicht immer muthig zu ; 

Doch schmeckt dafiir das Essen, schmeckt die Buh*. 

(/) Der Geist des Mittelalters iat in Wahrheit fiir 
uns oftmals ratselhafter als der des classischen Altertums, 
an dessen Triimmern er seine Geschichte aogeknupft hat. 
Ganze Gebiete in ihm liegen von Nacht verschuttet, auf 
welche kaum aus Chroniken und Urkunden ein Schimraer 
fallt. Das Mittelalter ist die Entwicklung der abend- 
landischen Menschheit durch das Princip der christlichen 
Religion auf dem Grunde der antiken Cultur ; es ist die 
grosse Werkstatte und das Schatzhaus aller unsrer 
Culturideen. Je mehr nun wir selbst uns von ihm 
entfernen, desto geheimnissvoller und ehrwUrdiger er- 
scheint uns seine Gestalt. Die Erhabenheit seiner Ideale 
und. ihr religioser Tiefsinn, die Grosse seiner weltumfas- 
senden Systeme, die phantasievolle Uebergeistigung alles 
Irdischen, die Mannigfaltigkeit seiner Lebensformen, die 
tiefen Widerspriiche der libersinnlichen und der wirk- 
lichen Welt, und ihr zerstorender wie befruchtender 
Kampf: alles dies stellt einen Kosmos von Ideen und 
Erscheinungen dar, dessen innerstes Wesen sich in 
Mysterien zu verhiillen scheint. Viele Stellen in der 
Welt des Mittelalters, welche einst hell erschienen, sind 
fiir unsern veranderten Blick abgeblasst : viele, die das 
vergangene Menschengeschlecht dunkel sah, sind fiir uns 
zum Licht der Vernunft aufgehellt. Begriffe und Dog- 
men, Rechte und Gesetze, Glaube und Denkweise, Kirche 
und Staat, haben ihren Ort im geistigen Weltsystem 
verandert, oder sie sind unter unsern Horizont gesunken, 
und diese Verwandlung ist die Geschichte selbst. 

[M. T. 1914] 
I0M3 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Elements of Economic Theory. 

1. Discuss the relation of the orthodox or Liberal 
* school * to other schools of economic thought. 

2. Explain the origin of economic rent, and distinguish 
between the price paid for the hire of a farm and its 
agricultural rent. 

3. How would you define capital? Discuss the 
importance of the part which it plays in the produc- 
tion of wealth. 

4. Explain any tioo of the following economic terms : — 
crisis ; unearned increment ; entrepreneur ; profit- 
sharing. 

5. What are the economic defects of competition? 
Would you agree that the tendency of the times is 
towards its limitation ? 

6. Compare the advantages of large-scale production 
in agriculture and in manufacture respectively. 

7. Contrast the aims and methods of communism 
with those of collectivism. 

8. * The price of all labour is regulated by its final 
utility.' Discuss the validity of the theory of wages 
here indicated. 

9. Distinguish between profit and interest. Does 
either tend to a minimum ? 

10. * Saving is a luxury.' Discuss the truth of this 
dictum. 



[if. T. 1914.] 



10 Ms 



No. 1754 



One Shilling net 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY 
EXAMINATIOI>r PAPEES 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMINATION 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 



TRINITY TERM, 1915 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 

116 HIGH STREET 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Stuhbs Charters and Constitutional History 

to 1307. 

[The FIRST question should he attempted by all 
Candidates^ 

1. Comment on six of the following passages. Any 
marked with an asterisk should also be translated : — 

*(a) Suscipere tam inimicitias seu patris seu propin- 
qui quam amicitias necesse est. Nee implacabiles diirant : 
luitur enim etiam homicidium certo armentorum ac 
pecorum numero, recipitque satisfactionem universa 
domus, utiliter in publicum, quia periculosiores sunt 
inimicitiae iuxta libertatcm. 

(6) But what laws I found of the time of Ine, my 
kinsman, or of OfFa's, the Mercian King, or of Ethelbert's, 
who first among Englishmen received baptism, of these 
which seemed to me most just I collected here, and the 
rest I disregarded. 

(c) The ' gebur's ' duties are various, in some places 
heavy, in others light. [' Rectitudines '.] 

(d) W. Rex Anglorum Athew' abbati de Euesham 
salutem. Praecipio tibi quod submoneas omnes illosqui 
sub ballia et iustitia sunt quatinus omnes milites quos 
mihi debent paratos habeant ante me ad octavas Pente- 
costes apud Clarendunam. 

*(e) Et de his v hidis et xxii acris tenet Harde- 
winus de abbate decem acras. Uni bovi est terra : duo- 
decim denarios valet et valuit. Hanc terram tenet 
Snellingus, et tenuit T.R.E. ; nee potuit recedere. 

*(/) Item lustitiae domini regis faciant fieri recog- 
nitionem de dissaisinis factis super Assisam, a tempore 
quo dominus rex venit in Angliam proximo post pacem 
factam inter ipsum et regem filium suum. 

[Assize of Northampton.'] 

(g) Nihil detur nee capiatur de cetero pro brevi 
inquisitionis de vita vel membris, sed gratis concedatur 
et non negetur. 

4 K 18 [Turn over. 



^(h) Satis enim sufficit ei (sc. clei-ico) pro poena 
degradatio, quae est magna capitis deminutio, nisi forte 
convictus fuerit de apostasia, quia tunc primo degrade- 
tur et postea per manum laicalem comburatur. 

[Braoton.] 

(i) Tibi praecipimus quod quatuor milites de dis- 
cretioribus in lege militibus comitatus tui, et etiam de 
singulis civitatibus, burgis et villis mercatoriis de balliva 
tua sex vel quatuor cives burgenses vel alios probos 
homines venire facias ibidem ad praedictum crastinum 
clausi Paschae, ad tractandum una cum magnatibus 
regni nostri de negotiis eiusdem regni. 

[Writ of Edward I.] 

2. What is the meaning of a grant of * bookland \ and 
what part do such grants play in the development of a 
feudal polity ? 

3. Illustrate from the Select Charters any one of the 
following subjects : — 

The position of the clerical Estate in Parliament. 

The feudal dues. 

The forest jurisdiction. 

4. Summarize the duties and estimate the power of 
the sheriff in the twelfth century. 

5. Explain the steps by which the custom of the King's 
Court became the Common Law of England. 

6. How far was the principle *no taxation without 
consent ' observed in the twelfth century ? 

7. Explain the principal items recorded in the Great 
Roll of the Pipe of the eighth year of Henry II, taking 
care to give renderings of the following expressions : — 
in libercdione constituta, in terris datis, 100s. hlanc^ 
compotum de veteribus placitis, compotuin de bur go, 

8. Compare the projects of reform successively issued 
by the barons in 1258 and 1264. 

9. Illustrate from the Select Chai-ters the constitution 
of London in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

10. What light can you throw on (a) the King's Peace, 
(b) the system of Amercements ? 

4K18 



11. Did Edward I consider a parliamentary system to 
be anything beyond a convenient engine of taxation ? 

1.2. Explain the following expressions : — pegenrildes 
lueor^e, utlag?t, murdrum, iulsa aquae, teloneum, antiqua 
jirma, tyen manna tale. 

13. * There is no evidence that Anglo-Saxon Kingship 
was in any sense limited.' Discuss. 



[T, T. 1915.] 



4 K 18 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Constitutional History from 1307. 

FoK Candidates who offer Stubbs's Charters. 

[Candidates are expected to answer questions from both 
sections of the paper. ^ 

A. 

1. Compare the systems of government set up by the 
barons in the reigns of Edward II and of Richard II 
respectively. 

2. What development of the power of the House of 
Commons can be traced to the reigns of Edward III and 
of Henry IV ? 

3. ' The Lancastrian kings observed the traditions of 
the Constitution, the Yorkist kings violated them.' 
Discuss. 

4. What constitutional importance do you attach to the 
development of town life in the fifteenth century 1 

5. Account for the fall of the ' overmighty subject' at 
the close of the fifteenth century. 

6. In what ways was the power and prestige of the 
Crown in England affected by the Reformation 1 

7. How far do social changes in the first half of the 
sixteenth century explain the increase in the powers of 
government in that period ? 

8. Compare the relations of Parliament and Crown 
under Queen Elizabeth and James I respectively. 

B. 

9. Set forth the reasons which would have been given, 

Either^ by a typical Cavalier for his support of 
Charles I. 

Or, by a typical Roundhead for his opposition to that 
king. 

4 K 29 [Turn over. 



10. *In spite of rebellion, and war, and regicide, it 
needed yet a further revolution to rid the country of 
the Stewart system of government.' Why was this, and 
who was to blame for it ? 

11. To what extent is it true that the powers of the 
Crown in England decayed as Cabinet Government 
developed ? 

12. Distinguish the problems connected with the exten- 
sion of the franchise from those concerned with the 
distribution of seats. How far have these been satis- 
factorily solved by nineteenth -century legislation ? 

13. What are the constitutional relations in our own 
day between the various self-governing colonies and the 
mother country ? 

14. In what sense has an English citizen (a) a right 
to personal freedom, (h) a right to freedom of discussion? 
How far were such rights in existence in the reign of 
George III ? 

15. What is meant by the term 'legal sovereignty'? 
Show how it was affected in this countr}^ by (a) the Bill 
of Rights, (h) the Septennial Act, (c) the Parliament Act, 
1911. 

16. Write a short reply to Tocqueville's dictum that 
the English Constitution has no real existence. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K29 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Constitutional History to 1558. 

For Candidates who offer Prothero, Gardiner, <tc. 

[Candidates are exiiected to answer questions from both 
sections of the pa2:>er.'\ 

A. 

1. 'The Teutonic occupation of Britain was a migra- 
tion not a conquest ' (Stubbs). What principles of our 
constitutional history are to be traced to this ? 

2. Trace the part played by the Church in the 
unification of the nation. 

3. Was the Norman Conquest instrumental in stem- 
ming or in accelerating the growth of a feudal polity in 
England ? 

4. Explain — scutage, trial by battle, frank-pledge, 
Exchequer, Magnum Concilium. 

5. Can the origin of our parliamentary system be 
traced to the representative principle at work from early 
days in the Shire Court ? 

6. Which do you consider the most important provi- 
sions of Magna Carta ? 

7. What were the principal immunities claimed by the 
Clergy in the thirteenth centur}^ ? How far were these 
claims justified ? 

B. 

8. Compare the systems of government set up by the 
barons in the reigns of Edward II, and of Richard II 
respectively. 

9. What development of the power of the House of 
Commons can be traced to the reigns of Edward III 
and of Henry IV '? 

10. ' The House of Lancaster violated the constitution 
when it was weak, the House of York violated it when 
it was strong.' Estimate the truth of this statement, and 
illustrate it from particular examples. 

4K 17 [Turn over. 



11. Discuss the fifteenth century as the ' Golden 
Age ' of the English boroughs. 

12. Give an account of the historical and legal prob- 
lems connected with any one of the following — a Manor, 
Villein Tenure, a Hundred Court. 

13. Account for the fall of the ' overmighty subject ' 
at the close of the fifteenth century. 

14. How far do the social changes of the first half 
of the sixteenth century explain the increase in the 
power of the crown ? 

15. To what extent can the governments of Henry VII 
and Henry VIII be considered arbitrary in regard to 
{a} taxation, (b) treason ? 



[T, T, 1915.] 



4K17 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Documents and Constitutional History from 1558. 

\The FIRST question should he attempted by all 
Candidates,] 

1. Comment briefly on the following: — 

(a) I, A.B., do utterly testify and declare in my 
conscience, That the Queen's Highness is the only 
supreme governor of this realm ... as well in all 
spiritual or Ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal. 

[Act of Suprew^acy.] 

(6) We think that if any person shall be committed 
by her Majesty's special commandment or by order from 
the Council Board, or for treason touching her Majesty's 
person, any of such causes being generally returned into 
any court is good cause for the same court to leave the 
person committed in custody. 

[0pi7Lion of the Judges, 1691.] 

(c) The absolute power of the King is not that which 
is converted or executed to private use , . . but is only 
that which is applied to the general benefit of the people, 
and is salus populi. 

[Chief Baron Fleming, Bates' case.] 

(d) And whereas of late great companies of soldiers 
and mariners have been dispersed into divers counties 
of the realm, and the inhabitants against their wills have 
been compelled to receive them into their houses . . . 
against the laws and customs of this realm. 

[Petition of Right.] 

(e) That the said charge imposed upon the subject 
commonly called Ship-money, and the said extrajudicial 
opinion of the said Justices and Barons and the said 
writs . . . and the said judgment given against the said 
John Hampden, were and are contrary to and against 
the laws and statutes of this realm. 

[Act declaring illegality of Ship-money.] 

4 K 28 [Turn over. 



(/) Then for the law of this land, I am no less con- 
fident, that no learned lawyer will affirm that an 
impeachment can lie against the King . . . and one of 
their maxims is, that the King can do no wrong. 

I Tlie Kings reasons for declining the jurisdiction of 
the High Court of Justice.'] 

(g) Provided always, That nothing in this Act con- 
tained shall extend or be construed to exempt any Officer 
or Soldier whatsoever from the ordinary process of Law. 

[Mutiny Act,] 

(h) Lord Chief Justice. — Mr. Sheriff, proceed to the 
barracks, and acquaint the provost marshal that a writ 
is preparing to suspend Mr. Tone's execution ; and see 
that he be not executed. 

[State Trials, 1798.] 

2. Illustrate the treatment of Catholics and Puritans 
by Queen Elizabeth's government. Was this treatment 
justified by her plea that the Catholics were 'adversaries 
to mine Estate ', and the Puritans ' dangerous to a kingly 
rule'? 

3. How far do the action and policy of the House of 
Commons under James I serve to show that Parliament 
had been weakened by the extension of royal power in 
Tudor times ? 

4. Explain the constitutional importance of any of the 
following cases: — Hall's case, 1581; Shirley, 1604; 
Bushell, 1670 ; Wilkes v. Wood, 1763 ; Wason'y. Walter, 
1868 ; Bowles v. the Bank of England, 191 3. 

5. Write an account of the legislation of the Long 
Parliament before the outbreak of war. How far would 
you describe this legislation as revolutionary ? 

6. Estimate (a) the sincerity, (b) the success of Crom- 
well's schemes for establishing a civil government to 
replace the old constitution. 

7. What reasons can be given to account for the fact 
that while Charles II retained and increased the royal 
power, James II rapidly lost it ? 

4K28 



8. * And that the King's majesty, with the advice and 
consent of the Lords and Commons of Great Britain, in 
parliament assembled, had, hath, and of right ought to 
have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes 
to bind the Colonies and people of America, subjects of 
the Crown of Great Britain, in all cases whatsoever.' 

[Declaratory Act, 1766.] 

Show, from a study of the constitution of the 
federations and unions of the Empire in our own day, 
the difference between the former and the modern 
relation of colonies to the mother country. 

9. Illustrate either (a) the development of religious 
toleration since 1689 ; or (b) the changes in the character 
and powers of the House of Lords since 1760. 

10. ' The Electorate constitutes politically the true 
sovereign power.' 

Show how this power (a) has been developed, (b) is 
enforced. 

11. Compare the position and powers of Walpole or 
Pitt with those of a modern Prime Minister. 

13. Show how the raising and spending of public 
money is controlled by Parliament. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K28 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

English Political History. 

I. 

[CaiKlidates are expected to answer questions from 
all three sections of the paper, including at least 
ONE of those marked ^.] 

A. 

*1. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map the effects 
upon Britain of the Roman occupation. 

2. Is it possible to distinguish any differences of char- 
acter between the Angles of the North and the Saxons 
of the South of England ? 

3. Why were the English so easily converted to 
Christianity ? 

4. Describe the work of the Anglo-Saxon Church 
either in literature or in foreign missionary enterprise. 

*5. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, Alfred's chief 
campaigns against the Danes, and account for his success. 

6. What is the real importance of St. Dunstan 1 

7. Account for the breakdown of the Anglo-Saxon 
monarchy at the end of the tenth century. 

8. ' The Normans represented in England Latin and 
not Scandinavian influences.' Discuss this statement. 

B. 

*9. Draw a map of Normandy, putting in the most 
important places; and trace the growing separation 
between England and Normandy from the reign of 
Henry I to the end of that of John. 

10. Examine the importance either of St. Anselm or 
of Roger Bacon in the history of mediaeval thought. 

11. How do you account for the popularity of Becket 

in the Middle Ages ? 

12. ' The reign of Henry II is the best known period 
of English mediaeval history.' State briefly the main 
sources of information and examine their value. 

4 K 32 [Turn over. 



13. ' Richard I saved England from the disgrace of 
taking no part in the Crusading movement.' Discuss 
this statement. 

14. Compare the military resources of the barons with 
those of the Crown in the thirteenth century. 

*15. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, the geo- 
graphical difficulties with which the English had to deal 
in their attempted conquest of Scotland. 

16. Trace the connexion between the development 
of English Church architecture and the religious move- 
ments and social conditions of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. 

C. 

17. How far is contemporary popularity a safe test of 
character or ability in a fourteenth-century statesman ? 

*18. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, (a) the 
campaigns of Crecy and Poitiers, (h) the loss of the 
English possessions in France after the death of Henry V. 

19. Account for the revolutionary character either of 
religious or political movements in the latter half of the 
fourteenth century. 

20. Discuss the view that Henry V was an able 
statesman with a sound knowledge of continental con- 
ditions. 

21. Trace the history of the Yorkist part}- down to 
the death of Richard, Duke of York. Did they repre- 
sent any definite principles ? 

22. What is your impression of the personal character 
of Henry VII ? 

*23. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the state 
of Ireland in the reign of Henry VII. How far did his 
government succeed in restoring the power of the English 
Crown in the island 'I 

24. How^ far had the Revival of Leai-ning penetrated 
to England at the death of Henry VII *? 

[r. T, 1915.] 
4KS2 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTOEY. 



English Political History. 
II. 

[Candidates are expected to anstver questions from all 
three sections of the "paper, including at least ONE of 
those marked with an *.] 

A. 

1 . ' The influence of the Tudors on the politics of 
Europe was out of all proportion to the military strength 
of England.' Illustrate this statement. 

2. ' Warham closes one age ; Cranmer opens another.' 
How far did the personal characters of these archbishops 
determine their respective attitudes to the questions of 
the day 1 

3. Account for the maritime and mercantile activity 
of England in the sixteenth century. 

4. What are the chief characteristics of Tudor archi- 
tecture? Illustrate your answer from any one building 
with which you may be acquainted. 

5. How far do the plays of Shakespeare enable us to 
determine his attitude towards any of the leading 
questions of his day ? 

6. Which of the frequent insurrections against the 
Tudor monarchs do you consider to have been the most 
serious 1 Account for the ease with which such insurrec- 
tions were suppressed. 

7. What dangers threatened the Elizabethan eccle- 
siastical settlement after the defeat of the Spanish 
Armada ? 

8. Discuss and appraise the foi'eign policy of Robert 
Cecil first Earl of Salisbury. 

4 K 33 [Turn over. 



B. 

*9. Draw a sketch-map of the seaboard of North 
America at the accession of William and Mary, showing 
the several English settlements thereon. What attempts 
had been made at governing them from London ? 

10. ' Good counsels proceed from the prudence of the 
prince, not the prudence of the prince from good 
counsellors ' (Machiavelli). Apply this dictum to the first 
fifteen years of Charles I's reign. 

11. Discuss the weight which should be allowed in the 
history of the Great Civil War to the old antagonism 
between England and Scotland. 

12. What were the causes of the seventeenth-century 
rivalry between England and the United Provinces? 

*13. What foundations had been laid for our Indian 
Empire before the death of Queen Anne ? Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map. 

14. 'A good constable set to keep the peace of the 
parish.' How far does this judgement of Oliver Crom- 
well upon himself agree with the verdict of history ? 

15. Account for and illustrate the political immorality 
of English statesmen in the reigns of William III and 
Anne. 

*16. Discuss the question whether Marlborough or 
Wellington was the greater soldier. Illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map of any one of the campaigns. 



C. 

17. What changes in the taste of the reading public 
affected English literature between 1714 and 1789? 

18. Account for the tranquillity of Ireland during the 
reigns of George I and George II. 

19. Illustrate from any one of the wars of the eighteenth 
century, the unreadiness of Great Britain for war on sea 
or land. 

4 K 33 



20. ' Not the execution of Louis XVI, nor the opening 
of the Scheldt was the real reason why Mr. Pitt went to 
war in 1793'; where then will you look for the real 
reason 1 

21. What circumstances in his career led politicians of 
both parties to nourish a rooted distrust of George 
Canning 1 

*22. How far did English sea-power influence events in 
the Mediterranean between 1815 and 1885? Illustrate 
with a sketch-map. 

23. What do you know of the ' Oxford Movement ' ? 
Sketch the career of any one of the leaders. 

24. Compare Peel and Disraeli as party leaders. 

25. What do you understand by the 'Manchester 
School ' 1 How far had its influence waned before 1885 ? 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K33 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History, Period III, (919-1273.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

*1. Trace the contest for the Duchy of Lorraine between 
the Kings who reigned at Laon or at Paris and the Saxon 
and Salian dynasties in Germany. Illustrate your answer 
with a sketch-map of the Duchy showing its principal 
divisions and towns. 

*2. Describe and illustrate with a sketch-map, either 
the gradual eviction of the Saracens from the Western 
basin of the Mediterranean or the conquests of the Mace- 
donian dynasty in its Eastern basin. 

3. What were the main services rendered to Western 
civilization by the Saxon Emperors ? 

4. What do you know of the writings of any of the 
following chroniclers — Liutprand, Widukind, Radulfus 
Glaber, Helmold 1 

5. What was the condition of Southern Italy at the 
date of the first arrival of the Norman adventurers ? 
Trace the rise of their power until the death of Robert 
Guiscard. 

6. Give some account of the German Church on the 
eve of the Contest of Investitures. 

7. What heretical movements do we hear of in the 
West before the middle of the twelfth century, and what 
do you consider to have been their origin ? 

8. ' '* The Heroic Age " of the Northmen was over ; 
the age of Saga-writing was beginning' (1100). 
Examine this statement. 

9. Trace the growth of the interest manifested in the 
affairs of the Mahometan world by Western nations in 
the eleventh century, and show how it led to the begin- 
niniJf of the Crusades. 



'& 



4 K 5 [Turn over. 



10. ' It seems probable that in the contest between 
Gregory VII and Henry IV the contemporary writers do 
justice to neither of the leading figures.' Estimate the 
truth of this dictum. 

11. Give a historical account of any Uvo of the 
following great Sees or great monastic foundations — 
Bremen, Eheims, Milan, Ravenna ; Cluny, Citeaux, 
Monte-Cassino. 

12. Contrast the early history of the Communal move- 
ment in France with that in Northern Italy. 

13. What were the chief difficulties that lay in the way 
of the first four Capetian Kings of France ? Do you con- 
sider that they faced them worthily ? 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4Kb 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period III. (919-1273.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

*1. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, the position 
of the Welf and HohenstaufFen spheres of influence in 
Germany, and trace the history of the feud between these 
families down to the accession of Frederick I. 

2. Describe the development of the Western policy of 
the Emperor Manuel and estimate its success. 

3. Illustrate from the characters and careers of any 
two of the following Churchmen the activities of the 
German Church in the middle of the twelfth century : — 
St. Norbert of Magdeburg, Otto of Freising, Otto of 
Bamberg, Eberhard of Bamberg, Rainald of Dassel. 

4. 'The personality of Frederick Barbarossa alone dis- 
guised the fact that in the middle of the twelfth century 
the centre of gravity of Europe had moved from Germany 
to France.' Discuss this statement. 

*5. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, the political 
divisions of Southern France in the twelfth century, and 
account for the differences in character between it and 
the North. 

6. How far does the change from Romanesque to 
Gothic architecture illustrate any general tendencies of 
the age 1 

*7. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the rise 
of the power of Saladin and account for his victories over 
the Christians in the East. 

8. What different elements of twelfth-century medieval 
life are illustrated by the following cities: — Mainz, Paris; 
Palermo, Cordova ? 

9. Estimate the w^ork of Philip Augustus in consolid- 
ating the power of the French Monarchy. 

4 K 6 [Turn over. 



10. 'Innocent III failed because he found himself 
everywhere opposed to the rising forces of nationalism.' 
Discuss this statement. 

11. Trace the growing independence of the German 
princes from the death of Henry VI to that of Frederick II. 

12. 'The Papal suzerainty over the Sicilian Kingdom 
was fatal to the spiritual power of the papacy in the 
thirteenth century.' How far is this true V 

13. Explain the character and origin of the movement 
connected with the * Eternal Gospel '. 



[T, T. 1915.] 



4K6 



SCHOOL OP MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period IV. (1273-1519.) 

I. 

Ipandidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked "^.J 

1. What difficulties had Rudolf of Hapsburg to contend 
with in his efforts to revive the power of the German 
kingship, and what success did he attain ? 

*2. Describe, with a sketch-map, the chief trade- 
routes between Italy and the Teutonic countries in the 
fourteenth century. 

3. Discuss the causes and results of the suppression of 
the Order of the Templars. 

*4. Estimate, with the aid of a sketch-map, the success 
of Philip IV in his policy of absorbing the Burgundian 
fiefs of the Empire. 

5. Explain the meaning of 'Guelph and Ghibelline ', and 
trace the effect of this party-division upon the history 
of any Italian city in the first half of the fourteenth 
century. 

6. What was the importance of the Golden Bull in the 
constitutional and social development of the German 
people ? 

7. Explain and illustrate the decline of the central 
authority which took place in France under the first 
two Valois kin^s. 

8. Discuss the effects of the residence of the Popes at 
Avignon upon their power and prestige. 

*9. What circumstances made possible the expansion 
of the Swiss League between the battles of Morgarten 
and Sempach ? Illustrate with a sketch-map. 

10. Where and for what reasons was literature most 
highly developed in Italy in the fourteenth century ? 

*11. Show, with the help of a sketch-map, the impor- 
tance of the Wittelsbach family up to the close of the 
fourteenth century. 

4 K 7 [Turn over. 



12. ' The fourteenth century witnessed a change in 
the military system of Italy which was destined to 
exercise the most vital and lasting effects upon the history 
of the peninsula.' Discuss this statement. 

13. Describe the causes and course of the struggle 
between the Teutonic Knights and the Poles up to the 
battle of Tannenberg. 

14. Describe and give the reasons for the disorders in 
the kingdom of Castile under Alfonso XI and Peter I. 



[T. T, 1915.] 



4K7 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY, 



General History. Period IV, (1273-1519.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Did the Papacy gain or lose by the Conciliar 
movement of the first half of the fifteenth century ? 

2. 'Few men with such wise plans and such good 
intentions have so conspicuously failed.' Discuss this 
estimate of the Emperor Sigismond. 

*3. Estimate, with the help of a sketch-map, the im- 
portance of the reign of Frederick III in regard to the 
territorial interests (a) of the Empire, (b) of the Habsburg 
House. 

4. Describe the constitution of the Empire in the days 
of Maximilian I. How far would you attribute to him 
the failure of the schemes of reform in his day ? 

5. What effect was produced by the war with England 
in the reign of Charles VII, upon the social and constitu- 
tional development of France ? 

*6. Trace, with a sketch-map, the growth of the power 
of the house of Burgundy in the fifteenth century. How 
far did it constitute a real menace to the French Crown *? 

7. How do you explain the apathy of Europe towards 
the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks "? 

*8. ' It was impossible for Venice to create a great land 
Empire, just as it was impossible for her to avoid the 
effort to do so/ Discuss this with the aid of a 
sketch-map. 

9. It has been said that the Italian States in the 
second half of the fifteenth century had one and the 
same interest — the maintenance of the status quo. 

Why was this, and how far was it recognized by the 
various States? 

4 K 8 [Turn over. 



10. How far was the power exercised in Florence by 
Lorenzo de' Medici due to his personal qualities, and 
how far to circumstance ? 

11. Describe the effect produced (a) in Florence, 
(h) in Rome by the coming of Charles VIII. 

12. How far were Ferdinand and Isabella successful 
in their endeavour to create a great monarchical power? 

13. Do you agree with the statement that Julius II 
' avait us^ sa vie pour I'independance de I'ltalie ' ? 

14. What has Europe lost by the disappearance of the 
city-state ? 

15. Contrast Aeneas Sylvius, Savonarola, Machiavelli, 
as products of the Age of the Renaissance. 



4 K8 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History. Period V, (1414-1598.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

"marked *.] 

1. Did the Papacy gain or lose by the Conciliar 
movement of the first half of the fifteenth century 1 

2. ' Few men with such wise plans and such good 
intentions have so conspicuously failed.' Discuss this 
estimate of the Emperor Sigismond. 

■^3. Estimate, with the help of a sketch-map, the im- 
portance of the reign of Frederick III in regard to the 
territorial interests (a) of the Empire, (b) of the Habsburg 
House. 

4. Describe the constitution of the Empire in the days 
of Maximilian I. How far would you attribute to him 
the failure of the schemes of reform in his day 1 

5. What effect was produced by the war with England 
in the reign of Charles VII, upon the social and constitu- 
tional development of France ? 

■^6. Trace, with a sketch-map, the growth of the power 
of the house of Burgundy in the fifteenth century. How 
far did it constitute a real menace to the French Crown ? 

7. How do you explain the apathy of Europe towards 
the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks ? 

^8. ' It was impossible for Venice to create a great land 
Empire, just as it was impossible for her to avoid the 
effort to do so.' Discuss this with the aid of a 
sketch-map. 

9. It has been said that the Italian States in the 
second half of the fifteenth century had one and the 
same interest — the maintenance of the status quo. 

Why was this, and how far was it recognized by the 
various States'? 

4 K 9 [Turn over. 



10. How far was the power exercised in Florence by 
Lorenzo de' Medici due to his personal qualities, and 
how far to circumstance? 

11. Describe the effect produced (a) in Florence, 
(b) in Rome, by the coming of Charles VIII. 

12. How far were Ferdinand and Isabella successful 
in their endeavour to create a great monarchical power ? 

13. Do you agree with the statement that Julius II 
' avait us^ sa vie pour I'indt^pendance de I'ltalie ' ? 

14. What has Europe lost by the disappearance of the 
city-state ? 

15. Contrast Aeneas Sylvius, Savonarola, Machiavelli, 
as products of the Age of the Renaissance. 



4K9 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History, Period V. (1414-1598.) 

II. 

\Gandidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. What light is thrown upon the social conditions of 
Germany by (a) The Knights' War, {h) The Peasants' 
War? 

2. Did the teaching of Luther or that of Calvin prove 
more dangerous to the continued supremacy of the old 
faith ? 

3. Illustrate and explain the great influence of dynastic 
politics in a century marked by the growth of the 
principle of nationality. 

4. Describe the aims, and estimate the statesmanship 
of Maurice of Saxony. 

5. How far was the partition of Charles V's dominions 
an advantage to Germany or the reverse ? 

*6. Describe, with a sketch-- map, the political divisions 
of Italy after the settlement of 1559. 

*7. Make a sketch-map to show what was included in 
the Kingdom of Poland under Sigismund II, and trace 
the Polish Succession question from his death till 1598. 

*8. What signs of decadence are to be found in the 
military and naval history of the Ottoman Empire in the 
latter half of the sixteenth century 1 Illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map or maps. 

9. Were the Popes of the Counter-Reformation effec- 
tive leaders of a great cause '? 

10. Describe the importance of Philip IPs rule in the 
history of the Spanish peninsula. 

11. Can Catherine de' Medici be successfully defended 
on the plea that she was the victim of circumstance ? 

4K 10 [Turn over. 



12. Contrast the government of the Netherlands by 
Charles V with that of Philip 11. 

13. How far had William of Orange accomplished his 
task when he fell a victim to assassination ? 

14. Compare the success which had been gained at the 
end of the sixteenth century by the Protestant Reforma- 
tion {a) in Germany, (6) in France. 

15. 'The discovery of America, and that of a passage 
to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the 
two greatest and most important events recorded in the 
history of mankind.' (Adam Smith.) 

To what extent had the importance of these events 
manifested itself in the history of continental Europe by 
the close of the sixteenth century ? 



[T. 2\ 1915.] 



4K10 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period VI. (1559-1715.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attenvpt at least one of the questions 

nfiarhed *.] 

1. What measure of success was gained by the Counter- 
Reformation, and how do you account for this success? 

2. Explain and illustrate the aims of the ' Politique ' 
party in France. 

3. Are there grounds for believing that the Turkish 
Empire was declining in the latter half of the sixteenth 
century ? 

4. In what respects has the statesmanship of William 
the Silent been criticized, and how far are the criticisms 
justified ? 

*5. Describe, and illustrate with a sketch-map, the 
extent and organization of the Papal States at the end 
of the seventeenth century. 

6. How far does the history of Germany from 1559 to 
the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War suggest that the 
constitution of the Holy Roman Empire had become 
unworkable ? 

■^7. With what success did Richelieu pat into practice 
his theory of the ' natural frontiers ' of France ? Illus- 
trate your answer with a sketch-map. 

8. How far may Spain be said to have been decadent 
in the reign of Philip IV ? 

*9. Were the campaigns of Gustavus Adolphus in 
Germany governed chiefly by military or by political 
considerations ? Illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

10. Estimate the results of the Thirty Years' War 
upon the economic and intellectual condition of Germany. 

11. What elements of strength and of weakness are 
to be found in the condition of Poland under the House 
of Vasa ? 

4 K U [Turn over. 



o 



12. Compare the elements making for Republicanism 
and Monarchy respectively in the United Netherlands 
after the Twelve Years' Truce (1609). 

13. Discuss the chief advances made in the art of war 
in this period up to the Peace of Westphalia. 

14. ' Orbem bellis, urbem gabellis implevit.' Discuss 
this view of the pontificate of Urban VIII. 

15. ' J'aimerais mieux combattre le roi d'Espagne en 
trois batailles rangees, que tons ces gens de justice, de 
finance, d'^critoire et de ville.' How far does this saying 
of Henri IV express the spirit of the French monarchical 
government during his reign ? 

16. Discuss the development of literature in your 
period before the Age of Louis XIV. 



[T. T, 1915.] 



4 K II 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



General History, Period YI. (1559-1715.) 

IT. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Is the Fronde more significant as throwing light on 
the constitutional aspirations or on the social conditions 
of France ? 

2. Did the statesmanship of Jean de Witt conduce 
equally to the safety and prosperity of the Netherlands'? 

*3. How far was Sweden justified by results in the 
attempt to maintain dominions across the Baltic ? Illus- 
trate with a sketch-map of the Baltic littoral. 

4. ' L'fitat c'est moi.' What place did Louis XIV 
assign to the Church in the system suggested by this 
dictum ? 

5. Describe the economic views of Colbert, and show 
how he applied them. 

6. Why did Bavaria, after the Peace of Westphalia, 
fail to maintain the high position in Germany which 
she had previously attained ? 

*7. Describe, and illustrate by a sketch-map, the 
fluctuations in the power of Austria and Turkey, on 
the Danube, throughout the reign of Leopold I. 

8. What power did Spain possess in Italy in the 
seventeenth century, and what use did she make of it ? 

*9. Draw a sketch-map showing the chief fortresses in 
Alsace and Lorraine, and describe the growth of French 
power in these districts in the reign of Louis XIV. 

10. Why has Frederick William gained the name of 
' the Great ' Elector ? 

11. By what means did Peter the Great seek to develop 
the natural resources of Russia, and how far was he 
successful ? 

4K12 [Turnover. 



12. Compare Pascal and Fenelon as typical products 
of the French genius. 

13. Can 3^ou trace any connexion between national 
power and the development of the fine arts during this 
period ? 

14. Examine the part played by small states in the 
War of the Spanish Succession. 

15. Compare the degree of religious toleration in 
Europe at the beginning and at the end of this period. 

16. Describe the chief trade-routes in Europe during 
this period, and estimate the extent to which they were 
interrupted by the great wars. 



[T. T, 1915.] 



4 K 12 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 

General Historij. Period VII , (1715-1815.) 

I. 

[Candidates shcmld attempt at least one of the 
questions marked *.] 

1. The connexion between France and Poland has 
been called a ' fatal obsession '. Is there another pos- 
sible view concerning this connexion ? 

2. ' Savoy and Prussia were the chief gainers in the 
eighteenth century from the secular rivahy between 
France and Austria.' Illustrate this statement. 

3. What, if any, were the merits of the internal 
government of Frederick William I of Prussia? Is it 
true that in this respect Frederick the Great merely built 
upon his father's foundations'? 

*4. What states constituted the French clientele in 
Germany? Illustrate youi- answer by a sketch-map of 
the western frontier of the Empire. 

5. Contrast the influence on Spanish History of 
Elizabeth Farnese and of her son Charles III. 

6. ' The Partition of Poland was resorted to as an 
expedient to avert the still more thorny question of the 
fate of Turkey.' Discuss this statement. 

*7. Give an account of the chief French possessions in 
the western hemisphere, before 1763 and illustrate your 
answer by a sketch-map. 

8. Under what restrictions were the southern Nether- 
lands given to Austria in 1715?. Trace throughout the 
century her impatience at these restrictions. 

9. Discuss the economic condition of France between 
the close of the Seven Years' War and the outbreak of the 
Revolution. 

10. Account for the weakness of the United Provinces 
throughout the eighteenth century. 

4Kl3 [Turnover. 



11. 'Montesquieu was the only great political philo- 
sopher whom France produced in the eighteenth century.' 
Examine this statement. 

12. Compare and contrast social and economic condi- 
tions in the Prussian and in the Austrian dominions 
during the eighteenth century. 

13. * The eighteenth century witnessed the final 
abandonment by the Popes of their influence on the 
politics of Europe.' Within what limits is this state- 
ment true ? 



[1\ i: 1915.] 



4K 13 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



General History. Period VII. (1715-1815.) 

II. 

[Candidates should attemj^t at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. ' The Great ideas of the Constituent Assembly ' : 
' the Great men of the Convention '. How far are these 
terms applicable to the history of the French Revolution ? 

2. Sketch in some detail the character of Louis XVI, 
and illustrate your answer if you can from contemporary 
opinion. 

3. ' La grande vague qui va m'engloutir ' (Necker). 
How far would this represent a reasonable forecast of the 
future at the end of 1790 "? 

4. By what events and at what dates do you consider 
that the tide of victory was turned in favour of the 
French Republic against the First Coalition '^ 

5. Compare the chief merits and the chief defects of 
the Directorial and the Consular Constitutions. 

6. Trace throughout the periods of the Consulate and 
the Empire the persistence of the party or parties 
opposed to Napoleon Bonaparte. 

^7. ' The most beautiful thing about Bonaparte's Italian 
Campaign of 1796-7 was its simplicity.' Amplify this 
statement and illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

8. Compare and contrast the Prussia of 1806 with the 
Prussia of 1813-14. 

9. Write an imaginary ' political testament ' of 
Catharine II, to be dated in the last year of her life. 

10. What traditions and what elements of Society in 
the Austrian dominions rendered Austria, until 1809, the 
most constant and the most formidable enemy of France ? 

4K 14 [Turn over. 



11. Discu.ss the influence of any tivo of the following 
statesmen, Talleyrand, Godoy, Metternich, Caulaincourt, 
Stein, Hardenberg. 

*12. What circumstances appeared to make it worth 
Napoleon's while to fight the Campaign of 1814? Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map of North-eastern France. 

13. Account for the literary and philosophical bar- 
renness of the period of the First Empire. 

14. Consider how far, in the case either of Italy or of 
Spain, Napoleon's choice of lieutenants for the adminis- 
tration of the 'Grand Empire' was a wise one. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4 K U 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTORY. 



General History, Period VIII, (1789-1878.) 

I. 

[Candidates should attemjjt at least one of the questions 

marked *.] 

1. 'The Great ideas of the Constituent Assembly ' : 
' the Great men of the Convention '. How far are these 
terms applicable to the history of the French Revolution ? 

2. Sketch in some detail the character of Louis XVI, 
and illustrate your answer if you can from contemporary 
opinion. 

3. 'La grande vague qui va m'engloutir' (Necker). 
How far would this represent a reasonable forecast of the 
future at the end of 1790 ? 

4. By what events and at what dates do you consider 
that the tide of victory was turned in favour of the 
French Republic against the First Coalition 1 

5. Compare the chief merits and the chief defects of 
the Directorial and the Consular Constitutions. 

6. Trace throughout the periods of the Consulate and 
the Empire, the persistence of the party or parties 
opposed to Napoleon Bonaparte. 

*7. ' The most beautiful thing about Bonaparte's Italian 
Campaign of 1796-7 was its simplicity.' Amplify this 
statement and illustrate your answer by a sketch-map. 

8. Compare and contrast the Prussia of 1806 with the 
Prussia of 1813-14. 

9. Write an imaginary 'political testament' of 
Catharine II, to be dated in the last year of her life. 

10. What traditions and what elements of Society in 
the Austrian dominions rendered Austria, until 1809, the 
most constant and the most formidable enemy of France ? 

4 K 15 [Turn over. 



11. Discuss the influence of any two of the following 
statesmen, Talleyrand, Godoy, Metternich, Caulaincourt, 
Stein, Hardenbem'. 



■&■ 



12. What circumstances appeared to make it worth 
Napoleon's while to fight the Campaign of 1814? Illustrate 
your answer by a sketch-map of North-eastern France. 

13. Account for the literary and philosophical bar- 
renness of the period of the First Empire. 

14. Consider how far, in the case either of Italy or of 
Spain, Napoleon's choice of lieutenants for the adminis- 
tration of the * Grand Empire' was a wise one. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4 K 15 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



General History. Period VIIL (1789-1878,) 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least one of the questions. 

marked *.] 

1. 'Things are getting back to a wholesome state 
again. Every nation for itself and God for us all.' 
How far do you think that Canning's dislike of the 
Holy Alliance was justified? 

*2. Show, with the help of a sketch-map, the difiicul- 
ties which a Russian army had to overcome in an attack 
upon Turkey. Illustrate your answer from the campaigns 
of 1828, 1829, 1854, 1877. 

3. What is meant by the 'Romantic Movement'? 
Did it anywhere affect political questions ? 

4. What were the difficulties in the way of establish- 
ing the independence of Belgium? How were they 
overcome ? 

5. What did the monarchy of July owe to Casimir 
Perrier, Thiers, Guizot, respectively ? 

6. Illustrate from the careers of either Charles Albert, 
or Pius IX, the difficulties of a ' moderate ' in mid- 
nineteenth century Italy. 

7. Account for the failure of the Liberal movement of 
1848 either in Germany or in Austria. 

8. Trace the history of internal reform in Russia from 
the reign of Alexander I to that of Alexander II inclu- 
sively. 

9. Examine the influence either of Spanish marriages, 
or of the Polish question, on European politics during 
the period 1815-78. 

*10. Describe, with the help of a map, the territorial 
changes in Germany which followed the war of 1866. 
How far were the South German states brought into 
connexion with the North German Confederation during 
the years 1866-70? 

4 K 16 [Turn over, 



11. What did the 'Principle of Nationality' mean to 
Mazzini and Napoleon III respectively? Examine in 
each case the practical conclusions which they drew 
from it. 

12. Can you trace any consistent principle in Bismarck's 
relations at various times with political parties in 
Prussia ? 

13. Illustrate and account for the violence of party 
feeling in France during the period 1815-78. 

14. Do you think that the suspicion with which 
English statesmen regarded Russian foreign policy 
during the greater part of the nineteenth century can 
be justified ? 

15. In which of the arts has there been most original 
work during the period 1815-78 ? 

[r.T. 1915.] 



4K16 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Hildehrand. I. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. By what internal evidence can we determine the 
date at which Lampert wrote his Annales'^ 

*2. Comment on five of the following passages from 
Lampert, illustrating, where it is possible to do so, from 
your other authorities : — 

(a) Promptum hoc fore sperabat, eo quod rex archi- 
episcopum adiuvando in exigendis deciraationibus mul- 
tum a se avertisset animos eorum. 

(b) Ibi per interventum Rudolfi ducis Suevorum 
Welf filius Azzonis marchionis Italorum ducatum Baioa- 
riae suscepit. 

(c) Otto dux Baioariorum post integrum annum 
deditionis suae gratiam regis recepit, data vel regi vel 
his qui regi pro eo suggesserant non modica portione 
prediorum suorum. 

(d) Interea rex legatos misit ad Luticios, gentem 
Saxonibus infestissimam, eisque infinitam pecuniam pro- 
misit^ ut Saxonibus bellum inferrent. 

(e) Ita ci vitas paulo ante civibus frequentissima et 
post Mogontiam caput et princeps Gallicarum urbium 
nica subito pene reducta est in solitudinem . 

(/) Quae legatio regem vehementer pernio vit ; statim- 
que abiectis cum gravi contumelia legatis, omnes qui in 
regno suo essent episcopos et abbates Wormaciae domi- 
nica septuagesimae convenire precepit. 

(g) Reginam et alias, quae in obsequio eius erant, 
mulieres boum coriis impositas, duces itineris preeuntes 
deorsum trahebant. 

(h) Romano quoque pontifici scripserunt, ut, quoniam 
in purificatione Sanctae Mariae Augustam iuxta condic- 
tum dolo regis preventus occurrere non potuerat, saltern 
in Forecheim statuta die presto esse satageret, et sedandis 
bellorum civilium tempestatibus . . . apostolici modera- 
minis gubernaculum adhiberet. 

4 K 34 [Turn ovei . 



3. Discuss the position of parties in Saxony from 1073 
to 1085, illustrating your answer from the original 
authorities. 

*4. Comment on the following passages from Bruno, 
illustrating your answer, where it is possible to do so, 
from your other authorities ; — 

(a) Inde natum proverbium per totam Saxoniam 
divulgatur : quod unus Saxo septuaginta Suevis ematur, 
vel septuaginta Suevi uno Saxone redimantur. 

(h) Willehalmum ducem Pictavorum, matris suae 
germanum, sororis suae filio rogavit misereri, sibique 
ferre auxilium, quo posset in regnum patris sui, quo 
careret iniuste, restitui. 

What was William's answer to this request ? 

(c) At nostrates cum ipsas litteras accepissent, a 
magna spe quam in apostolica petra posuerant, excide- 
runt, quia prius coelum stare vel terram crediderant 
coeli modo moveri, quam cathedram Petri amittere con- 
stant iam Petri. 

(d) Si quando miserae nos oves in aliquo excessimus, 
confestim sine mora, sine dilatione in nos apostolicae 
austeritatis vindicta processit. Nunc autem cum ad 
lupos perventum est, qui apertis morsibus in gregem 
dominicum [sic] desaeviunt, omnia cum patientia et 
longanimitate difFeruntur, omnia in spiritu lenitatis 
tolerantur. 

(e) Cui legationi dux Otto, sicut erat solitus iocose 
magna seria nonnullo schemate ludendi velare, respondit 
* Saepe ', dicens, ' ex bove malo malum vitulum vidi 
generatum ; ideoque nee filii nee patris habeo desiderium.' 

5. Draw a map of Germany in the eleventh century, 
indicating roughly the boundaries of the Saxon duchy 
and marking the following rivers and towns : Saale, 
Elster, Uustj-ut, Elbe, Rhine, Weser; Flarcheim, Goslar, 
Hildesheim, Nordheim, Halberstadt, Magdeburg, Merse- 
burg, Halle, Erfurt, Corvey, Fulda, Mainz, Koln, Worms, 
Speyer, Tribur, Oppenheim. 

4K34 



*6. Comment on the following passages from Bern- 
heim, illustrating your answers, where it is possible to 
do so, from your other authorities : — 

[a) Primo nanque inspectore Deo est statutum, ut 
electio Romani pontificis in potestate cardinalium episco- 
porum sit. 

(6) Sunt autem qui obiciunt Nicolaum iuniorem 
decreto synodico statuisse. ut obeunte apostolico pon- 
tifice successor eiigeretur et electio eius regi notificaretur ; 
facta vero electione et, ut predictum est, regi notificata, 
ita demum pontifex consecraretur. 

(c) In qua re verecundia nostra magis quam causa 
laborat, quam vis haec generalis querela ubique personue- 
rit, omnia indicia, omnia decreta per feminas in aposto- 
lica sede actitari, denique per hunc feminarum novum 
senatum totum orbem ecclesiae administrari. 

{d) Qui rex Rodulfus festinanter ad me misso nuncio 
indicavit se coactum regni gubernacula siiscepisse, tamen 
sese paratum michi omnibus modis oboedire. 

7. Summarize the arguments on either side in 
Damiani's Disce2)tatio Synodalis. 

8. What part was played in the struggle in Germany 
by the Slavonic tribes lying on the eastern frontier? 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K34 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Hildebrand. II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. Compare Donizo and Bonitho as trustworthy 
authorities for the history of the Contest of Investitures, 
with especial reference to the opportunities which either 
of them possessed of knowing the truth. 

*2. Comment on five of the following passages from 
Jaffe, illustrating your answer, where it is possible to do 
so, from your other authorities : — 

(a) De electo vero Lucensi non aliud vobis respon- 
dendum esse pervidimus, nisi quod in eo tantam divina- 
rum litterarum scientiam et rationem discretionis esse 
percepimus, ut, quae sinistra quae sit dextera, ipse non 
ignoret. 

(h) Nam Normanni, qui ad confusionem et periculum 
rei publicae et sanctae ecclesiae unum fieri meditabantur, 
in perturbatione, in qua eos invenimus, nimis obstinate 
perse verant, nullo modo nisi nobis volentibus pacem 
habituri. 

(c) Sigefredum vero archiepiscopum Moguntinum 
de praesumptione, quam in causa leromiri Bragensis 
episcopi habuit, per epistolam nostram duriter incre- 
pavimus. 

{d) Timentes : ne, quasi degeneres filii divitias et 
hereditatem nobilissimae matris vestrae, videlicet Gra- 
densis ecclesiae, dissipantes, inde obscuriores efficia- 
mini, unde post apostolicam sedem omnibus, quae sunt 
in occidente, gentibus clariores extitistis. 

{e) Ad tantum enim numerum fideles Romanae 
ecclesiae pervenerunt, ut, nisi ad satisfactionem veniat 
rex, alium regem palam dicant eligere. Quibus nos 
favere servata iustitia promisimus ; promissumque 
firmum tenebimus. 

(/) Nam postquam regnum illud a Saracenis et 
paganis pervasum est, et servitium, quod beato Petro inde 
solebat fieri, . . . ab usu nostrorum tot annis interceptum 
est. 

4 K 35 [Turn over. 



(g) Ego Berengarius corde credo et ore confiteor : 
panem et vinum, quae ponuntur in altari, per mysterium 
sacrae orationis et verba nostri Redemptoris substan- 
tialiter convert! in veram et propriam ac vivificatricem 
carnem et sanguinem lesu Christi domini nostri. 

(h) Unde post Kalendas Septembris . . . cupientes 
sanctam Ravennatem ecclesiam de manibus impiis 
eripere et patri suo beato Petro restituere, partes illas 
armata manu, sicut de Domino speramus, petemus. 

(i) Nam sumens sacerdotes et levitas, quos invenire 
poterat religiosiores, castae vitae et bonae famae, qui 
non per venalitatem susceperant ordinationem, etsi a 
symoniaco essent ordinati, reconciliabat eisque ecclesiam 
tradidit gubernandam ; ex quorum numero multi religiosi 
usque ad nostra tempora extitere. 

3. Do you consider that Henry's journey to Canossa 
was a master stroke of policy or the mistaken act of 
a nervous man ? 

4. Discuss the scope and validity of the Dictatus Papae. 

*5. Comment on the following passages from Waltram, 
illustrating your answer, where it is possible to do so, 
from your other authorities : — 

(a) Ex his certe omnibus manifestum est, supra- 
dictum papam Hildebrandum iniuste pariter et indigne 
imposuisse hanc notam vel Zachariae vel Stephano, 
religiosis utique pontificibus Romanae ecclesiae, ut ali- 
cuius horum exemplo vel ullius Sacrae Scripturae testi- 
monio posset absolvere a iuramento, quo fidem iurave- 
rant regi suo, vel principes vel milites rei publicae. 

(h) Caveto igitur, inquit, tu Christiane, ne Wigberdo 
corde vel ore dixeris unquam ave. 

(c) Hae sunt historiae per quas aestimat nos induci 
posse, ut credamus Henrichum iure a Gregorio damnatum 

esse. 

(d) Ecce autem Hartvigus Magaduburgensis episco- 
pus, qui semel ac secundo damnatus est, sicut vere 
supradiximus, ipse videns diutius non posse contra 

4K35 



imperatorem episcopatum suum repugnando sibi vindi- 
care, simulabat cum eo pactum pacis facero et supplicem 
se ac devotum ei ofFerre. 

(e) [Translate this passage before commenting on 
it] Igitur rex puer 2: anno, postquam distractus est a 
custodia matris suae, celebravit natalem Domiiii Gosla- 
riae, ubi inter cubicularios episcopi et abbatis certatum 
est pugnis atque scamellis pro herilis sedis positione. 

6. Analyse the elements of (a) the German, (b) the 
Lombard opposition to the Gregorian decrees and the 
Gregorian policy. 

^7. Comment on the following lines from Donizo : — 

(a) Hue Hugo tunc falsus venit qui dicitur Albus. 

(b) Haec urbs paganis, Turchis, Libicis quoque Par- 
this Sordida. 

(c) Missam cantavit corpus dedit et deitatis. 

(d) Hac lepra mundus fere non locus extitit ullus. 

8. What do you gather from Donizo about the 
character of — Guibert of Ravenna, Hugh of Cluny, the 
Empress Agnes, Anselm of Lucca ? 



[f. T. 1915.] 



4K35 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



The Age of Dante, 
I. 



[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. What is the value of the Divina Comniedla to the 
historian of thirteenth-century Italy ? 

*2. Translate and comment on five of the following 
passages from the Divina Commedia : — 

(a) Ed egli a me : Dopo lunga tenzone 

verranno al sangue, e la parte selvaggia 
caccera 1' altra con molta offensione. 

(6) In la mente m' e fitta, ed or mi accora 
la cara e buona imagine paterna 
di voi, quando nel mondo ad ora ad ora 
m* insegnavate come V uom s' eterna. 

(c) Ahi, Constantin, di quanto mal fu matre, 

non la tiia conversion, ma quella dote 
che da te prese il primo ricco patre ! 

(d) Jacomo e Federico hanno i reami ; 
del retaggio miglior nessun possiede. 

(e) Cosi ha tolto 1' uno all' altro Giiido 

la gloria della lingua ; e forse e nato 
chi r uno e 1' altro caccera di nido. 

(/) lo fui radice della mala pianta 

che la terra cristiana tutta aduggia 
si che buon frutto rado se ne schianta. 

Ma, se Doagio, Lilla, Guanto e Bruggia 
potesser, tosto ne saria vendetta ; 
ed io la cheggio a lui che tutto giuggia. 

((/) Ma la cittadinanza, ch' e or mista 

di Campi, di Certaldo e di Fighine, 
pura vedeasi nell' ultimo artista. 

4 K 36 [Turn over. 



3. Illustrate and explain the character of Dante's 
feelings towards Florence. 

4. What light do the writings of Villani and Dino 
Compagni throw on their personal attitude towards the 
parties in Florence ? 

*5. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Villani, illustrating your comments, where possible, from 
your other authorities : — 

(a) ' Re, il tuo papa Celestino t' ha voluto al postutto 
servire nella tua guerra di Cicilia, ma non ha saputo ; 
ma se tu adoperi co' tuoi amici cardinali che io sia eletto 
papa, io sapro, e vorro, e potro.' 

(b) E cola dove puosono il detto palazzo, furono 
anticamente le case degli Uberti. ribelli di Firenze e 
Ghibellini ; e di que' loro casolari feciono piazza. 

(c) E con tutto questo stracciamento di cittade 
messer Carlo di Valois ne sua gente non mise consiglio 
ne riparo, ne attenne saramento o cosa promessa per lui. 

{d) Anzi nel detto anno medesimo avea confermato 
a re de' Romani Alberto d' Osterich figliuolo che fu del 
re Ridolfo, per la qual cosa il re di Francia forte si tenne 
ingannato. 

(e) E per riformagione degli opportuni consigli, gli 
diedono piena e libera balia di fare pace tra' cittadini 
d' entro e' loro usciti di fuori, e di fare i priori e gonfa- 
lonieri e signorie della terra a sua volunta. 

(/) Subitamente si levo la cittade a romore, e 
sonarono i priori le campane a martello, e fu ad arme 
il popolo e' grandi a pie e a cavallo, e le masnade de' 
Catalani col maliscalco del re. 

6. Account for the prosperity of Florence during this 
period, in spite of party strife and an apparently un- 
workable constitution. 



4K36 



*7. Comment on fov^r of the following passages from 
Dino Compagni, illustrating' your comments, where pos- 
sible, from your other authorities : — 

(a) E fecesi leggi che T uno consorto fusse tenuto 
per r altro ; e che i malifici si potessono provare per due 
testimoni di publica voce e fama. 

(h) Molto si paleso allora la volonta del Cardinale, 
che la pace, che egli cercava, era per abbassare la parte 
de' Cerchi e inalzare la parte de' Donati. 

(c) * Perche siete voi cosi ostinati ? Umiliatevi a me : 
e io vi dico in verita, che io non o altra intenzione che 
di vostra pace.' 

{d) Pe' sopradetti malifici i cittadini che aveano 
speranza che la citta si riposasse, la perderono ; pero che 
fino a quel di non era sparto sangue, il perche la citta 
posare non dovesse. 

(e) Messer Rosso teneasi col popolo grasso pero che 
erano le sue tanaglie, e pigliavano il ferro caldo. (iii. 2.) 

(/) I Lucchesi, che erano venuti in Firenze per 
mettere pace, ebbono gran balia dal Comune. 

8. What light do your authorities throw on— 

(a) the differences in social position and character 
between Bianchi and Neri ; 

(b) the part played in the Florentine troubles by 
the nobles of the country round ? 

9. Make a sketch-map of Florence in the time of 
Dante, showing the most important buildings, the extent 
of the fire of 1304, and the places connected with the 
Baschiera expedition (July 1304). 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K36 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



The Age of Dante. 

II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Examine the attitude which Clement V adopted 
towards Henry VII and his Italian plans. 

*2. Translate and comment on four of the following 
passages from John de Cermenate, illustrating your com- 
ments, where possible, from your other authorities : — 

(a) Hie admodum magnanimus quamplurium prae- 
decessorum suorum vestigia minime secutus est, quorum 
nostra aetate nullus aureum atque ferreum diadema 
suscepit, immo sola argentea corona contenti, sexaginta 
et plurium annorum tempore infra Theutones sese 
tenuere. 

(h) Rex Franciscum postmodum carum semper habuit 
ipsumque in aulam eius aditum atque locum habere iussit. 
Idque primum respiramen Gibellinae partis fuit. 

(c) Tunc comes Sabaudiae, non miserorum causam 
deserens, nam ubi Italiae fines tetigit rex, seu quaestu, ut 
fit, seu conscientia consilioque regis per industriam hie 
Guelfico semper favit, ad reginae cameram, post regem, 
tendit. 

(d) Ipsum regem Robertum, sicut iam alios, ad 
solemnia coronationis suae amicabiliter convitavit, canem 
suscitans dormientem. 

(e) Interim rex de lanua Pisas venit, maris iter 
tenens, cunctis itineribus tei'restribus Guelphorum opera 
per terram clausis. 

(/) Philippus rex Francorum . . . eosdem quos olim 
Ananiam Bonifacio papae vim facturos miserat ad papam 
Clementem, qui imperatori favere videbatur, mittit. 

3. Trace, with the help of your authorities, the policy 
adopted (a) by the house of De la Scala, (h) by the city 
of Bologna, during Henry VII's Italian expedition. 

4 K37 [Turn over. 



*4. Translate and comment on four of the following 
passages, illustrating your comments, where possible, 
from your other authorities : — 

{a) Risponditore fu fatto per lo commune messer 
Betto Brunelleschi, il quale prima rispuose con parole 
superbe e disoneste. (VillanL) 

(6) * Male hanno fatto, che nostro intendimento era 
di volere i Fiorentini tutti, e non parti ti, a buoni 
fedeli, e di quella citta fare nostra camera e la migliore 
di nostro imperio.' (Villani.) 

(c) E cosi tutte 1' altre terre di Lombardia lascib 
a tiranno, non possendo altro per lo suo male stato. 

{Villani.) 

(d) E consent! per privilegio a messer Ubizzino 
Spinoli di Genova e al marchese di Monferrato, che 
potessono battere in loro terre i fiorini di giglio contra- 
fatti sotto il conio di quegli di Firenze. (Villani.) 

(e) Ne' bandi loro diceano ; ' A onore di Santa Chiesa, 
e a morte del re della Magna.' (Dino Gompagni) 

(/) Rispose il savissimo Imperadore di sua bocca : 
' Tarde sono le profFerte del Re, e troppo tostana e la 
venuta di messer Giovanni.' {Dino Gompagni.) 

5. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the route 
followed by Henry VII in his expedition from Pisa to 
Rome and back. State which of the cities on this route 
were imperialist and which of them were Guelph. 

*6. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Nicholas of Butrinto, illustrating your comments, where 
possible, from your other authorities : — 

(a) Dominus Rex ipsum noluit recipere ad fideli- 
tatem, quia fidelitatom fecerat Regi Roberto. 

(b) Recorder incidentaliter, quod ante recessum meum 
de Pi sis audivi ab Imperatore per paucos dies, quod in is to 
Mundo non erant duo Praelati magis ingrati quam Archie- 
piscopus Mediolanensis et Episcopus Vercellensis. 

(c) Et aliquos eos audivi clamantes : * Moriantur 
Theotonici omnes, pa^ est inter Dominum Guidonem 
et Dominum Matthaeum.' 

4K37 



(d) In strata intellectis iis quae acta fuerunt circa 
nuiitium,dimi8sa Bononia a sini.stris, per castrum Episcopi 
posuimus nos in Alpibus per viam horribilem. 

(e) Quantum ad aliud quod rogabamus ex parte 
Domini nostri, quod gentem suam, quae erat ad pontem 
de Mollen, revocaret, dixerunt quod revocare illam inten- 
debat illo die, non propter preces suas, . . . sod propter 
suum melius. 

(/) Item recorder quod Dominus Imperator habuit 
de pecunia Regis Frederici unam summam magnam fiore- 
norum. 

7. State what you learn from your authorities on the 
following subjects '.—(a) the effect of the siege of Brescia 
on Henry's position in Lombardy, (h) tlie relations between 
Florence and King Robert, (c) the policy of Filippone of 
Langusco, (d) the numbers and the military quality of 
Henry's forces in Italy. 

• *8. Discuss Dante's De Moiiarchla (a) as political philo- 
sophy of permanent value, (b) as a pamphlet with a 
practical object. 

Or, 
Comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Inter tales principes opportet esse indicium. Et 
quum alter de altero cognoscere non possit, ex quo alter 
alteri non subditur . . . opportet esse tertium iurisdictio- 
nis amplioris qui ambitu sui iuris ambobus principetur. 

{De Monarchia.) 

(b) Non enim cives propter Consules, nee gens propter 
Regem; sed e con verso Consules propter cives, Rex propter 
gentem. (De Monarchia.) 

(c) Tunc autem translatum est imperium a Grecis ad 
Germanos, ut decre talis dicit Extra de electione c. Vene- 
rabileni, ubi glossa ordinaria dicit^ quod extunc defecit 
imperium Constantinopolitanum, ut non proprie ulterius 
imperium dici possit. (Determinatio Gompendiosa.) 

9. State and comment on the arguments in the Deter- 
minatio Compcndiosa (a) in favour of the pre-eminent 
dominion of the Papacy in temporal matters, (6) on the 
origin of the State. 

4K37 [r. r. 1915.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTOEY. 



The Reign of Richard II. 

I. 

\Ga7ididates are expected to attempt the questions 
"marked "^.J 

1. Describe with the help of your authorities the state 
of affairs during the first year of Richard's reign. 

*2. Comment on three of the following extracts from the 
Historia Anglicana : — 

{a) Filius Johannis Marcer . . . collecta non parva 
manu Gallicorum atque Scotorum ac etiam Hispanorum, 
. . . aggressus est naves quasdam apud Scarbourgh ; quas 
incautas levi negotio cepit. 

(h) Demum tamen, Regem et matrem eius, necnon 
et avunculum Ducem Lancastriae^ ab hoc anathemate 
specialiter exceperunt. 

(c) Ipse insuper Bertrandus Cleykeyn publice pro- 
testatus est; se maluisse omnes Gallicos illo conflictu 
deperisse, quam quicquam adversi tantus vir pertulisset. 

(d) Revera cuilibet licebat forinseco suos pisces in 
propria persona infra civitatem vendere, cum piscariis 
civitatis adempta facultas fuisset ita facere. 

(e) Qui cum venisset, lectica delatus, quia propter 
guttam equitare non poterat, compulsus est discinctus et 
discooperto capite, ad haec omnia sibi obiecta, more 
latronum vel proditorum I'espondere. 

(/) Ut quidam de militibus Parliamentalibus qui 
plus obstiterant vel sibi petenti subsidium pecuniare, vel 
dicto Michaeli infesti fuerant, una cum Domino Thoma, 
Duce Gloverniae, invitarentur ad coenam in hospitio 
cuiusdam Londoniis, et ibidem repente trucidarentur. 

3. Give an account of the rising in 1381 at St. Albans 
and of its suppression. 

4 K 30 [Turn over. 



*4. Translate and comment on four of the following 
extracts from the Anoniinalle Chronicle : — 

(a) Toutz les gentz de Fobbame doneront respons . . . 
que ils auoient vn acqiiitance de luy mesmes pur celle 
subsidie. 

(b) Issint que nul euesque seroit en Angieterre 
forsque vn Ercheuesque lequel seroit mesmes et nulle 
moigne ne chanon en vn meason de relligione forsque 
deux et que lour possessioons deuerent ester departie entre 
les laiez gentz. 

(c) Et donques le dit Wat rehersa les pointz queux 
fueront a demander et demanda que nul ley deuoiet estre 
fors la ley de Winchester et que nul vttelagarie seroit en 
nul proces de ley fait de ore en avant et que nul seignur 
aueroit seignurye fors sivelment ester proportione entre 
toutz gentz fors tant solement le seignur le roy. 

(d) Mes le valet responde que il nauoiet deservie le 
mort mes ceo que il auoit dit fust verytee. 

(e) Le dit euesque acoilant a luy plusors gentz des 
armes et des archers et les assaileront en pluseurs places 
. . . et issint les ditz comons departeront par toute le 
pais pur defaute et mischeif et pur doute que ils auoient 
de le roy et de les seignurs et se misteront en fuite come 
beastes en taxisone. 

5. Trace carefully the history of the proceedings 
against the Lollards in the year 1382. 

*6. Comment on three of the f ollowino- extracts from the 
Gontinuator of Knighton : — 

(a) Similiter ei relatum est quod duo turmae nefan- 
dorum luporum discurrebant per duas partes regni et 
quelibet turba continebat decern millia electorum ad 
rapiendum eum. 

(h) Et ipsum regratiabatur eo quod tam nobilis rex 
tam grandi potentia paucos viros Anglicanae nationis 
tanto honore praedonaverat, bellandi gratia visitando. 

(c) Sicque aedificatum est dictum bastile in decem 
et novem diebus et vocatum est nomen eius le Dufhous. 

4K30 



8 

(d) Si posset stare cum iure regni quod rex posset 
obviare et resistere ordinationibus, de rege et regno in 
ultimo parliamento constitutis, per proceres et communes 
regni cum regis assensu. 

(e) Nam Wallani scholares semper inquieti adhae- 
rentibus sibi australibus insurrexerunt contra boriales 
scholares, et hinc inde multa mala mortis inter eos 
evenerunt. 

7. Trace the relations between England and Flanders 
which culminated in the invasion of 1383. 

*8. Translate and comment on three of the following 
extracts from the Zlzaniorum Fasciculi: — 

(a) Inter primos messores Christi tunc temporis 
surrexit de Fratribus Carinelitis Virginis matris Dei 
contra lollium antichrist! Frater Johannes Kynyngham. 

(6) Et post appellationem advenit nobilis dominus 
dux egregius, et miles strenuus, sapiensque consiliarius 
Dux Lancastriae, . . . prohibens magistro praedicto 
Johanni quod de cetero non loqueretur de ipsa materia. 

(c) Hoc debet credi catholice, quod quilibet sacerdos 
rite ordinatus secundum legem gratiae, habet potestatem 
secundum quam potest sacramenta quaeli?jet ministrare, 
et per consequens sibi confessum de quocunque peccato 
contritum absolvere. 

{(1) Ex istis elicio, tanquam consilium, quod papa 
dimittat seculari brachio dominium temporale ; et ad 
hoc clerum suum efficaciter exhortetur. 

9. Describe with the help of your authorities the 
movements of the contending forces prior to and during 
the battle of Otterbourn. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K30 



o 



SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTOKY. 



The Reign of Richard II, 
II. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 

"inarked "^.j 

1. Give an account of the legislation with regard to 
villeins and labourers from the time of the Peasant Revolt 
to the end of the reign. 

*2. Comment on three of the following extracts from 
the Historia Anglicana : — 

(a) Et hii nimirum milites plures erant Veneris 
quam Bellonae, plus valentes in thalamo quam in campo, 
plus lingua quam lancea praemuniti, ad dicendum vigiles, 
ad faciendum acta martia somnolenti. 

(h) Hie ut fertur nomen Londoniarum delevisse 
meditatus fuerat, et apposuisse scilicet nomen novum, 
scilicet Parvae Troiae : cuius urbis et nominis ipse Dux 
creari statuit, et nouiinari. 

(c) lam enim de cetero illos de Consilio meo amoveo, 
et ut haeres aetatis legitimae, quos voluero ad Concilium 
advocabo, et negotia propria pertractabo. 

(d) Civitas quoque, vocata ' Wille ', in cuius castellum 
Rex de Lettowe, nomine 'Skirgalle', confugerat, potenti 
virtute dicti Comitis maxime, atque suorum, capta est. 

3. Illustrate the value and defects of the chronicle of 
'John of Malvern' for the crisis of 1387-8. 

^4. Comment on three of the following extracts from 
the Annales Ricardi II: — 

(a) Rex nempe Navarriae cepit mutuo viginti duo 
millia marcarum de Rege Angliae, et invadiavit pro dicta 
summa villam suam de Cherburgh. 

(b) Orta fuit seditio maxima in Comitatu Cestriae 
contra Duces Lancastriae et Gloverniae, et Comitem Der- 
biae, instinctu quorundam malevolorum illius patriae. 

(c) Habebant executores huius negotii secum litteras 
regali sigillo signatas, intus quidem continentes summam 
quam volebant petere, sed non indorsatas. 

4 K 31 [Turn over. 



(d) ' Vulpes cum cauda caveat, dum cantat alauda, 

Ne rapiens pecus simul rapiatur, et equus.' 

(e) Affirmavit quod vita cuiuscunque ligei sui ac 
ipsius terrae, tenementa, bona et catalla sunt sua, ad 
voluntatem, absque aliqua forisfaetura. 

5. ' The Westminster session had been efiven to revenofe 
for the past, the Shrewsbury parliament unfolded the 
King's plans for the government of the future.' Illus- 
trate this from your authorities. 

*6. Comment on tho^ee of the following extracts from 
the chronicle of Adam of Usk: — 

(a) Hoc audito, domina principessa, regis mater, ad 
huiusmodi tumultum sedandum, nocturno labori non 
parcens, a Walingforde versus Londoniam, cordis non 
modica contricione, iter arrepuit. 

(6) Quia huiusmodi taxe recistere volens, per eundem 
regem in Thamesia persecutus, mortem fugiens in mona- 
stico habitu, partes Devonie peciit pro tutamine. 

(c) Et duxerunt eum emuli sui, comes Cancie, ipsius 
nepos, et alii terras suas sicientes, mala mortis peste, ut 
inferius liquebit, perempti, ad montem Turris, et ibi 
ipsum decollarunt. 

(d) Item per certos doctores, episcopos et alios 
quorum presencium notator unus extiterat, deponendi 
reorem Ricardum et Henricum, Lancastrie ducem, subro- 
gandi in regem materia, et qualiter et ex quibus causis, 
iuridice committebatur disputanda. 

7. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the routes 
of Richard and Henry from their respective landing- 
places to Flint Castle. 

8. ' The more closely Richard's conduct is investigated 
the more clearly will its consistency be acknowledged.* 
Discuss this statement. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K31 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Ilevolution of 1688. 
I. 

[Questions marked * should be attemj^^ted.^ 

1. How was the .safety of* the United Netherlands 
secured during the Expedition of William to England ?■ 

2. Describe briefly, and draw a sketch-map to illus- 
trate, William's march from Torbay to London. 

3. Explain, with reference to Cobbett's Parliamentary 
History and the Hard^uicke Papers, the importance of 
the ' Contract Theory ' in the Revolution settlement. 

4. Describe the character of the Earl of Halifax, and 
his influence on the Kevolution. 

5. What errors did James II make in his conduct of 
the war in Ireland ? 

6. Examine Burnet's account of {a) the Battle of 
Beachy Head, (6) the Capitulation of Limerick. 

*7. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Burnet : — 

{a) But this was so highly resented by the court of 
England, that the prince, fearing it might precipitate 
a rupture, ordered him to be again named in the prayers. 

(b) His modest deportment gave him such an interest 
in the prince, that he never seemed so fond of any of his 
ministers as he was of him. 

(c) I saw he was fond of his own draught : and the 
prince left the matter wholly to him : yet I got it to be 
much shortened, though it was still too long. 

{d) O nimium dilecte Deo, cui militat aether, 
Et coniurati veniunt ad classica venti. 

{e) He was then near ninety, and yet he said the 
liveliest thing that was heard of on that occasion. 

(/) They thought this would save the nation, and 
yet secure the honour of the Church of England, and the 
sacredness of the crown. 

4 K 19 [Turn over. 



^8. Comment upon four of the following passages 
from Daliympie's Memoirs : — 

(a) I am very glad all things continue so quiet on 
your side of the water ; they are so here, and I find my 
declaration contributes much to it, the generality of the 
nation being satisfied with it and at ease b}^ it. 

{James II to Prince of Orange.) 

(b) That he likewise do bring the king as good an 
account as he can of all the several corporations within 
the lieutenancy. 

(Lord Preston's Copybook of Dispatches.) 

(c) This was a point artfully gained by those that 
were industrious to possess the fleet in favour of the 
Prince of Orange, and in ridiculing all the measures 
taken to prevent his designs. (Torrington's Memoirs.) 

(d) You'Jl find that the two great points that require 
more especially your care, are how to manage the partyes 
soe as to maintain yourself against your enemies abroad, 
and at the same time so to preserve your authority at 
home, that the necessity of doing the one may not bring 
you to such circumstances that it will be impossible for 
you to keep the other. {Godolphin to K. William.,) 

(e) However, as it has pleased God to make Your 
Majesty the protector of our religion, I hope you will 
put it also in a state to have its arms free, to assist us 
poor mortals, who, by the desolation of our neighbours, 
are near to that roaring beast which endeavours to 
devour us. (Princess Sophia to K. William.) 

(/) So absolutely necessary I think it is that some- 
thing of this kind should be done, that rather than it 
should not, I do ofier myself to Your Majesty for that 
service, although I am less fib than any of those I have 
named. (Gaerm^arthen to King William.) 

*9. Comment on four of the following : — 

(a) The States by whom I have been enabled to 
rescue this nation, may suddenly feel the ill efiects of it, 
both by being too long deprived of the service of their 
troops, which are now here, and of your early assistance 
against a powerful enemy, who hath developed a war 
against them. (Cobbett.) 

4K 19 



(6) I think these words will make the world think 
we are about to alter the whole religion, the true 
Protestant religion established by law. 

(SiK Th. Clarges.) 

(c) We know not how soon we may fight for our all 
on English ground. I think we are much safer in 
English hands than in Foreigners. 

(Sir Peter Colleton.) 

(d) We are not the people collectively or representa- 
tively. * (Sir R. Sawyer.) 

(e) Fear of Popery has united ; when that is over, 
we shall divide again. (Mr. Pollexfen.) 

(/) And we do likewise desire that the Lord Mayor 
and Court of Aldermen of the City of London would be 
present at the same time ; and that the Common Council 
would appoint Fifty of their number, to be there like- 
wise, and hereof we desire them not to fail. 

(DocuTiients.) 

(g) Always provided and excepted that if any 
Person or Persons whatsoever shall be guilty of design- 
ing endeavouring or attempting any Assassination on the 
Body of the King by Poison or otherwise such Person or 
Persons may be prosecuted at any time notwithstanding 
the aforesaid Limitation. {Documents.) 

10. Discuss the political morality of the time of 
William III. 



\T, T. 1915.] 



4K19 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Revolution of 1688. 
II. 

[Questions "^narked * should he attempted.^ 

1. Discuss the chief respects in which the Revolutionary 
Settlement in Scotland differed from that in England. 

2. What influence was exercised in the public affairs 
of this period by Queen Mary (wife of William III) ?^ 

3. In what respects do the papers in Dairy mple's 
Memoirs supplement Burnet's account of the affair of 
Glencoe ? 

4. How far did the period of the Revolution mark an 
advance in the principles of religious toleration 1 

5. Draw a sketch-map of the Low Countries to illus- 
trate the wars of William III, and discuss the political 
effect of these wars upon William's position in England. 

6. Describe and criticize William's method of nego- 
tiating the Treaty of Ryswick. 

*7. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Burnet : — 

(a) The sure game was to preserve his army ; and 
that would save Ulster, and keep matters entire for 
another year. 

(h) But one great error was committed by the Court, 
in accepting remote funds. 

(c) Such is the fate of confederate armies, when they 
are under a different dii'ection. 

{d) From this he concluded, that either his mind 
was so happily balanced, that no accident could put it 
out of that situation ; or that, if he had commotions 
within, he had a very extraordinary command over his 
temper. 

4 K 20 [Turn over. 



(e) The enemies of the Government tried what could 
be made of this, to create distractions among us ; but the 
princess gave no encouragement to them. 

(/) Many brave seamen, seeing the nation was in 
such visible danger, came out of their lurking holes, in 
which they were hiding themselves from the press, and 
offered their service. 

*8. Comment on three of the following :— 

(a) I have expected, with impatience, to hear some- 
thing of the late king's journey to Avignon, pursuant to 
what your lordship hinted in yours of the 21st of June. 

{Shrewsbury Correspondence.) 

(b) Peace was never the design of the Germans, but 
to keep England and Holland in an expensive war. 

{Shrewsbury Correspondence.) 

(c) Que S. A. R. fournira dans des places ou lieux 
seurs des magasins pour les munitions de guerre et de 
bouche pour les troupes de S. M. et en un mot ils agiront 
de concei*t pour la mesme cause. (Vast.) 

{d) On est convenu qu'il sera nomm^ de part et 
d'autre des Commissaires pour I'examen et jugement des 
droits et pretentions r^ciproques que chacun des dits 
Seigneurs Roys pent avoir sur les places et lieux de la 
Baye d'Hudson. (Vast.) 

*9. Translate and comment on four of the following 
passages from Bonnet : — 

(a) Le tour qu^elles ont pris pour venir a leurs fins, 
est que les Seigneurs ne pouvant point refuser de con- 
sentir a tous les Actes qui regardent des Impositions, 
elles ont attach^ ce Bill des Commissaires Publics a la 
queue de celuy de la Taxe par teste, et comme s'il n'en 
faisoit qu'une Clause. 

{b) L'on avoit distribud les jours pr^c^dens a la 
Chambre des papiers, qui contenoient des raisons assez 
fortes, pour quoy ce commerce devoit estre libre a toute 
la Nation, pr^tendant qu'il n'y avoit que des interessez 
dans la Compagnie ou des pensionnaires des Hollandois, 
qui pussent souhaitter qu'il n'y eut qu'une socidt^ de peu 
de personnes qui y eiit part. 

4K20 



(c) Et avant qu'on se partageat sur celle-cy quelques 
uns represent^rent, de quelle facheuse consequence ce 
pourroit estre, si Ton voyoit, dans le journal imprim^ des 
Votes de la Chambre, qu'un Acte pour asseurer la per- 
sonne de leurs M*^^ et le Gouvernement eiit est^ rejett^. 

(d) Pourveu que la Chambre Basse t^moigne autant 
d'empressement pour les Armies de terre qu'elle fait 
pour celles de mer, et qu'elle veuille donner des subsides 
aussi largement pour les unes, qu'il paroit qu'elle a dessein 
de donner pour les autres, Ton aura tout sujet d'estre 
content a cet egard de ses resolutions. 

(e) Ceux qui presteront cette somme, feront une 
Compagnie, qu'on appelle icy Corporation, qui aura son 
Gouverneur et ses Directeurs. 

10. Compare, with the help of your texts, Documents 
and State Papers with narrative history, as authorities 
for the events of your period. 



\T.1\ 1915.] 



4K20 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 
I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. Describe the economic and administrative condition 
of Bengal in 1773, and show what Hastings did to 
reform it. 

2. 'A tempest or an earthquake could not be more 
fatal to a builder whose walls were uncovered, and his 
unfinished columns trembling in the breeze, than the 
ravages or terrors of war would have been to me and to 
all my hopes ' (Hastings). Discuss this statement, with 
respect to the work of Warren Hastings as Governor- 
General. 

^3. Explain and comment on five of the following 
extracts from the original papers in Gleig : — 

{a) That of the rice is begun ; God knows when the 
enquiries will all end : he has great friends. 

(6) This instability in the affairs at home does injury 
to those of Bengal, and weakens the authority not only 
of the Government but of the Company. 

(c) I am and have always been of opinion that, 
whatever form it may be necessary to give to the British 
dominion in India, nothing can so effectually contribute 
to perpetuate its duration as to bind the powers and 
states with whom this Government may be united, in 
ties of direct dependence and communication with the 
Crown. 

{d) You will at least be pleased with the amiable 
character of the Lama, which has been confirmed to me 
by the testimonies of other travellers, who have visited 
his capital. 

(e) At Bombay the hands of the Governor and 
Council have been tied by the Government of Bengal, 
and loosened by the Court of Directors. 

4 K 2 i [Turn over. 



2 

(/) The Act of Parliament and charter give the 
Court no jurisdiction over any but British subjects, and 
natives who are or have been British subjects. 

(g) This Government subsists more by the influence 
of public opinion than by its real power or resources. 

(h) For my motives for withholding the several 
receipts from the knowledge of the Council, or of the 
Court of Directors, and for taking bonds for part of these 
sums, and paying others into the Treasury as deposits 
on my own account, I have generally accounted in my 
letter to the Court of Directors. 

4. Discuss the importance of the policy of Lord Corn- 
wallis with regard to Gude. 

5. * We want the spirit of your Pophams and God- 
dards ' (Hastings). Explain with a sketch-map the 
exploits which gave rise to this statement. 

6. Explain, with the help of the Hastings and Corn- 
wallis Papers, the difficulties in which Governor-Generals 
were placed owing to the combination of political and 
mercantile functions in the East India Company. 

7. What lioht does Wilks throw on the followino^ ? — 

(a) The methods by which Hyder Ali maintained 
troops. 

(b) The revenue system of Mysore. 

8. Describe, with the assistance of your authorities, 
the civil and military organization of the Mahrattas, 
during the period of the first Mahratta War. 

*9. Explain and comment on Jive of the following 
extracts : — 

(a) We have therefore upon a full view of the 
subject adopted this conclusion, that it will tend more 
to simplicity, energy, justice, and economy, to reinvest 
the provincial chiefs or collectors with the superin- 
tendence of the courts of dewanny arlalut. 

(1786 from Report o/1812.) 

4K21 



(b) As far as I am able to judge, it is not Tippoo's 
intention to break with the Company. (Malcolm.) 

(c) I believe that the deliberate manner in which 
he made the first payment of the subsidy of that year was 
dictated by the doubts suggested of the firmness of my 
authority. (Hastings, 1781.) 

(d) The engagements between the Vizier and the 
Rohillas which have been already quoted, sufficiently 
evince the justice of the attack upon them. (Hastings.) 

(e) Whilst England is at peace in Europe, and whilst 
the powers of this country abstain from offering injury 
to us or to our allies, this Government is not at liberty 
to take any step which might lead to hostilities with 
any of our neighbours. (Cornwallis to Malet, 1788.) 

(/) And as to the danger attending the additional 
patronage, it will not appear very formidable, when it is 
recollected that the scene of its operation is at the dis- 
tance of India, and in a climate, where scarce any rewards 
can compensate the risks to be run, and the services to be 
performed. (DuNDAS, 1788.) 

(g) I mean that the three Governors, the Nizam, 
and the Peshwah, should dine at Seringapatam, with the 
old Queen of Mysore. (Medows to Cornwallis, 1791.) 

(h) The distress which the Company's arms had 
suffered, and their belief of our consequent inability to 
support the war against them, has raised their presump- 
tion and induced them to insist on terms which the 
worst state of our affairs would not warrant us in 
yielding to. (Wilks, quoting Hastings, 1781.) 



[T, T, 1915.] 



4K21 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



British India. (1773-1805.) 

II. 

[GaTididates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

■^1. Explain and comment on five of the following 
extracts : — 

(a) The Governor-General, on the other hand, con- 
ceived that the treaty on which the Nizam's claims to 
aid were grounded was a tripartite engagement. 

(Malcolm.) 

(b) We know by experience his abilities — he has 
confidants and advisers, but no minister, and inspects, 
superintends, and regulates himself all the details of 
his government — he maintains dignity without ostenta- 
tion — the peasantry of his dominions are protected, and 
their labours encouraged and rewarded. 

(Shoke's Minute.) 

(c) The power of the house of Sindia has become 
subject to the control of the Paishwah by means which 
were foreseen. (Shore's Minute.) 

(d) His Lordship [Hobart] concludes by expressing 
a hope that, although his efforts had been unsuccessful, 
the representations which he had made to England 
would produce instructions to put an end to a system 
which he represents as ' destructive to the resources 
of the Carnatic, and in some degree reflecting disgrace 
on the British government '. (Malcolm.) 

(e) The distinguished officer appointed to lead the 
assault beheld those walls, within which he had himself 
been immured in irons, during a tedious imprisonment 
of nearly four years. (Wilks.) 

(/) When too late, he began to carry his designs 
into execution, and moved up towards the Jeypoor 
territory, for the purpose of negotiating for aid from 
the Rajpoots, the raja of Bhurtpoor, the Rohillas, and 
the Sikhs. (Grant Duff.) 

4 K 22 [Turn over. 



(r/) The positive obligations of existing treaties 
provide in the most express terms for the uncontrolled 
exercise of the internal government of both states being 
left in the hands of their respective chiefs. 

(CORNWALLIS.) 

(h) The real circumstances are, that it is not the 
opinion only of Ministers, or of a party, but of all 
reflecting men of every description, that it is physically 
impracticable for Great Britain, in addition to all other 
embarrassments, to maintain so vast and so unwieldy 
an empire in India. (Cornwallis.) 

2. Describe, with the aid of a sketch-map, the terri- 
torial expansion of the English power in India under 
Warren Hastings and Wellesley. 

3. Explain and illustrate the facility with which 
foreio-n adventurers made their career in India during^ 
this period. 

4. Describe, with special reference to the Wellington 
Dispatches, the organization and manner of marching 
of a combined force of Company troops and native 
allies, on a military expedition. 

■5. Explain and illustrate the close relation between 
sea-povjer and the growth of British dominion in India 
in this period. 

6. Describe the circumstances under which the Treaty 
of Bassein was concluded, and its importance in the 
history of the British power. 

7. State and comment on the views of Arthur 
Wellesley on — 

(a) Coinage reform ; 

(b) The commercial monopoly of the East India 
Company ; 

(c) The causes of famine. 

8. What impressions do you gather from Grant Duff 
of the character of General Lake and the importance of 
his achievements ? 

4K22 



8 

*9. Explain and comment on five of the following: — 
(a) The rules of patronage ought to be the same at 
Madras as they are in Bengal, where the Governor- 
General, although probably the most powerful subject 
in the world, cannot in the ordinary course of business 
make a corporal. (Wellington.) 

[h) It may be doubted whether the revenue derived 
in cash from the ground in this country, is in any degree 
less hurtful in its effects with regard to us, than so 
much money dug from a mine. 

(Stuart's Memoraadum.) 

{c) If Tippoo had had sense and spirit sufficient to 
use his cavalry and infantry as he might have done, 
I have no hesitation in saying that we should not now 
be here, and probably should not be out of the jungles 
near Bangalore. (Wellington, 1799.) 

(c/) My judgement and experience coincide entirely 
with your opinion, that the system adopted by Lord 
Cornwallis has proved and must continue to prove a 
fruitful source of happiness, wealth, industry, and popu- 
lation to this flourishing country. (Wellesley.) 

(e) I recommend it to you not to put the Company 
upon the Mahratta frontier. (Wellington.) 

(/) I understand military law to be the law of the 
sword, and, in well-regulated and disciplined armies, 
to be the will of the General. (Wellington.) 

((/) I confess that I cannot concur with you in 
ascribing the purity of the service in Bengal to the 
influence of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Calcutta. 

(Wellesley.) 

{li) Although I came first in front of their right, 
I determined to attack their left, as the defeat of their 
corps of infantry was most likely to be effectual. 

(Wellington, 1803.) 



[T, T. 1915.] 



4K22 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self -Government. 

I. 

[Candidates are ex^')ected to atteimpt the questions 
marked *.] 

1 . ' A happier calamity never befell a people than the 
conquest of Canada by British arms.' 

' The government of Canada was one continued 
blunder from the day when Amherst signed the capitula- 
tion of Montreal to the union of the Provinces.' 

Discuss these statements, with reference to consti- 
tutional documents. 

2. What were the obstacles to a fusion of races in 
Canada *? How^ do these affect the constitutional develop- 
ment during the early period '? 

3. Summarize the arguments for and against the 
settlement of a Canadian code. 

4. ' The early governors of Canada show a surprising 
bias in favour of the French population.' 

Illustrate and account for this fact, and show its 
importance. 

5. Do the documents which you have studied justify 
the charges brought against the Home Government of 
(a) carelessness, (b) ignorance of the facts of the situation 
in Canada before the arrival of Lord Durham ? 

6. Was the seigneurial system a help or a hindrance to 
the establishment of British rule ? 

7. Examine the proposals for the government of Canada 
as set forth in the Reports of [a) the Board of Trade, 
1769; (6) Wedderburn, 1772; (c) Thurlow, 1773. 

*8. Show by a sketch-map the importance of the water 
communications between Upper Canada and the Atlantic. 
To what difficulties did such geographical facts give rise ? 

9. What were the leading arguments advanced during 
the debate on the Constitution Act of 1791 1 Does the 
attitude of the Government or the Opposition appear to 
you the more statesmanlike ? 

4 K 38 • [Turn over. 



*10. Comment on Q,ny Jive of the following passages : — 

(a) It may therefore be concluded, as at first, that 
none of the laws of England are valid in the conquered 
province ipso facto by virtue of the conquest, or cession, 
without a positive introduction there by a sufficient 
authority ; and this sufficient authority seems ... to be 
only the Parliament of Great Britain. 

(Maseres' Report, 1766.) 

(h) And I can take upon me to averr, that it never 
entered into Our Idea to overturn the Laws and Customs 
of Canada, with regard to Property, but that Justice 
should be administered agreably to them, according to 
the Modes of administering Justice in the Courts of 
Judicature in this Kingdom, as is the Case in the County 
of Kentj and many other parts of England. 

(Hillsborough to Garleton, 1768.) 

(c) We might make the people entirely English by 
introducing the English language. This is to be done 
by free schools, and by ordaining that all suits in our 
Courts shall be carried on in English after a certain 
number of years. (Finlay to Nepean, 1789.) 

{d) It was not the interest of England to raise colonies 
of farmers in a country which could only produce the same 
articles as England did. 

(Lord Sheffield, May 11, 1791.) 

(e) They (the French- Canadians) have made objec- 
tions to juries. The higher part of the Canadians object 
to the institution itself, as humiliating and degrading. 
They have no idea of submitting their conduct to a set 
of men, their inferiors : and the lower order look upon it 
(as in truth it is) as a burthen to them. 

{Evidence o/ Chief Justice Hey, 1774.) 

(/) He also took notice of an amendment . . . which 
was a new clause, repealing so much of the act of reforma- 
tion of the 1st of Elizabeth as relates to the oath of supre- 
macy, and substituting a common oath of allegiance in its 
place. This act . . . the legislature had no more right to 
repeal than the Great Charter or the Bill of Rights. 

(Chatham on the Quebec Act.) 

4K38 



(g) To expect wisdom and moderation from near 
a score of Petty Parliaments, consisting in effect of only 
one of the three necessary branches of a Parliament, 
must . . . appear to have been a very extravagant expecta- 
tion. (Chief Justice Smith to Lord Dorchester, 1791.) 

(h) While a due Preponderance on the side of Govern- 
ment is so manifestly wanting in the Assembly, it is con- 
sidered by the well-wishers of Government as a fortunate 
circumstance that the Revenue is not equal to the Expendi- 
ture. (Lt.-Gov. Milnes to the Duke of Portland, 1800.) 



[T, T. 1915.] 



4K38 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Evolution of Canadian Self- Government, 

II. 

[Candidates are ex'pected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

1. Compare the causes of the rebellions in Upper and 
Lower Canada respectively. 

2. Examine the arguments of Joseph Howe in favour 
of the introduction of responsible government. 

3. Summarize Lord Durham's recommendations. How 
far do they amount to a suggestion of complete respon- 
sible government "? 

4. To what causes may the various suggestions of an 
incorporation of Canada with the United States between 
1791 and 1850 be attributed ? How far was the danger 
real ? 

5. Compare the views of Lord Sydenham, Sir Charles 
Metcalfe, Lord Grey, and Lord Elgin on the position and 
functions of a Colonial Governor. 

6. Trace the movement towards self-government be- 
tween 1841 and 1867. 

*/. Contrast the areas and populations dealt with by 
the Acts of 1791 and 1867 respectively. 

8. ' Federation is a concession to human weakness ; 
not a form of government to be sought as an end in 
itself.' • 

Discuss this with reference to the views expressed 
by speakers during the debate on Federation in the 
Canadian Parliament, 1865. 

9. Describe, and discuss the arrangements made by 
the British North America Act for the distribution of 
powers between the central and the local Legislatures. 

4 K 39 [Turn over. 



*10. Comment on sjij jive of the following : — 

(a) ' And ... it shall be lawful for the Governor . . . 
to constitute townships in those parts of the Province of 
Canada in which townships are not ah-eady constituted, 
. . . and to provide for the election and appointment of 
township ofhcers therein, who shall have and exercise 
like powers as are exercised by the like officers already 
constituted in . , . Upper Canada.' {Union Act, 1840.) 

{b) ' Thus a bold and intelligent democracy was im- 
pelled, by its impatience for liberal measures, joined to 
its national antipathies, to make common cause with 
a government which was at issue with the majority on 
the question of popular rights.' {Durham's Report.) 

(c) ' This system of temporary laws derived its 
worst character from the facilities which it afforded to 
the practice of " tacking " together various legislative 
measures ; a practice . . . which the legislators of Lower 
Canada converted into the ordinary mode of legislation.' 

{Durham's Report) 

{d) ' An elective executive council would not only 
be utterly inconsistent with monarchical government, 
but would really, under the nominal authority of the 
Crown, deprive the community of one of the great 
advantages of an hereditary monarchy.' 

{Durharris Report) 

(e) ' After an attentive and disinterested considera- 
tion of this subject, your Committee are led to the con- 
clusion, that the adoption of the plan proposed by the 
Earl of Durham, in which this (i.e. responsible govern- 
ment) is the prominent feature, must lead to the over- 
throw of the great colonial Empire of England.' 

{Select Committee on Lord Durham s Report, 1839.) 

(/) ' An anticipation that public business will be 
impeded because there is a majority in the Legislative 
Council attached to the political party which has not the 
confidence of the colony is insufficient to justify the 
appointment of additional members. Practical incon- 
venience must have actually arisen, and to a serious 
extent, before resort can with propriety be had to any 
measure for increasing the number of the Council.' 

(Earl Grey to Sir John Harvey, 1846.) 

4K39 



(g) ' Decennially we are to take the population of 
the several provinces, . . . and we are to declare how 
many representation districts are to be allowed to each 
province. Now, the result of that system must be that 
we can have no lasting constituencies for the future 
House of Commons.' 
(Hon. C. Dunkin on tJie 2:)roposal for Federation, 1865.) 

{h) 'There are persons . . . who are ill-natured enough 
to say that not a little of the loyalty, that is said to 
exist in Canada, has its price.' 

(BiiiaHT, in the House of Commons, 1867.) 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K39 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Tlie French Be^uUic of ISiS. 
I. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked *.] 

1. * Le Cabinet et ses amis politiques aspiraient a 
clore I'ere des revolutions en fondant le gouvernement 
libre qu'en 1789 ]a France s'^tait promis.' (GuizoT.) 

'L'opinion de ces masses reprochait au regne de 
Louis-Philippe de trahir la Revolution en reprenant une 
a une les traditions de la monarchic du droit divin.' 

(Lamartine.) 

Discuss these two judgements on the latter part of 
the reign of Louis-Philippe. 

2. Examine and account for the part played either by 
the National Guard or the Press in the fall of the 
Monarchy of July. 

*3. Comment on four of the following passages, 
illustrating your comments, where possible, from your 
other authorities : — 

(a) Le roi n^avan^ait guere dans son travail ; M. Mole 
discutait, n^gociait, cherchait des allies efficaces. 

(GUIZOT.) 

(6) M. de Lamartine caractdrisa cette politique ex- 
clusivement dynastique, autrichienne a Rome, sacerdotale 
a Berne, russe a Cracovie, contre-r^volutionnaire partout. 

(Lamartine.) 

(c) Le marechal Bugeaud etait alors tout a la fois 
I'homme de la confiance de I'armde et I'homme de 
I'impopularite de Paris. (lb.) 

{d) Cette faute du roi et de M. Thiers d'avoir arrach^ 
la r^gence a la jeune mere d'un roi enfant pesait fatale- 
ment sur cette dernifere heure du regne. (lb.) 

(e) Cet accident deplorable, exploits par toutes les 
passions subitement exasperees, fut la cause d^terminante 
de la revolution de fevrier. (Maxime Du Camp.) 

4 K 40 [Turn over. 



(/) Lorsqu'on traversa la place Vendome les tam- 
bours battirent aux champs, on porte les armes, on agite 
les casquettes et une immense acclamation de ' Vive 
I'Empereur ! ' monte vers la statue de bronze. (lb.) 

(g) Tout ce que je vis ce jour-1^ porta la visible 
empreinte de ces souvenirs ; il me semblait toujours qu'on 
fut occupe a jouer la Revolution fran^aise plus encore 
qu a la continuer. (Tocqueville.) 

4. Explain the financial difficulties of the Provisional 
Government. What measures were taken to deal with 
them? 

*5. Comment on four of the following passages, 
illustrating your comments, where possible, from your 
other authorities : — 

(a) Louis Blanc s'efFor^ait avec une Eloquence pleine 
d'images de d^sarmer les bras en ^blouissant les imagi- 
nations. (Lamartine.) 

(b) ' Nous Savons que tu es brave et honnete, mais 
tu n'es pas fait pour te mesurer avec le peuple ! tu 
endormirais sa victoire ; tu n'est qu'une lyre ! Va 
chanter!' (lb.) 

(c) II resolut de soutenir Caussidiere dans cette 
demi-soumission qui, en lui concedant une sorte de 
suprematie sur le d^sordre, I'engagerait plus surement a 
le r^primer. (lb.) 

(d) Toute I'histoire du gouvernement provisoire 
n'est gu^re que celle de la lutte de ces deux fractions du 
parti r^publicain. (Barrot.)' 

(e) La Rdpublique tri colore avait deja bien de la 
peine a se faire accepter ; qu'eut-ce et^ de la R^publique 
rouge ? Le denoument eut ^te plus imm^diat, et voila tout. 

(lb.) 

(/) Blanqui, dans ce monde de conspirateurs, ^tait 
une figure a part ; il ^tait le plus redouts, et, en effet, 
le plus redoutable de tous. (lb.) 

(g) C'etait une chose extraordinaire et terrible de 
voir dans les seules mains de ceux qui ne poss^daient 
rien toute cette immense ville pleine de tant de richesses. 

(TOCQUEVILLE.) 
4K40 



(h) Ce qui me frappa le plus, ce fut de voir la hainc 
universelle mel^e a la terreur universelle qu'inspirait 
pour la premiere fois Paris. (lb.) 

6. ' La seule passion r^elle, la seule force efficace de la 
revolution du 24 f^vrier : la haine du pauvre contre le 
riche, et la force des bras nus contre celle de 1' intelli- 
gence.' (Barrot.) Discuss this judgement and estimate 
the strength of socialism in Paris in 1848. 

*7. Explain and criticize the following passages from 
Louis Blanc, Organisation du Travail : — 

(a) II s'agit poui" TAngleterre de vivre ; et elle ne le 
pent, ainsi le veut sa constitution ^conomique, qu'a la 
condition d'asservir le monde par ses marchands. 

(b) Le saint-simonisme disait : ' L'fitat propri^taire ' ; 
c'^tait I'absorption de I'individu. Mais nous disons, 
nous : ' La soci^te propri^taire.' DifFi^rence enorme. 

8. What light do your authorities throw on (a) the 
friction between the Ateliers Nationaux and the Luxem- 
bourg ' Commission ', (b) the share taken by the work- 
men of the Ateliers in popular demonstrations ? 

9. Explain, with the help of a sketch-map of Paris, 
the position of the more important buildings and streets 
connected with the events of February 1848. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4K40 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



The French Republic of 1848. 

II. 

\Gandidates are expected to attempt the questions 

marked *.] 

*1. Comment briefly on the following passages : — 

(a) Les souvenirs du ' De viris ' ont du se r^veiller 
dans la m^moire des representants, et plus d'un, sans 
doute, s'est compare aux s^nateurs romains, assis sur leur 
chaise curule, impassibles pendant que nos aieux, les 
Barbares des Gaules, leur tiraient la barbe. 

(Maxime Du Camp.) 

(h) Un representant s'dcria : ' Et la Pologne, qu'est-ce 
que vous en faites 1 ' Nul ne lui rc^pondit. (lb.) 

(c) Nous avons constats Taction d'un grand nombre 
d'agents, envoyds dans toute la France, au nom des 
clubs les plus clangereux, avec une solde prdlevee sur les 
fonds secrets du Ministere de I'lnt^rieur. 

(Rapport de la Gonirivission d'Enquete.) 

(d) Plusieurs temoins s'accordent a peindre sous les 
plus sombres couleurs I'aspect de la Prefecture de police 
pendant la journde et la nuit du 15 mai. (lb.) 

(e) Classes qui ont pris part a I'insurrection : . . . 
4° Les legitimistes qui ont to uj ours dit qu'il faudrait 
passer par la R^publique pour arriver a Henri V. (lb.) 

(/) ' Vive Barbes ! vive Napoleon ! tenons bon, 
nous I'aurons.' (lb.) 

(g) Ce scrutin temoigna a Lamartine qu'il avait 
perdu la confiance d'une grande partie de I'Assembl^e 
nationale par le sacrifice meme qu'il faisait de sa 
popularity et de son ambition. (Lamartine.) 

{h) Depuis les barrieres de Charenton, de Bercy, 
de Fontainebleau, de Menilmontant jusqu'au coeur de 
Paris, la capitale presque entiere dtait d^sarm^e et au 
pouvoir de quelques milliers d'hommes. (lb.) 

2. Give an account of the workmen's clubs in Paris in 
the spring of 1848. What was their share in the June 
insurrection '^ 

4 K 41 [Turn over. 



3. ' Puisque nous avons la Rdpublique, disait M. Thiers, 
il faut s'abandonner franchement au voeu populaire/ 
Discuss the problems connected with the method of 
election of the President under the Constitution of 1848. 

*4. Comment on the following passages : 

(a) La proclamation de la R^publique fran9aise n'est 
un acte d'agression contre aucune forme de gouvernement 
dans le monde. (Lamartine's Manifesto, March 1848.) 

(/;) Nous sommes resolus a sauvegarder, avec I'in- 
tegrite du territoire piemontais, I'intdret et la dignite 
de la France. (Barhot.) 

(c) ' La France ne pent plus rester spectatrice im- 
passible, et en face du drapeau autrichien triomphant le 
notre sera salue en Italic par d'unanimes acclamations.' 

(Falloux.) 

{d) * Mon cher Ney, la Republique fran9aise n'a 
pas envoye une arm^e a Rome pour y ^touffer la liberte 
italienne.' (Barrot.) 

5. Explain the chief provisions of the Falloux Educa- 
tion Law, and point out what difficulties had to be 
overcome before it could be passed. 

6. Illustrate from the Idees Na/poleoniennes Louis 
Napoleon's ideal of imperialist government. How far do 
you think that he was personally qualified to carry out 
that ideal ? 

7*. Comment on five of the following passages : — 

(a) M. Thiers, M. Mol^ et leurs principaux amis 
avaient refuse de se charger du gouvernement. lis enten- 
daient bien pourtant rester les maitres, mais sans devenir 
ministres. (Tocqueville.) 

{h) Que pouvait-il sortir de son succes, sinon une 
monarchic batarde, m^pris^e des classes eclair^es, ennemie 
de la liberty et gouvernee par des intrigants, des aven- 
turiers et des valets ? (lb.) 

(c) Je sentis que le parti dont il serait le plus facile 
de nous aider ^tait le parti l^gitimiste. (lb.) 

(d) Grace a I'habile Anergic du general Changarnier 
la d^faite de M. Ledru-Rollin fut si complete qu'elle le 
rendit ridicule. (Falloux.) 

4K41 



(e) La lutte ne s'engagea sdrieusement entre le 
President et I'Assemblde que par la destitution du general 
en qui FAssemblee avait confiance. (lb.) 

(/) Si a cette date le comte de Chambord avait eu, 
vis-a-vis de ses cousins, quelque mouvement spontane, 
et si Madame la duchesse d'Orleans, rendant la liberte 
aux princes ses beaux-freres, avait trouv^ dans son amour 
maternel lui-meme moins d'illusions et plus de lumieres, 
la cause de la Monarchie eut ^te facilement gagn^e. (lb.) 

(g) M. Victor Hugo acheva ce jour-l^ revolution 
commencee au sujet de la question romaine et se fixa 
ddfinitivement dans la d^magogie. (lb.) 

(h) Quand la Revolution comprend qu'elle a besoin 
de se defendre contre ses propres exces ou contre des 
ennemis puissants, elle a recours a un Napoleon. (lb.) 

8. ' The Constitution of the Second Republic represents 
the endeavour to find a compromise between Constitu- 
tional Monarchy and Imperialism.' Discuss this state- 
ment. 

9. Estimate the literary value of Lamartine's Histoire 
de la Revolution de 1848 and of A. de Tocqueville's 
Souvenirs. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4 K41 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy and Economic History, 

[Candidates must answer questions from both parts of 

the paper J\ 

A. 

1. Comment on three of the following statements by 
Mill :— 

{a) It is not with money that things are really 
purchased. 

[h) Although the right of bequest forms part of the 
idea of private property, the right of inheritance, as 
distinguished from bequest, does not. 

(c) The exports of each country must exactly pay 
for the imports. 

(d) It is the common error of Socialists to overlook 
the natural indolence of mankind. 

(e) Direct taxes on income should be reserved as an 
extraordinary resource for great national emergencies. 

2. What principles, in Mill's judgement, should govern 
the action of society with regard to — 

(a) indirect taxation, 

(6) attempts to improve the wages of the labouring- 
classes ? 

3. ' It is not the money paid by the purchaser which 
remunerates the labour ; it is the capital of the producer.' 
Explain and discuss this statement. 

4. Discuss (a) Mill's views with regard to the Ricardian 
theory of Rent, (6) his application of it to the question 
of taxation. 

5. How far do you consider Mill's theory of value to 
be complete and satisfactory ? 

6. What various influences determine the rate of 
interest ? 

7. What did Mill mean when he wrote of the 'im- 
possibility of ultimately avoiding the stationary state' ? 
Are we nearer to it now than in his day ? 

4 K 27 [Turn over. 



8. 'The maxim (non-interference by the state) is 
unquestionably sound as a general rule.' (Mill.) 

* Mill's book is the first (among English economists) 
to manifest any leaning towards socialism,' (GiDE.) 

Piscuss these statements. 



B. 

9. Illustrate from tlie history of the manor Mill's 
dictum ^ the farther we look back into histor)^, the 
more we see all transactions and engagements under 
the influence of fixed customs '. 

10. Show from English history the economic impor- 
tance of immigration. 

11. Compare the aims and achievements of govern- 
ment policy in economic matters under Edward III and 
Queen Elizabeth respectively. 

12. Either, Comment on any three of the following 
passages : — 

(a) In the end of the reign of Henry VIII, and in 
the beginning of that of Edward VI, the English coin 
was not only raised in its denomination, but adulterated 
in its standard. (Adam Smith.) 

ih) There is scarce a poor man in England of forty 
years of age, who has not, in some part of his life, felt 
himself most cruelly oppressed by this ill-contrived law 
of settlements. (Adam Smith.) 

(c) The act of navigation is not favourable to foreign 
commerce, or to the growth of that opulence which can 
arise from it. (Adam Smith.) 

(d) This is that treaty which the Flemings call at 
this day intercursus r}iagnus. 

(Bacon, Life of Henry VII.) 

(e) Napoleon's expectation that the carrying trade 
of the world would desert England was not fulfilled, 

Or, 

Show how the principles of the mercantile system 
affected English trade witli any hvo of the following : — 
(a) India, [b) Ireland, (c) American colonies. 

4K27 



13. Estimate the effect produced by the Industrial 
Revolution upon (a) rural conditions, (6)] urban con- 
ditions. 

14. Trace the development of direct taxation in Eng- 
land since the establishment of Free Trade. 

15. What tests would you make use of in order to 
decide whether a nation is wealthy or no ? Apply your 
tests so as to compare the wealth of England at the 
present day with that of any previous epoch. 

16. 'When the five chief nations of Europe turn their 
attention from production to destruction, it is idle to 
expect any system of credit to go unscathed.' 

What w^as the nature of the menace to our credit at 
the beginning of the present war, and how was this 
menace mef? 



[T.T. 1915.] 



4K27 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 



Political Science. 



[CandidaUs are reminded that they are required to shoio 
a knowledge of the 'prescribed texts ^^ 

1. What do you gather from the Politics concerning 
Aristotle's views on (a) land nationalization, (b) over- 
population, (c) trade and commerce 1 

2. How far can Aristotle's views be described as those 
of an aristocrat ? 

3. Compare the views of Aristotle and Hobbes as to 
the causes of instability and weakness in States. 

4. Comment on four of the following passages from 
the Politics of Aristotle : — 

{a) When the government is personal, the ruler is a 
king ; when, according to the principles of political science, 
the citizens rule and are ruled in turn, then he is called 
a statesman. 

{h) In a State the elements out of which the unity 
is to be formed differ in kind. 

(c) In such cases persons refuse to fulfil their contracts 
or any other obligations, on the ground that the tyrant, 
and not the State, contracted them. 

{d) The magistrate or magistrates should regulate 
those matters only on which the laws are unable to 
speak with precision owing to the difficulty of any 
general principle embracing all particulars. 

(e) The State is independent and self-suflicing. 

(/) It is equally a mistake to place inactivity 
above action, for happiness is activity. 

5. Is it a sufficient criticism to say that the Social 
Contract is unhistorical ? 

4 K 24 [Turn over. 



6. Comment on four of the following passages from 
Hobbes : — 

{a) And from this diffidence of one another, there is 
no way for any man to secure himself, so reasonable, as 
anticipation. 

(h) It is annexed to the sovereignty to be judge of 
what opinions and doctrines are averse and what con- 
ducing to peace. 

(c) The resolutions of a monarch, are subject to no 
other inconstancy, than that of human nature. 

(d) If a monarch subdued by war render himself 
subject to the victor, his subjects are delivered from 
their former obligation, and become obliged to the 
victor. 

(e) The evil inflicted by public authority, without 
precedent public condemnation, is not to be styled by 
the name of punishment, but of an hostile act. 

(/) And when all the world is overcharged with 
inhabitants, then the last remedy of all is war ; which 
provideth for every man, by victory or death. 

7. Has the world derived more advantage or dis- 
advantage from the theory of a ' Law of Nature ' 1 

8. Does the value of Maine's Ancient Law consist 
rather in the method he followed, or in the conclusions 
which he reached ? 

9. Can it be maintained that there are limits to the 
size of an efficient State ? 

10. What is involved in the conception of a ' General 
Will ' ? Where would you look for it in a modern State ? 

11. Explain and illustrate the various ways in which 
the courts of justice can influence the constitutional 
development of a State. 

12. 'La democratic me parait bien plus propre a dinger 
une societe paisible, ou a faire au besoin un subit et 
vigoureux effort, qu'a braver pendant longtemps les 
grands orages de la vie politique des peuples.' 

(TOCQUEVILLE.) 

Discuss this statement. 
4K24 [r. I'. 1915.] 



SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 



Political Economy. 

Paper A. 

Currency and Banking. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the questions 
marked "^.j 

1. 'The Eicardian Economist, lookiog at money as 
a tool for a specific and highly technical purpose, declares 
that he sees no advantage in an increase of money above 
its former level.' (Walker.) 

Explain the reasoning here leferred to, and discuss, 
in relation to your authorities, its practical value. 

2. Explain precisely the problem which the committee 
of 1810 was formed to unravel. How did^ Canning 
view their report ? 

3. Show from Peel's speeches {a) why the resumption 
of cash payments was necessary, (6) why further legisla- 
tion as to the currency was necessary. 

■^4. Write notes n^onfive of the following: — 

(a) Adam Smith says : ' The operations of the mint 
were, upon this account, somewhat like the web of Pene- 
lope ; the work that was done in the day was undone in 
the night.' (Walker.) 

(b) The Bank Directors have not perceived that the 
removal of that check rendered it possible that such an 
excess might be issued by the discount of perfectly good 
bills. (Report on the high price of gold bullion^ 1810.) 

(c) I attribute it (stagnation of trade), in a very 
great measure, to a previous artificial elevation of prices 
occasioned principally by what I conceive to be, an 
excessive issue of bank notes, commencing in the spring 
of 1817, but particularly increased in July 1817. 

(Tooke, 1819.) 

{d) An alteration in value of 5 per cent, does not 
appear to me very formidable ; but of this matter I do 
not profess to know much ; I have had very little prac- 
tical knowledge upon these subjects. (Ricardo, 1819.) 

4 K 25 [Turn over. 



(e) Those who had the power of regulating the 
quantity of the circulating medium of the country, had 
the power of regulating the rate of the exchanges. 

(RiCARDO, 1819.) 

(/) This is no new theory. He only proposes to 
revive the Scheme of the famous Mr. Law in a more 
mitigated shape. (HUSKISSON, 1822.) 

(g) And being obliged, as bankers, to consider the 
solvency of their banking department, they have been 
obliged to vary their rates of discount more violently 
and more frequently than they did before. 

(Mill, 1857.) 

5. What bearing have the questions treated in your 
authorities upon the problems and issues of our own 
day? 

6. ' Nine-tenths of English statesmen, if they were 
asked as to the management of the Banking Department 
of the Bank of England, would reply that it was no 
business of theirs.' (Bagehot.) 

How does Bagehot himself reply to this question 1 

7. What, in the opinion of the Royal Commissioners 
of 1888, were the causes of recent changes in the value 
of (a) gold, (6) silver ? 

8. Compare the idea of international bimetallism with 
the scheme carried out in 1893 for dealing with problems 
of the exchanges with regard to India. Why do we now 
hear little of international bimetallism ? 



^g 



*9. Write notes wpon five of the following 

(a) A large part of the ' indemnity ' was paid by 
France to Germany in bills on England, and the German 
Government, as those bills became due, acquired an un- 
precedented command over the market.' (Bagehot.) 

(h) These circumstances, it is said, account, to a 
large extent, for the increased export of wheat from 
India, which appears to have synchronized with the fall 
in the value of silver, for the serious decline in the price 
of wheat, and the corresponding depression in agricul- 
ture in this country. 

{Report of the Gold and Silver Gommission, 1888.) 

4K25 



(c) The currency scheme which I wish to submit 
for consideration differs from his (Ricardo's) only by 
being bimetallic instead of monometallic. (Marshall.) 

(d) If the value of cotton goods is low in England 
relatively to India they will be going, and the price of 
council bills for the time will be regulated by them. 

(Marshall.) 

(e) An important circumstance, serving to explain 
the fall in wholesale prices while the cost of living was 
rising, or at least remain unchanged, is the cost of dis- 
tribution. (Soetbeer's Materialien.) 

(/) Here is a currency which for all practical pur- 
poses appears to be perfectly sound and satisfactory, but 
which differs from our own in most important particulars. 
It is sometimes called ' ^talon boiteux '. 

(Indian Currency Coininittee, 1893.) 

{g) I believe it is not generally known that the 
plan of the German Reichsbank of providing for increased 
issue in time of difficulty is not inconsistent with the 
principles of Sir Robert Peel himself. (Marshall, 1899.) 



\T. T, 1915.] 



4K25 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Folitical Economy. 
Paper B. 

Public Finance. 

[Candidates are expected to attempt the quedions 
marked "^.J 

1. 'A miuister could not have the confidence to come 
to this house and desire the repeal of so beneficial a law, 
which tended so directly to relieve the people of their 
burthens.' (Pitt, 1786.) 

How far would you support the view that Pitt's 
Sinking Fund was a deliberate ruse to facilitate taxation 
and was framed to prevent the Fund itself from being 
' raided ' ? 

2. Illustrate from your authorities (1815-26) the 
financial problems which a great war bequeaths to the 
next generation. 

3. ' The firmer administration of Peel restored the 
finances.' (Bastable.) 

Explain from Peel's speeches, 1828 and 1842, how 
this firmness showed itself. 

*4. Write notes on five of the following : — 

(a) It is obvious that the first step necessarily in- 
volved in the measure is to render the present land-tax 
perpetual. (Pitt, 1798.) 

{h) At first put forward as a protest against the 
injustice of the old system of privilege, the maxim of 
proportional taxation is now employed as a weapon 
against the newer Radical socialism. (Bastable.) 

(c) But I am told, that a large sum within the year 
cannot be raised by encreasing the existing taxes on 
consumption. What is the consequence ? (Pitt, 1798.) 

4 K 26 [Turn over. 



(d) If this difference (between Expenditure and 
Revenue), which cannot be estimated at less than 
£13,000,000, is made up by an increase of Debt, it . . . 
will make a total expenditure of £68,079,882, in which 
will, however, be included, for Sinking Fund towards 
the redemption of Debt, about £16,061,000, leaving the 
actual expenditure, exclusive of Sinking Fund, at 
£52,018,800, which contrasted with a Revenue of 
£54,000,000, will give a surplus of Revenue really 
applicable to the extinction of Debt of £1,981,200. 

(Committee on Public Income and Expenditure, 1819.) 

(e) Throughout these statements, the receipts from 
the Bank, for the Annuity of £585,740, sold to them, to 
defray the charge of the Half-Pay and Pensions are 
included. 

(Committee on Public Income and Expenditure, 1828.) 

(/) With respect to the Assessed Taxes, I have only 
to observe that there is every indication that they will 
not only maintain themselves at their present rate of 
produce, but that there is in this branch of the revenue 
a gradual tendency to increase. 

(Mr. Herries' Statement, 1828.) 

(g) Mit dem Fortfall der Einkommensteuer, welcher 
gleich nach dem Kriege stattfand, war fiir lange auf eine 
reelle Tilgung des Capitals der Kriegsschuld verzichtet. 
Die Hebung des Credits ermoglichte wenigstens, durch 
Conversionen und Zinsreductionen die Zinsenlast zu 
vermindern. (Wagner.) 

5. How far are the views of Mill and Gladstone with 
regard to the Income and Property Tax the views of the 
theorist and of the practical statesman respectively ? 

6. With what problems does Lord Goschen deal in his 
Draft Report on Local Taxation 1 Discuss his solution 
of these problems. 

7. ' It is, no doubt, a fallacy to suppose that there are 
huge untapped sources of revenue in connexion with 
urban land.' 

(Separate Report on Urban Rating and Site Valiies.l^Ol.) 

How far does the evidence provided by your 
authorities support this view? 

4K26 



8. What reasons did Sir W. Har court give for the 
chanofes he made in the Death Duties'? Discuss the 
financial importance of his reforms. 

*9. Write notes on five of the following : — 

(a) And therefore I say that dividing the country 
into Classes^ every class ought to pay in proportion to 
the amount of their incomes. (Babbage, 1852.) 

(b) Our old friend Protection, who used formerly to 
dwell in the palaces and the high places of the land, and 
who was dislodged from them some ten or fifteen years 
ago, has, since that period, still found pretty comfortable 
shelter and good living in holes and corners. 

(Gladstone, 1860.) 

(c) These annuities, I need hardly remind the Com- 
mittee, represent partly a payment of interest on capital, 
partly a re-payment, from year to year, of portions of 
the capital itself. (Gladstone, 1865.) 

{d) I think we may see very plainly how wide, as 
well as how solid, is the foundation on which our com- 
mercial prosperity rests when we have been so little 
affected by the state of affairs in Europe involving the 
two countries nearest to us. (Lowe, 1871.) 

(e) The typical condition of a Town Holding under 
this (London Leasehold) System, as regards the parties 
and their respective interests, may be described as 
follows. {Report on Town Holdings, 1892.) 

(/) Since we have described the four services of 
Poor Relief, Police, Education, and Main roads as National^ 
it may appear to follow that they should be wholly paid 
for from National Funds. 

{Final Report on Local Taxation, 1901.) 

{g) The municipal authorities levy an income-tax 
upon all incomes over six hundred dollars. 

{Ansivers of Self-governing Colonies : Nova Scotia.) 

IT. T. 1915.] 



4K26 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 



Unseen TrcmslcUions. 

[Two hours are allowed for this iMper. Candidates are 
not required to offer more than one languageP[ 

Translate : — 

(a) Ich furchte mich nicht vor dem Anschein, dass 
ich etwa in dieser Skizze^ die sich gewiss noch vielfach 
von der Wahrheit entfernt, aber scliwerlich so weifc wie 
von den landlaufio^en Darstelluno^en dieses Geo-enstandes, 
dieAhnlichkeitengewisser Beziehungenund Rechtsforinen 
des antiken Staates mit dem modernen ungebiihrlich 
hervomehoben hatte. Allerdinojs ist in manchem die 
Sinnesart, welche zuerst im athenischen Volke ausgebildet 
worden ist, dieselbe, die audi uns beseelt. Auch wir 
fordern von jedem Vollbiirger, dass er die schwerste 
Pflicht auf .sich nehme, sich selbst an der Verwaltung 
seines Staates zu beteib'gen, und verleihen ihm dafUr das 
schonste Recht, sein Vaterland mit der WafFe in der Hand 
zu verteidigen. Allordings miihen auch wir uns noch 
mit den ewigen Problemen, welche zuerst der athenische 
Geist erfasst und in seiner Art zu losen versucht hat, die 
Gegensatze der Freiheit und des Gesetzes, die Rechte des 
Tndividuums und die der Ubergeordneten Gemeinschaft 
auszugleichen. Auch wir sind ein freies Volk und glau- 
ben, dass die Einheit der Nation um keinen Preis zu 
teuer erkauft ist. Und doch wird alle Ahnlichkeit inner- 
lich aufgehoben durch einen entscheidenden Unterschied. 
Das beste hat euch doch gefehlt, ihr edlen Btirger von 
Athen. Eure Weisen reden uns von einer hochsten Liebe, 
welche, losgelost vom Korperlichen, nur noch Institu- 
tionen, Gesetzen, Ideen gelte. Wir sind gewiss von 
harterem Stotf geformt, das sprode aber dauerbare Ge- 
schlecht des Nordens : aber wir vermeinen, dass die Liebe 
hoher stehe, wo die vollste Hingabe an die Institution 
und die Idee sich unlosbar verbindet mit der eminent 
personlichen Hingabe wieder an die Person ; und wir 
wissen jedenfalls, wie warm diese Liebe ein treues 
Menschenherz macht. Unseren Kindern, da sie kaum 
gelernt haben, die Hande zu fallen vor dem lieben Gott, 
weisen wir ein Bild, lehren sie die edlen Zuge kennen 
und sprechen, ' das ist unser guter Konig.' Unsere 
Jiinglinge, wenn sie wehrhaft werden, blicken mit stolzer 
Freude auf das schmucke Kriegsgewand und sprechen: 
' ich geh' in des Konigs Kleid.' 

(WiLAMOWITZ-MOELLENDORFF.) 
4 K 23 [Turn over. 



(h) E il popolo italiano, piu grande e pin logico del 
suoi dottori, ha sempre, lode a Dio, seguito la religione 
della patiia e de' principi, non 1' idolatiia delV ojoportunitd 
o delle Jinzioni legali. II nostro popolo cacciava il 
guanto di sfida all' Austria celebrando co' fuocbi delle 
montagne 1' insurrezione genovese del 1746, quando gli 
omiopatici della politica contendevano doversi vincere 
r Austria colle vie ferrate e coi congressi scientifici : 
cacciava il guanto di sfida ai propri governi colle som- 
mosse, le manifestazioni di piazza e le irruzioni nei 
conventi gesuitici, quando il conte Balbo e compagni 
insegnavano, nei dovuti limiti, il diritto delle supplici 
petizioni. II nostro popolo trapiantava la questione, 
insorgendo in Sicilia, dall' arena delle riforme ammini- 
strative per concessione principesca a quel] a degli statuti 
politici, ossia dei patti fra cittadini e monarchi, quando 
i letterati che s' erano posti a capo dell' impresa italiana 
rabbrividivano alia sola idea d'una collisione violenta fra 
governanti e governati. II nostro popolo innalzava feroce 
il grido di guerra all' Austriaco di sulle barricate lombarde 
e dalle lagune del Veneto, mentre gli uomini delle riforme, 
fatti per forza di cose cospiratori, diplomatizzavano per 
una iniziativa impossibiJe con re Carlo Alberto. E il 
nostro popolo gridera di bel nuovo la santa guerra, 
quando i cospiratori, rifatti diplomatici per cautela, 
andranno oltre sofisticando, come i Greci del basso- 
impero, sui termini della mediazione, su leghe ideali di 
principi che tremano Tunc dell' altro e tutti dei loro 
popoli, e sulle intenzioni probabili o possibili d'un 
governo cbe maneggia per agenti a Vienna, a Parigi, 
a Milano, la pace coll' Austria all* Adige e peggio : stolti 
cbe ignorano non esservi pace possibile tra I'ltalia e 
I'Austria, dopo una insurrezione com.e quella del marzo, 
fuorcbe segnata al di la dell' Alpi, ne speranza di con- 
quistarla fuorcbe colla guerra, abborrita dall'antiveggenza 
dei principi, che fara del paese un vulcano, del popolo 
intero un esercito, della nazione afFratellata una coscienza 
di diritti inviolabili e di potenza. 

(c) Un James bon marcheur et bon causeur, non 
pas le Jaures ruisselant et rouge des meetings enfumes, 
ni le Jaures, helas, rouge et devenu lourdement mondain 
des salons de defense republicaine ; mais un Jaures de 

4 K 23 



plein air et cle bois d'automne, un Jaures comme il eut 
^te s'il ne lui fufc jamais arrive malheur, et dont le pied 
sonnait sur le sol diir des routes. Un Jaures des brumes 
claires et dories des commencements de I'automne. 

Un Jaures qui, bien que venu cbez nous des versants 
des C^vennes et remont^ des rives de la Garonne, goutait 
parfaitement la parfaite beaute des paysages fran9ais. 
Un Jaures qui admirait et qui savait regarder et voir 
ces merveilleux arbies de I'lle-de-France, tout dords par 
les automnes de ce temps-la. Un Jaures qui debout aux 
greles parapets de fonte ou de quelque m^tal du pont de 
►Suresnes, regardant vers Puteaux, admirait, savait ad- 
mirer en spectateur moderne toute la beaute industrielle 
de cette partie de la Seine ; ou regardant de I'autre cote, 
plants debout face au lleuve, il regard ait, il admirait, il 
enregistrait, il voyait, comme un Fran9ais, le fleuve 
courbe et noble descendant aux pieds des admirables 
lignes des coteaux. II m'expliquait tout cela. II ex- 
pliquait toujours tout. II savait admirablement expliquer, 
par des raisons discursives, eloquentes, concluantes, 
demonstratives. C'est ce qui I'a perdu. Un homme 
qui est si bien dou(^ pour expliquer tout est mur pour 
toutes les capitulations. Une capitulation est essentielle- 
ment une operation par laquelle on se met a expliquer, 
au lieu d'agir. Et les laches sont des gens qui regorgent 
d'explications. (Peguy.) 

(d) Aujourd'hui comme autrefois, dans des mansardes 
d'etudiants et dans des garnis de bohemes, dans des 
cabinets deserts de medecins sans clients et d'avocats 
sans causes, il y a des Dantons, des Marats, des Robes- 
pierres, en germe ; raais, faute d'air et de place au soleil, 
ils n'dclosent pas. A vingt ans, quand un jeune homme 
entre dans le monde, sa raison est froissde en meme 
temps que son orgueil. — En premier lieu, quelle que 
soit la soci^t^ dans laquelle il est compris, elle est un 
scandale pour la raison pure : car ce n'est pas un legis- 
lateur philosophe qui I'a construite d'apres un principe 
simple ; ce sont des generations successives qui I'ont 
arrangee d'apres leurs besoins multiples et changeants. 
Elle n'est pas I'oeuvre de la logique, mais de I'histoire, et 
le raisonneur debutant leve les ^paules a I'aspect de cette 
vieille batisse dont I'assise est arbitraire, dont I'archi- 

4 K 23 



lecture est incoh^rente, et dont les raccommodages sont 
apparents. — En second lieu, si parfaites quo soient les 
institutions, les lois et les inoeurs, comme elles I'ont 
precdd^, il ne les a point consenties ; d'auties, ses pre- 
decesseurs, ont choisi pour lui, et Font enferm^ d'avance 
dans la forme morale, politique et sociale qui leur a plu. 
Peu importe si elle lui d^plait; il faut qu'il la subisse, et 
que, comme un cheval attel^, il marche entre deux 
brancards sous le harnais qu'on lui a mis. — D'ailleurs, 
quelle que soit 1 'organisation, comme, par essence, elle 
est une hierarcbie, presque toujours il y est et il y restera 
subalterne, soldat, caporal ou sergent. (Taine.) 

[T. T. 1915.] 



4 K 23 



No. 1753 Sixpence net 

OXFOED UNIVERSITY 

EXAMINATION PAPERS 

SECOND PrBLIC EXAIIMTION 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 
PREVIOUS EXAMINATION 



TRINITY TERM, 1915 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 
116 HIGH STREET 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Peevious Examination. 



Outlines of European History, 800-1494. 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions in 
each part of the pa'per, and among them one of 
those m^arked with an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. To what causes do you assign the successes achieved 
by the Northmen on the continent in the 9th century, 
and how was their advance finally checked ? 

2. How do you account for the election of Hugh Capet 
to the Fj'ench throne ? 

3. In what ways did the position of Otto the Great 
differ from that of a contemporary sovereign in France 1 

4. Account for the comparative ease with which the 
Normans established themselves in Italy and Sicily. 

5. Describe the theory of the Holy Roman Empire. 

6. What is meant by the Cluniac Revival? When 
did it reach the zenith of its influence 1 

B. 

7. Give some account of the relations between Frederic 
Barbarossa and the various Italian states. 

*8. By what steps did Philip Augustus advance the 
power of France ? Enumerate, if possible with the aid 
of a map, the chief acquisitions of territory made by him. 

*9. Enumerate, and draw a map, if you can, of the 
Papal states as they existed in the pontificate of 
Innocent HI. How had they severally been acquired ? 

10. How far did the policy of the Emperor Henry YI 
mark a departure from that of his predecessors ? 

4 U 9 [Turn over. 



11. What part was played by the chief European kings 
in the third crusade ? ])iscuss the importance of that 
crusade in the history of the conflict between Europe and 
the East. 

12. To wliat causes do you attribute (a) the slow 
progress, (h) the measure of victor}^, achieved by German 
influence east of the Elbe, before the year 1200 *? 

13. Give some account of the military successes of the 
Emperors Nicephorus Phocas, and John Tzimisces. 



[T.T. 1915.] 



4 {Id 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Outlines of European Histo7y, 800-1494. 

II. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions in 
each part of the Paper, and among them one of 
those marked with an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. To what causes is the failure of the Latin Empire 
at Constantinople to be attributed ? 

2. What points of contrast may be drawn between the 
quarrels of the Emperors Frederick II and Lewis of 
Bavaria with the Papacy 1 

^3. Give a brief sketch of the history of the Hanseatic 
League. Illustrate your answer, if possible, by an outline 
map. 

Or, 

Mark the decisive moments in the growth of the 
Swiss Confederation. Illustrate your answer, if possible, 
by a sketch-map. 

4. What is meant by the phrase, ' The Emperor 
Charles IV legalized anarchy and called it a Constitu- 
tion'? 

5. What forces besides that of religion lay behind the 
Hussite movement ? 

6. Estimate the influence of the civil lawyers of France 
on the growth of the French monarch}^ 

7. Compare the causes of the success of Charles V and 
Charles Vll against the English. 

B 

8. Account for the comparative stability of the 
government of Venice. 

9. Discuss the influence of the Condottieri on Italy. 

4 U 6 [Turn over. 



10. Contrast the character and the aims of Louis XI 
of France and those of Charles the Bold of Burgundy. 

11. Explain the policy of the Emperor Frederick III 
towards the Council of Basel. 

*12. Describe, if possible with the aid of a sketch-map, 
the advance of the Turks in Europe anterior to the fall 
of Constantinople (1453). 

13. Give a brief sketch of the history of Naples from 
the death of the Emperor Frederick II to the expedition 
of Charles VIII. 

14. To what causes would you attribute the sudden rise 
of Spain to the position of a Great Power at the close of 
the fifteenth century 1 



[T, T. 1915.] 



4UG 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Pkevious Examination. 



Outlines of European History, 1494-1789. 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions in 
each part of the paper and among them one of those 
marked with an asterisk!] 

A. 

*1. Explain the political situation in Italy at the 
moment of Charles VIII's invasion. Illustrate your 
answer, if possible, by a sketch-map. 

2. To what causes would you attribute the sudden . 
rise of Spain to the position of a great power at the * 
close of the fifteenth century ? 

3. Discuss the character and policy of Maximilian I. 

4. To what causes do you attribute the failure of the 
French to retain their Italian conquests ? 

5. Did Charles V sacrifice the welfare of the Church to 
his political interests ? 

6. What were the terms of the religious peace of 
Augsburg and what openings did that treaty leave for 
future trouble ? 

7. Why did the Ottoman Turks cease to advance after 
the middle of the sixteenth century ? 

B. 

8. Discuss the character and policy of Catharine de / 
Medici. 

9. Estimate the value of the services of William the / 
Silent to the United Provinces and to Europe. 

10. Why did Gustavus Adolphus interfere in Germany ? 

11. Was Richelieu as great a statesman in domestic 
as in foreign policy ? 

4 U 2 [Turn over. 



12. Discuss the policy of the Emperor Ferdinand II. 

*13. Trace, if possible, with the help of a sketch-map 
the growth of Sweden up to 1648. 

14. How far is the Peace of Westphalia a landmark 
of great importance in the history of Europe ? 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4U2 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 
Previous Examination. 



Outlines of Eioropecm History . 1494-1789. 

11. 

[Candidates bhould attemijt at least two questions in 
each part of thepa2:)er and among them one of those 
m^arked with an asterisk.^ 

A. 

1. What were the chief objects aimed at by John de 
Witt? 

2. Compare the causes of the Fronde with those of 
the Great Kebellion. 

3. How far is it true to regard the reign of Louis XIV 
as the zenith of the glory and prosperity of France ? 

4. Discuss the policy of the Emperor Leopold I. 

*5. How far were the objects of the allies attained by 
the Treaty of Utrecht ? Illustrate your answer, if possible, 
by a sketch-map. 

6. 'A magnificent escapade.' Is this a fair description 
of the career of Charles XII 'I 

B. 

*7. Account for the success of Elizabeth Farnese in 
attaining her aims. Illustrate your answer, if possible, 
by a sketch-map. 

8. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages both to 
France and to Spain of the policy of the Family Com- 
pacts. 

9. For what reasons did the several European powers 
take part in the Seven Years' War? 

10. To what extent, if any, was Frederick the Great the 
founder of German unity ? 

4 U 3 [Turn over. 



11. Give an account of the reforms attempted by any 
one of the eighteenth century ' benevolent despots ', other 
than Frederick the Great. 

*12. Trace, if possible with the help of a sketch-map, the 
expansion of Russia in the eighteenth century. 

13. Who w^as the ' sick man ' of Europe in the eighteenth 
century ? Give reasons for your answer. 



\T. T. 1914.] 



4U3 



SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 



Pkevious Examination. 

Original Texts. 

Aristotle, Politics I and III ; Tacitus, Germania. 

[Candidates should attempt at least three questions in 
each part, and, among them, those marked with an 
asterisk *.] 

A. 

*1. Translate, and comment on, the following pas- 
sages : — 

(a) *Ek tovtcou ovv (pave pop otl tcov (pvcrei rj TroXi? 

€(TTl, Kol OTL duOpCOTTO^ (j)V<TeL TToXlTLKOU C^OV, Kol 6 dlToXlS 

Sloc (pva-Lv KOL ov Sloc tvxV^ VTO^ (jyavXos ia-riv rj Kpeirrcou 
rj dvOpconor cocnrep Kal 6 ^0' 'O/xrjpov XoiSoprjOd? ' dcpprjTCop 
ddefjLLo-ros dveaTio^ '. 

(6) Kal SfjXoV OTL OVK €(TTL (pV(T€L T^S XPVH-^T^^'^^'^V^ 

ri KanriXLKi^' oaou yap iKavov avTols, dvayKalov rjv 
TTOLelcrOaL Tr]v dXXayrju. 

(c) 'OvelSl^Sutcoi/ yap avT(p Slo, t^v ireviav ws dvcoipe- 
Xovs 7779 (pLXo(To(f)La^ ov(Trj9, KaTavoricravTa (pao'LV avTov 
eXaLcou (popav ea-ojievriv e/c r?}? daTpoXoyia?, €tl )(ef/ift)ros' 
OPTO^ evTToprjcraPTa XPI H-dToov oXlycop dppa^odpas oiaoov- 
paL TCdP eXaiovpyeicop tcop t kp MlXi^tco Kal Xlo) rrapTCOp, 
oXCyov fjLLo-Ocoa-d/jiepop olt ovOepo9 kTri^aXXoPTOs. 

*2. Translate, and comment on, the following pas- 
sages : — 

(a) Etirep ovp eaTL TrXetoa iroXLTeias ei'Sr], SrjXop co? 
OVK ipSi^eTaL tov cnrovSaLov ttoXltou fxiap dp€Tr]p elpai 
Tr)P TeXefav tov S' dyaOov dvSpa (pajxev elvai KaT 
dpeTr)v TeXeLav' otl fi\v ovv evSi^eTaL noXiTrjv bvTa 
CTTTOvSaLov fj,r) K€KTrjordaL ttjv dp^Trjv KaO* fjv airovBalo^ 
dvqp, (papepop. 

(h) Ov yap olop r' iTTLTrjSevaraL to, TrJ9 dpeTrJ9 ^covTa 
piop ISdvavaov rj OrjTLKOV. 

(c) Kal kv AlyvTTTCO /xera Triv T€Tpi]pL€pov Kivelv 
€^€(rTL T0L9 laTpoh, kdp Sk TTpoTepop, kwl Tft) avTov KLvSvpa>. 

4 U 10 [Turn over. 



3. * Aristotle ought rather to be known as a reformer 
than as a defender of slavery.' Discuss this statement. 

4. What is Aristotle's view of the relation of the 
individual to the state? 

5. What, according to Aristotle, constitutes the identity 
of a state ? Do you agree with him '? 

B. 

*6. Translate, and comment on, the following pas- 
sages : — 

(a) Ipsos Germanos indigenas crediderim minimeque 
aliarum gentium adventibus et hospitiis mixtos. 

(6) De minoribus rebus principes consultant, de 
maioribus omnes, ita tamen ut ea quoque, quorum penes 
plebem arbitrium est, apud principes praetractentur. 

(c) Licet apud concilium accusare quoque et dis- 
crimen capitis intendere. Distinctio poenarum ex delicto. 
Proditores et transfugas arboribus suspendunt, ignavos 
et inbellis et corpore infamis caeno ac palude, iniecta 
insuper crate, mergunt. Diversitas supplicii illuc respicit, 
tamquam scelera ostendi oporteat, dum puniuntur, flagitia 
abscondi. 

*7. Translate, and comment on, the following pas- 
sages : — 

(a) Insignis nobilitas aut magna patrum merita 
principis diguationem etiam adulescentulis adsignant ; 
ceteris robustioribus ac iam pridem pvobatis adgregantur, 
nee rubor inter comites adspici. Gradus quin etiam ipse 
comitatus habet, iudicio eius quem sectantur. 

(b) Non numeraverim inter Germaniae populos, 
quamquam trans Rhenum Danuviumque consederint, eos 
qui decumates agros exercent. 

(c) Nee quae natura quaeve ratio gignat, ut barbaris, 
quaesitum compertumve: diu quin etiam inter cetera 
eiectamenta maris iacebat donee luxuria nostra dedit 
nomen. 

8. With what purpose did Tacitus write the Germanial 
Estimate the candour of his work. 

4 U 10 



9. What does Tacitus tell us of (a) the physical appear- 
ance, (6) the attitude to urban life, (c) the vices, of the 
Germans "? And what information does he give us con- 
cerning {a) the position of a rex among them, and (6) 
their use of auguries and divination 1 

10. What would you gather from Tacitus to have been 
the land-system obtaining among the German tribes '? 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4UlO 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Original Texts. 

EiNHARD, Vita Garoli; Joinville, Vie de Saint Louis ; 
Dante, De MonarcJiia. 

[Candidates should attempt at lea.st two questions in 
each part of the paper, and among them those 
marked with an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. What does Einhard tell us of the Baltic, and of the 
races which inhabited its shores in his day 1 

*2. Translate, and comment on, the following pas- 
sages : — 

(a) Quibus adeo Franci sunt irritati ut non iam 
vicissitudinem reddere, sed apertum contra eos bellum 
suscipere dignum iudicarent. Susceptum est igitur 
ad versus eos bellum quod . . . per continuos triginta 
tres annos gerebatur. 

[h) Quae cum pulcherrimae essent et ab eo plurimum 
diligerentur, niirum dictu quod nullam earum cuiquam 
aut suorum aut exterorum nuptum dare voluit, sed 
omnes secum usque ad obitum suum in domo sua 
retinuit, dicens se earum contubernio carere non posse. 

(c) Amabat peregrinos et in eis suscipiendis mag- 
nam habebat curam, adeo ut eorum multitudo non solum 
palatio verum etiam regno non immerito videretur one- 
rosa. Ipse tamen prae magnitudine animi huiuscemodi 
pondere minime gravabatur, cum etiam ingentia incom- 
moda laude liberalitatis ac bonae famae mercede com- 
pensaret. 

{d) Artes liberales studiosissime coluit, earumque 
doctores plurimum veneratus magnis adficiebat hono- 
ribus. 

(e) Inter ceteros thesauros atque pecuniam tres men- 
sas argenteas et auream unam praecipuae magnitudinis et 
ponderis esse constat. 

4 U 8 [Turn over. 



2 

3. Ave there any reasons for believing that Einhard 
suppressed facts which are derogatory to the character 
of Charlemagne ? 

4. Where are the following places, and with what 
events are they connected — Aquaegrani, Mogontiacus, 
Centumcellae, Noviomagus, Prumia 1 

B. 

1. Give a brief summary of the events of the first 
Crusade of St. Louis, illustrating your answer if possible 
by a sketch-map. 

2. What do we learn from Joinville on these points : — 

(a) The judicial reforms of St. Louis ; 

(b) The opinion of St. Louis as to how the Christian 
should deal with intellectual doubts ? 

3. Who were — Le Vieil de la Montagne; Le prestre 
Jehan ; Les Chevaliers de la Hauleca ; Le Conte de 
Bouloingne 1 

*4. Translate, and explain the allusions in, the 
following passages : — 

(a) Li Sarrazin amenerent la perri^re de grant jour, 
. . . et geterent le feu gregois en nos chas-chastiaus. 
Lour engins avoient si acouplez aus chaucies que li os 
avoit faites pour bouchier le flum, que nulz n'osoit aler 
aus chas-chastiaus, pour les engins qui getoient les grans 
pierres, et ch^oient en la voie ; dont il avint ainsi que 
nostre dui chastel furent ars. 

(b) Quant je lour oy dit, freres Estiennes d'Otricourt, 
qui estoit commanderres dou Temple, me dist ainsi : 
' Sire de Joinville, cis consaus que vous donnas au roi 
n'est ne bons ne raisonnables ; car vous sav^s que nous 
recevons les commandes en tal maniere, que par nos 
sairemens nous ne les poons delivrer mais que a ceus qui 
les nous baillent.' 

(c) On me appeloit poulain pour ce que j'avoie 
conseilli^ au roy sa demour^e avecques les poulains. 

(d) En ce point me fist uns miens chevaliers, qui 
avoit non monsignour Jehan de Monson, peres I'abbei 
Guillaume de Saint-Michiel, une grant debonnairetei, qui 

4U8 



fu tex ; car il m'aporta sans dire un mien seurcot forrei 
et le me geta ou dos, ... Et ge li escriai et li diz : 'Que 
ai-je a faire de vostre seurcot, que vous m'aportez quant 
nous noyons?' Et il me dist: Par m'ame! sire, je averoie 
plus chier que nous fussiens tuit naid, que ce que une 
maladie vous preist de froit, dont vous eussiez la mort.' 

C. 

■^1. Translate, and comment on, the following pas- 
sages : — 

{a) Patet igitur quod ultimum de potentia ipsius 
humanitatis est potentia sive virtus intellectiva. 

(6) In politia obliqua bonus homo est malus civis ; 
in recta vero bonus homo et civis bonus convertuntur. 

(c) Item dico quod ens et unum et bonum gradatim 
se habent secundum primum modum dicendi. Prius ens 
enim natura producit unum, unum vero bonum ; maxime 
enim ens maxime est unum ; efc maxime unum est 
maxime bonum. Et quanto aliquid a maximo ente 
elongatur, tanto et ab esse unum, et per consequens ab 
esse bonum. 

{d) Rationibus omnibus supra positis, experientia 
memorabilis attestatur : status videlicet illius mortalium, 
quem Dei Filius, in salutem hominis hominem assumptu- 
rus, vel expectavit, vel, cum voluit ipse, disposuit. 

2. On what grounds does Dante maintain that mon- 
archy is superior to democracy ? Does his argument 
appear to you conclusive ? 

3. Give a brief account of the relations between the 
Empire and the Papacy during the life of Dante. 

4. In what ways did the circumstances of Dante's life 
lead him to look for the salvation of Italy in a universal 
monarchy ? 

[T. T. 1915.] 



4U8 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODEKN HISTOEY. 

Previous Examination. 



Original Texts. 

Sully, iJconomies royales. 
Saint-Simon, Memoir es. 
EoussEAU, Contrat social. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two questions from 
each 'part of the paper^ and among them those 
w^arked with an asterisk "^.J 

A. 

1. Estimate the respective shares of Henri IV and 
of Sully in the reforms carried out in France between 
1596 and 1610. 

2. Explain : — triennal^ greffes^ maistre de requestes, 
pancarte^ droit de franc-fief fetes chomees. 

*3. Translate and comment on : — 

(a) ' Oh ! il ne se faut plus enquerir d'oil vient la 
brouillerie puis que madame de Verneuil est allegu^e, 
car c'est un si bon bee, et si plein de malice et d'in- 
vention, que sur le moindre mot que Eosny luy aura 
dit, elle y en aura adjouste cent, voire mille ; mais, 
pour tout cela, ne faut-il pas negliger cette affaire ; et 
partant, vous, La Varenne, retournez le trouver, et luy 
dittes qu'il pense a s'asseurer, et qu'il s'accompagne 
si bien que Ton ne puisse pas facilement entreprendre 
sur sa personne, et que j'ayme bien mieux qu'il m'en 
coute quelque chose ; car si je le perdois, je perdrois 
bien avec luy davantage que tout ce qu'il s9auroit 
despendre a se bien garder.' 

(b) Et neantmoins, comme I'avarice et I'avidit^ du 
profit sont celles de toutes les passions de I'homme qui 
gardent le moins de moderation, encor s'en trouva-il 
qui ne laisserent pas de vouloir continuer ce traffic, 
duquel ils avoient accoustume d'user ; desquels vous 
en cognoissant quelques-uns, et qui en facilitoient les 
voitures, et avoient cognoissance des intelligences qui 

4 U 4 [Turn over. 



s'entretenoient pour cet efFet hors le royaume, vous 
pratiquastes en sorte ces derniers, sous promesses que 
vous leur fisfces de leur donner le quart de tout ce qu'ils 
vous feroient ddcouvrir, qu'environ un mois apres ils 
vous donnerent ad vis comme il se projettoit un transport 
de deux cens mil escus en especes d'or, dont Ton avoit 
fait amas pour c^t efFet, ne craignant sinon qu'il ne se 
fist pas tout d'une voiture, et que la premiere se sur- 
prenant, ils arrestassent tout court les autres ; et partant 
que c'estoit a vous adviser si vous desireriez vous 
attaquer a celle-la, d'autant qu'a leur advis elle seroit 
de la moindre somme. 

(c) Les trois armdes des princes d'Alemagne et des 
Estats estans jointes 4s environs de Duren et Stavelo, 
les Estats de Cleves et Julliers seront conquis et iceux 
restituez a ceux des pretendans qui seront jugez avoir 
le plus de droit. 

4. Explain the chief sources of revenue of the French 
monarchy at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

B. 

1. ' Dans le monde il n'a vu que la noblesse francaise, 
et dans celle-ci que les dues et pairs. Saint- Simon n'a 
pias I'orgueil nobiliaire, il a I'orgueil ducal.' Illustrate 
this remark from the selected memoirs. 

*2. Translate and comment on : — 

(a) Seuls avec le roi, il leur tira d'un tiroir sous sa 
clef un gros et grand paquet cachets de sept cachets 
(ie ne sais si M. du Maine y voulut imiter le myst^rieux 
livre a sept sceaux de I'Apocalypse, pour diviniser ce 
paquet). En le leur remettant : ' Messieurs, leur dit-il, 
c'est mon testament ; il n'y a qui que ce soit que moi 
qui sache ce qu'il contient. Je vous le remets pour le 
garder au parlement, a qui je ne puis donner un plus 
grand t^moignage de mon estime et de ma confiance, 
que de I'en rendre d^positaire. L'exemple des rois mes 
pred^cesseurs et celui du testament du roi mon pere ne 
me laissent pas ignorer ce que celui-ci pourra devenir ; 
mais on I'a voulu, on m'a tourment^, on ne m'a point 
laisse de repos, quoi que j'aie pu dire. Oh bien! j'ai 
done achetd mon repos. Le voila, emportez-le, il de- 

4U4 



viendra ce qu'il pourra; au moins j'aurai patience et 
je n'en entendrai plus parler.' A ce dernier mot, qu'il 
finit avec un coup de tete fort sec, il leur tourna le dos, 
passa dans un autre cabinet et les laissa tous deux 
presque changes en statues. 

(b) Moi cependant je me mourois de joie. J'en 
^tois a craindre la d^faillance ; mon coeur, dilate a I'exces, 
ne trouvoit plus d'espace a s'^tendre. La violence que 
je me faisois pour ne rien laisser ^chapper dtoit infinie, 
et ndanmoins ce tourment dtoit d^licieux. Je comparois 
les ann^es et les temps de servitude, les jours funestes 
ou, trained au parlement en victime, j'y avois servi de 
triomphe aux batards a plusieurs fois, les degres divers 
par lesquels ils ^toient months a ce comble sur nos tetes ; 
je les comparois, dis-je, a ce jour de justice et de regie, 
a cette chute dpouvantable, qui du meme coup nous 
relevoit par la force de ressort. 

3. Compare the sketches given by Saint-Simon of 
Madame de Montespan and of Madame de Maintenon. 

4. What information can you gather from these 
extracts from Saint- Simon's Memoirs about the Abb^ 
Dubois ? 

C. 

*1. Translate and comment on: — 

(a) Ob^issez aux puissances. Si cela veut dire : 
C^dez a la force, le pr^cepte est bon, mais superfiu ; je 
reponds qu'il ne sera jamais viold. Toute puissance 
vient de Dieu, je Tavoue ; mais toute maladie en vient 
aussi : est-ce a dire qu'il soit d^fendu d'appeler le 
medecin? Qu'un brigand me surprenne au coin d'un 
bois, non-seulement il faut par force donner sa bourse ; 
mais, quand je pourrois la sousfcraire, suis-je en con- 
science oblige de la donner? Car enfin le pistolet qu'il 
tient est une puissance. 

(6) Le christianisme ne preche que servitude et 
d^pendance. Son esprit est trop favorable a la tyrannic 
pour qu'elle n'en profite pas to uj ours. Les vrais Chretiens 
sont faits pour etre esclaves, ils le savent et ne s'en 
emeuvent guere ; cette courte vie a trop peu de prix 
a leurs yeux. 

4U4 



2. ' Mes principes ne sont fondes sur des autorit^s de 
pontes ; mais ils derivent de la nature des choses, et 
sont fond<^s sur la raison.' 

' Rousseau traces his conclusions from words, and 
developes his system from the interior germs of phrases.' 

Which do you think the truer remark, that of 
Rousseau or that of his critic ? 

3. Describe as carefully as possible the Social Com- 
pact according to Rousseau and the chief consequences 
which are deduced from it in the Contrat social. 

4. Give Rousseau's views on : — 
(a) The origin of property. 
(6) Punishment. 

(c) The best form of government. 



[T. T, 1915.] 



4U4 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

Previous Examination. 



Unseen Translation. 
Latin. 



Translate : — 

(a) Druides a bello abesse consuerunt, neque tributa 
una cum reliquis pendunt ; militiae vacationem omniura- 
que rerum habent immunitatem. Tantis excitati prae- 
miis et sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et 
a parentibus propinquisque mittuntur. Magnum ibi 
numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur. Itaque annos 
non nuUi xx in disciplina permanent. Neque fas esse 
existimant ea litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus, 
publicis privatisque rationibus, Graecis litteris utantur. 
Id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur, quod 
neque in vulgum disciplinam efFerri velint neque eos qui 
discunt litteris confisos minus memoriae studere; quod 
fere plerisque accidit ut praesidio litterarum diligentiam 
in perdiscendo ac memoriam remittant. In primis hoc 
volunt persuadere, non interire animas sed ab aliis post 
mortem transire ad alios, atque hoc maxime ad virtutem 
excitari putant, metu mortis neglecto. Multa praeterea 
de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ac terrarum 
magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium 
vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt. 

(b) Libet argumenta conquirere in eo quod sapi- 
entioribus deliberatum est? sed et si nunc primum 
statuendum haberemus, creditisne servum interficiendi 
domini animum sumpsisse ut non vox minax exciderot, 
nihil per temeritatem proloqueretur ? sane consilium 
occultavit, telum inter ignaros paravit : num excubias 
transire, cubiculi foris recludere, lumen inferre, caedem 
patrare poterat omnibus nesciis ? multa sceleris indicia 
praeveniunt : servi si prodant possumus singuli inter 
pluris, tuti inter anxios, postremo, si pereundum sit, non 
inulti inter nocentis agere. suspecta maioribus nostris 
fuerunt ingenia servorum etiam cum in agris aut domi- 
bus isdem nascerentur caritatemque dominorum statim 

4 U 11 [Turn over. 



acciperent. postquam vero nationes in familiis habemiis, 
qnibns diversi ritus, externa sacra aut nulla sunt, conlu- 
viem istam non nisi metu coercueris. at quidam insontes 
peribunt. nam et ex fuso exercitu cum decimus quisque 
fusti feritur, etiam strenui sortiuntur. habet aliquid ex 
iniquo omne magnum exemplum quod contra singulos 
xitilitate publica rependitur. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4Un 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Unseen Translation, 
Greek. 



Translate : — 



(a) 'Ep Sk Ta?9 !ABrji^aL9 rrj9 TlapdXov oi(pLKO/x^yr}? 
PVKT09 e\iy€TO rj (TVfi(f)op(i, kol ol/jLcoyrj €/c tov IleipaLQ)? 
Sia rcov fiaKpooy reixcou eh acnv SirJKei^, 6 erepo? rco eTepco 
irapayyeWoav' cocrr e/ceiVr;? r^? vvktos ovSeh eKOLfirjOrj, 
ov \iovov T0V9 diToXcoXoTa? TreuOovi^re^, dWd ttoXv fidXXov 
eVi avToi eavT0V9, Trefa-eo-OaL vofil^ovTes oia knoLrja-av 
Mr]Xtov9 re AaKeSaifiouLoju diroLKOvs ovras^ KpaT-qa-avTe^ 
TToXiopKia, KOL ^larLaiia^ Kal ^KicopaLOVs kol Topooyaiov9 
KOL AlyLvrjTas kol dXXov? 7roXXov9 tcov ^EXXrjucov. rfj S' 
vdrepata kKKXrjcrtav eTTOLrjaaUf kv rj eSo^e tov9 re Xifxeuas 
dTTO\S)(jaL ttXtju eVoy Kal rd r€i)(r) evrpeiri^eiu Kal ^vXaKa? 
k(j>L(TTduaL Kal rdXXa ndura 009 eh iroXiopKiav wapaaKevd- 
^eiv Tr}v ttoXlv. Kal ovtol jxev irepl ravra rjo-av. AvaavBpo'i 
8' eK TOV ^EXXrja-TTOUTov vavcrl 8LaKO(TLaL9 d(j)LK6fievos eh 
Aecr^ou KarecrKevdaaro ray re aXAa? TroAet? kv avTrj Kal 
MvTLXrfvqv eh Se rd eirl OpaKij^ )((opia eTrefxyfre SeKa 
TpLi]peL9 exoura ^EreovLKOv, os rd kKei irdura npb? AaKe- 
8aL/xouLov9 fiereaTrjcreu. evOv9 8e Kal rj dXXrj 'EXXd? 
d(j)eL(TTrjKeL AOrjyaLcov fxerd rr]v vaviia^tav TrXrjv ^afitooV 
OVTOL 8e <T(payd9 rcor yyoopi/Kou Troirjo-avTes KaTeT^ov ttjv 
ttoXlv. 

(b) Aa^obu 8e d rjTrjo-aTo, kK tov d<pavovs op/n^aa? 
axTTe /IT] I8eiv kKelvovSj KaTd to alel rrapeiKoy tov Kp-qfivoii- 
8ov9 TrJ9 vrja-ov TTpoa-^aLucou, Kal fj ol AaKe8aL}x6vLoi yoi>ptov 
layvL TTLo-TevdavTes ovk kcpvXaaaov , \aXe7ra>9 re Kal /ioXls 
nepLeXScbu eXaOe, Kal kirl tov /xeTecopov k^aTTLyrj? dua(f)ai^eh 
KaTd ucloTov avTcov tov9 jxev tS> d8oKi]T(p k^eTrXrj^e, tov9 8e 
d 'jTpoa-e8e')(ovTo l86vTas ttoXX^ fxdXXou kTreppcoaev. Kal 

4 U 1 2 [Turn over. 



01 AaKeSaLjxouLOi ^aXXo/xeuot re dfxcjiOTepcoO^v ijSr] kol 
yiyvofxevoL kv rco avr^ ^ufXTrrco/iaTL, cos [iiKpou fieyaXo) 
eLKciaai, tS> kv Oep/jLOirvXai?, €K€luol re yap rfj drpaTTCo 
irepL^XOovToav tcou Ilepa-cou SiecpOdprja-ay, ovtol re dp,(f)L- 
/SoXoL ijSr] Glares ovk^tl dvTel^ov, dXXd rroXXoT^ re oXiyoL 
fia^ofxei^OL KOL daOeveta acofidTcou Sia Trjy o-LroSeiav vire- 
^d)povv, Kal 01 !A0r]vaLOL eKpdrovu tJStj toov k^oScov. yj/ov9 
Se 6 KXicou Kal 6 A-qiiocrOevrjs otl, el koi ottoo-ovovu fiaXXov 
ei^Scoo-ovaL, StacpdaprjO'oijLeuov^ avTovs vtto rrj^ (r^erepay 
(TTpaTLaSy eirava-av Tr}V [id^rjv Kal rovs eavTcou direlp^av, 
povXofjLej/oL dyayeiv avroijs 'AOrjyaiOL^ ^covra^, ei ttoo? rod 
KTjpvyfiaros dKovaaure? eTTLKXaa-deUu rfj yucio/jLr] to. onXa 
TTapaBovvai Kal rjo-a-rjOeieu tov irapovTos Seiuov. 



[T. T, 1915.] 



4U 12 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Unseen Translation, 
French. 

Translate into English ; — 

(a) Encore en cette chasse avoit quasi autant 
d'ennuy, que de plaisir ; car il prenoit grande peine, 
pourtant qu'il couroit le cerf a force, et se levoit fort 
matin ; et alloit aucunesfois loin, et ne laissoit point 
cela pour nul temps qu'il fit, et ainsi s'en retournoit 
aucunesfois bien las. Et quasi toujours courouce a 
quelqu'un ; car c'est matiere qui n'est pas conduite 
tousjours au plaisir de ceux qui la conduisent. Toutes- 
fois il s'y congnoissoit mieux que nul liomme qui ait 
regne de son temps, selon I'opinion de chacun. A cette 
chasse estoit sans cesse ; et log^ par les villages, jusques 
a ce qu'il venoit quelques nouvelles de la guerre ; car 
quasi tons les est^s y avoit quelque chose entre le due 
Charles de Bourgongne et luy ; et Thy ver ils faisoient 
treves. . . . Le temps qu'il reposoit, son entendement 
travailloit ; car il avoit affaire en moult de lieux: et 
se fut aussi volontiers empesch^ des affaires de son 
voisin comme des siens, et mis gens en leurs maisons, 
et departy les auctorites d'icelle. Quand il avoit la 
guerre, il desiroit paix ou treves ; quand il avoit la paix 
ou la treve, a grand peine les pouvoit-il endurer. De 
maintes memes choses de son royaume se mesloit dont 
il se fust bien pass^; mais sa complexion estoit telle, 
et ainsi vivoit. Aussi sa m^moire estoit si grande, qu'il 
retenoit toutes choses, et congnoissoit tout le monde, et 
en tout pais, et ^ I'entour de luy. A la v^rit^ il sembloit 
mieux pour secourir et seigneurier un monde, qu'un 
royaume. 

(b) Par instinct, le Fran9ais aime a se trouver en 
compagnie, et la raison en est qu'il fait bien et sans 
peine toutes les actions que comporte la soci^te. II 
n*a pas la mauvaise honte qui gene ses voisins du Nord, 
ni les passions fortes qui absorbent ses voisins du Midi. 
II n'a pas d effort k faire pour causer ; point de timidity 

4 U 1 [Turn over. 



naturelle a contraindre, point de preoccupation habi- 
tuelle a surmonter. II cause done, a I'aise et dispos, et 
il dprouve du plaisir a causer. Car ce qu'il lui faut, 
c'est un bonheur d'espece particuliere, fin, l^ger, rapide, 
incessamment renouvele et vari^, ou son intelligence, son 
amour-propre, toutes ses vives et sympathiques facultes 
trouvent leur pature ; et cette qualite de bonheur, il 
n'y a que le monde et la conversation pour la fournir. 
Sensible comme il est, les egards, les menagements, les 
empressements, la delicate flatterie sont I'air natal hors 
duquel il respire avec peine. II soufFrirait d'etre impoli 
presque autant que de rencontrer I'impolitesse. Pour ses 
instincts de bienveillance et de vanity, il y a de char- 
mantes douceurs dans I'habitude d'etre aimable, d'autant 
plus qu'elle est contagieuse. Quand nous plaisons, on veut 
nous plaire, et ce que nous donnons en prevenances, on 
nous le rend en attentions. En pareille compagnie, on 
peut causer ; car causer c'est amuser autrui en s'amusant 
soi-meme, et il n'y a pas de plus vif plaisir pour un 
Fran9ais. Agile et sinueuse, la conversation est pour 
lui comme le vol pour un oiseau ; d'id^es en ideas, il 
voyage, alerte, excite par I'elan des autres, avec des 
bonds, des circuits, des retours imprevus, au plus bas, au 
plus haut, a rase terre ou sur les cimes, sans s'enfoncer 
dans les trous, ni s'empetrer dans les broussailles, ni 
demander aux mille objets qu'il efileure autre chose que 
la diversity et la gaiete de leurs aspects. 



[T. T. 1915.] 



4Ul 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTORY. 
PREVIOUS Examination. 



German Translation. 



Translate : 

(a) Das allgemeine vorzugliche Keunzeichen der 
griechischen MeisterstUcke in der Mablerey und Bild- 
hauerkunst, setzet Herr Winkelmann in eine edele 
Einfalt und stille Grdsse, sowohl in der Stellung als im 
Ausdrueke. ' So wie die Tiefe des Meeres, sagfc er, 
allezeit ruhig bleibt, die Oberflache mag aucb noch so 
wUthen, eben so zeiget der Ausdruek in den Figuren der 
Griechen bey alien Leidenschaften eine grosse und 
gesetzte Seele. Diese Seele schildert sicb in dem Gesichte 
des Laokoons, und nicbt in dem Gesichte allein, bey dem 
beftigsten Leiden. Der Schmerz, welcher sicb in alien 
Muskeln und Sehnen des Korpers entdecket, und den 
man ganz allein, ohne das Gesicbt und andere Tbeile zu 
betracbten, an dem scbmerzlicb eingezogenen Unterleibe 
bey nabe selbst zu empfinden glaubt ; dieser Schmerz, 
sage ich, aussert sicb dennoch mit keiner Wutb in dem 
Gesichte und in der ganzen Stellung. Er erbebt kein 
scbreckliches Gescbrey, wie Virgil von seinem Laokoon 
singet; die Oefnung des Mundes gestattet es nicbt; es 
ist vielmehr ein angstliches und beklemmtes Seufzen, 
wie es Sadolet beschreibet. Der Schmerz des Korpers 
und die Grosse der Seele sind durch den ganzen Bau der 
Figur mit gleicher Starke ausgetheilet, und gleichsam 
abgewogen. Laokoon leidet, aber er leidet wie des 
Sophokles Pbiloktet : sein Elend gehet uns bis an die 
Seele ; aber wir wlinschten, wie dieser grosse Mann das 
Elend ertragen zu kbnnen.' 

(h) Dass die christlicbe Religion in derselben Stundo 
entstand, in welcher das Casarenreich gestiftet wurde, ist 
eine von den grossen geschichtlichen Thatsachen, die man 
providentiell zu nennen ptlegt. Das Christentum besiegte 
das antike Reich und verscbmolz mit ihm, well sein 
weltbiirgerliches Princip der Weltmonarchie entsprach. 
Dies erkannte Constantin. Die neue Kirche nabm die 
administrative Organisation des Reichs in sicb auf, indem 

4 U 7 {"Turn over. 



sie iiber dessen Provinzen, gemass der constantinischen 
Diocesanverfassung, ein Verwaltungsnetz von Bistumern 
und Sprengeln zog. Sie war in ihrer ausseren Gestalt 
eine lateinische Schopfung, und hatte das Reich zu ihrer 
Voraussetzung. Sie entwickelte sich allmalig zu einer 
geistlichen Macht, blieb aber vom Reich umschlossen 
und in ihm aufgehoben, so lange als dieses Bestand 
hatte. Der allgemeine Kaiser war seit Constantin auch 
das Haupt der allgemeinen (katholischen) Reichskirche, 
in welcher noch kein einzelner Bischof den Vorrang 
hatte, wahrend ihr zugleich die okumenischen Concile 
unter kaiserlicher Autoritat die Einheit gaben. 



[T. T, 1915.] 



4V7 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

Pkevious Examination. 



Political Economy. 

1. Explain the difference between Political Economy 
and Social Economics. 

2. ' The use of the inductive method can never be so 
efficacious in the social as in the physical and natural 
sciences.' Why is this 1 

3. Criticize these statements ; — 

(a) Land is the only source of wealth, since it alone 
gives a net product. 

{h) The Laws which govern the distribution of 
wealth are as good as they are inevitable. 

(c) Labour is the sole cause of value. 

{d) Utility is subjective not objective. 

4. Has the cost of production anything to do with 
determining value ? 

5. Distinguish between unproductive labour and 
unproductive consumption. 

6. What is the ecw^omwaZ justification of interest ? 

7. Can there be such a thing as general overproduc- 
tion ? 

8. Does the rise in agricultural rent since the days of 
E/icardo affirm or disprove his theory of rent 1 

9. ' The labourer has more to gain by the extension of 
Collectivism than from productive Co-operation or from 
Profit Sharing.' Discuss this statement. 

[r. T, 1915.] 



4U 



No. 1788 Sixpence net 



OXFORD UNIYERSITY 
EXAMINATION PAPERS 

SECOND PUBLIC EXAIIMION 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY 
PREVIOUS EXAMINATION 



MICHAELMAS TERM, 1915 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

SOLD AT THE CLAKENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY 
116 HIGH STREET 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Pkevious Examination. 



Outlines of European History, 800-1494. 

I. 

[Candidates should attempt at least TV^'O questions in 
each part of the p>aper, and among them one of 
those marked with an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. At what date, if ever, did the Holy Roman Empire 
deserve its name ? 

2. In what ways did the Norse invasions of the ninth 
and tenth centuries affect the political and military 
organization of Western Europe ? 

3. Compare the Empire of Charles the Great with that 
of Otto I. 

*4. Draw a map of Germany as it existed about 
A.D. 1000, marking in it the great duchies, and the 
principal rivers flowing to the North. 

5. Explain the origin of the following terms: — Prussia, 
Provence, Bulgaria, Austria, the Exarchate. 

6. What reforms did Gregory VII seek to effect? 
Estimate (a) his temporary, and (b) his permanent 
success. 

7. Explain the situation in the East that led to the 
first crusade. What results were effected by that 
crusade ? 

B. 

8. ' Renovatio imperii Romanorum.' What interest 
attaches in this connexion to the careers of (a) Otto III, 
(6) Henry VI ? 

9. Wbat, and where, were the chief attempts made 
during the period 800 to 1250 to increase knowledge and 
culture in Europe ? 

9 H 1 1 [Turn over. 



10. Describe briefly the political importance of the 
following reigns in French History : — 

(a) that of Hugh Capet, 

(h) that of Philip Augustus. 

■^11. What powers took part in the fourth crusade? 
Mark on a sketch-map the widest extent of the Latin 
Empire of Constantinople. 

12. To what causes do you attribute the decline of the 
royal power in Germany ? 

13. Compare the policy of Frederic Barbarossa to- 
wards (a) Germany, (b) Italy. 



[M. T. 1915.] 



9H11 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Onilines of European History, 800-1494. 

IT. 

[Candidates should attemjyt at least two questions in 
each part of the ]mper, and among thtni oke of 
those marked iviih an asieritk ^.] 

A. 

1. Estimate the importance of the rule of Frederick II 
(Hohenstaufen) in the history of Sicily. 

2. Draw out the poiots of resemblance between the 
quarrels of Philip the Fair and Lewis of Eavaria with 
the Papacy. 

3. What elements other than religious contributed to 
the Hussite revolt ? 

■^4, Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the limits 
of the Mongolian invasions of Europe in the thirteenth 
century. 

5. Give a brief sketch of the commercial rivalry 
between Venice and Genoa up to the close of the 
fourteenth century. 

*6. Illustrate, with the help of a sketch-map, the terms 
of the treaty of Bretigny, 1360. 

B. 

*7. Describe, with the help of a sketch-map, the Turkish 
conquests in Europe up to the fall of Constantinople. 

8. Account for the victory of Pope Eugenius over the 
Council of Basle. 

9. Estimate the importance of the reign of the Emperor 
Frederick III on the fortunes of the house of Habsburg. 

10. What were the main obstacles to the Unification 
of Spain ? How far had they been overcome by the 
year 1494 I 

*1 1 . Explain, with the help of a sketch-map, the political 
condition of Italy at the date of the expedition of 
Charles VIII. 

12. Sketch the history of the Teutonic Knights up to 
the end of the fifteenth century. 

9H12 [ili. !r. 1915.] 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTOEY. 
Peevious Examination. 



Outlines of European History. 1494-1789. 

I. 

[Candidates slionld attein2ot at least two questions in 
each part of the 2^oi2Jer, and among them one of those 
marked ivith an asterisk *.] 

A. 

1. Describe the political situation in Europe at the 
accession of Louis XII. 

*2. Show, by means of a sketch-map, the possessions of 
Venice in Italy at the opening of the sixteenth century. 
How were they affected by the League of Cambrai ? 

3. Sketch the course of events which led to the election 
of Charles of Spain to the Imperial dignity. 

4. Estimate the debt of the German Protestants to 
Suleiman the Magnificent. 

5. Examine the circumstances which brought Maurice 
of Saxony into prominence. 

6. Discuss the significance of the Council of Trent in 
the history of the Papacy. 

B. 

1. Sketch the reign of the Emperor Maximilian 11. 

2. Can it be said that the ultimate cause of the revolt / 
of the Netherlands was the character of Philip II ? 

3. Describe the political situation in France upon the 
outbreak of the ' War of the Three Henries ' (1585). 

■^4. Illustrate, by means of a sketch-map, the European 
importance of the Succession question in Jlilich-Cleves. 

5. Draw out the points of difference between the policy 
of Wallenstein and that of the Catholic Leasfue. 

6. What were Mazarin's chief difficulties at home, and 
how did he overcome them ? 

[M.T. 1915.] 

9H7 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Outlines of European History. 1494-1789. 

II. 

[^Candidates should attempt at least two questions in 
each part of the paper, and ainovg them one of 
those marked with an atteritk*.'] 

A. 

1. 'The real founder of the Prussian Monarchy.' Is 
this a true description of the Great Elector ? 

2. Give some account of the policy of the Kiuprilis in 
Turkey. 

3. In what respects can the Truce of Eatisbon (1684) 
be described as a landmark in the history of France and 
Europe ? 

4. Examine the circumstances leading to the Treaty of 
Ryswick. Discuss its provisions. 

*5. Did the geographical position of Bavaria affect the 
policy of its rulers 1 Illustrate your answer by a sketch- 
map. 

6. Discuss the wisdom of the foreign policy of the 
Regent Orleans. 

B. 
*7. Illustrate by means of a sketch-map the substitution 
after 1713 of Russian for Swedish influence in the Baltic. 

8. Estimate the effect of the Polish Succession War 
upon the balance of power in Europe. 

9. Describe and explain the decline of the Papacy in 
the eighteenth century. 

10. What circumstances led (a) to the alliance of 
England with Prussia in 1756, and (6) to the rupture 
of that alliance after the close of the Seven Years' War ? 

11. Can it be said that the efforts of Charles III of 
Spain attained any measure of success *? 

12. What signs were there of the coming of the Revo- 
lution in France after the close of the War of American 
Independence in 1783 ? 

yH8 [M.T. 1916.] 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Pkevious Examination. 



Original Texts. 
Aristotle, Politics I and III ; Tacitus, Germania, 

[Candidates should attemj^t at least three questions in 
each 2^art, and among them all those m^arhed luith 
an asterisk *.] 

A. 

*1 . Translate, and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Alo Kol TO TTpooTov kPa(TL\^vovTO al TToAeiy, Kal 
vvv €TL ra 'iduTj' €K PaoriX^vofMeucov yap crvurjXOov. Ildaa 
yap oLKia ^aatXeveraL vtto tov Trpea-^VTaroVy cocrre Kal at 
oLTroLKLaL Sta ttjv (jvyykv^Lav. Kal rovr' eaTlv o Xeyec 
"Ofirjpo^, 

OefiLo-TeveL Se eKacTTO? 
TratSoDv r]8' dXo^cov. 

^TTopdSe? yap' Kal ovtco to dp^a'tov wkovv. 

(b) Td fxeu ovv Xeyofieva opyava TroLrjTiKa opyavd 
kcTTLy TO Se KTrjfia irpaKTLKoi^' dirb [xkv yap ttjs KepKtSo^ 
eTepou TL ylveTai irapd ttju )(^pfj(TLj/ avTrj?, dirb Se ttj^ 
ea-OrJTOS Kal Trj9 kXIvt^s tj \pr\<JL^ fiouou. "Etl S' eirel 
Sia^epei 77 iroL-qa-L^ eiSet Kal rj npa^L?, BeovTai S* d/jL(f>6- 
Tepai opydyoov, di/dyKrj Kal TavTa ttju avTrjy '^X^'-^ ^^^~ 
^opdu, *0 Se ptos TTpd^LS, ov ttoltjctl^ e(TTLv' Slo Kal 6 
SovXos vjrrjpeTTjs tS>v Trpos ttjv irpd^Lv. 

(c) ^AiropricreLe S' dv tl9, to vvv elprjfxevov el dXrjde?^ 
dpa Kal Tov^ Te\VLTas Serjo-ei e\eLv dpeTrjv iroXXdKL? yap 
8l' aKoXaariav eXXeiTrovcn tcov epycov. *H Siacpepet tovto 
irXe7(TT0v. 'O fxev yap SovXos kolvcovos C^rjs, 6 Se iroppdi- 
Tepov, Kal TOCTOVTov eTTL^dXXeL dpeTrjv ocrov rrep Kal 
SovXeLa?. 

9H9 [Turn ov^er. 



*2. Translate, and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) IIoXLTrj9 S* olttXcos ovSeul roou dWoav opi^^raL 
fidWou rj T(p fi€Te\€Lv Kpiaecos Kal dpxv^- 

(h) ^avepov tolvvv otl rj 776X19 ovk ecTTL KOLucovta 
Tonov Kal Tov /xtj dSiKetu <r0a? avT0V9 Kal rrj9 fi^TaSoa-eco^ 
y^dpiu' dXXa ravra jieu dvajKalov vndp^eiv, eirrep 'icTTai 
776X19, ov /irji/ ovS* V7rap)(6i/T0)i^ tovtcov dTrdvTOnv rjSrj 776X19, 
dXX' rj TOV €v ^rjv KOLvcovia Kal Tals olKiais Kal T0I9 yiyeon, 
C(orj9 reXem? \dpLv Kal avTdpK0V9, 

(c) Avo jxkv ovu eiSrj ravra \iovapyJ.a9^ erepou 8' oVe/) 
Tji^ kv T0T9 dp\aL0L9"EXXr](riUy ov9 KaXovcnv aL(rvfjLi/r]Ta9' 

3. Illustrate from these two books of the Politics the 
different uses Aristotle makes of the terms 'nature', 
' natural '. 

4. How does Aristotle define wealth ? Do you consider 
his definition adequate ? 

5. On what principles does Aristotle classify states? 
Estimate the value of the classification. 

B. 

*6. Translate, and comment on the following passages: — 

(a) Sed nee variare gyros in morem nostrum do- 
centur : in rectum aut uno flexu dextros agunt, ita 
coniuncto orbe ut nemo posterior sit. 

(h) Sororum filiis idem apud avunculum qui ad 
patrem honor, quidam sanctiorem artioremque hunc 
nexum sanguinis arbitrantur et in accipiendis obsidibus 
magis exigunt, tamquam et animum firmius et domum 
latius teneant. heredes tamen successoresque sui cuique 
liberi, et nullum testamentum. si liberi non sunt, 
proximus gradus in possessione fratres, patrui, avunculi. 
quanto plus propinquorum, quanto maior adfinium 
numerus, tanto gratiosior senectus. 

(c) Agri pro numero cultorum ab universis vicis 
occupant ur, quos mox inter se secundum dignationem 
partiuutur ; facilitatem partiendi camporum spatia prae- 
stant. arva per annos mutant, et superest ager. 

9H9 



3 

*7. Translate, and comment on the following passages: — 

(a) Insulam Rheni amnis colunt, Chattorum quondam 
populus et seditione domestica in eas sedes transgressus, 
in quibus pars Romani imperii fierent. raanet honos et 
antiquae societatis insigne ; nam nee tributis contem- 
nuntur nee publicanus atterit ; exempti oneribus et col- 
lationibus et tantum in usum proeliorum sepositi, velut 
tela atque arma, bellis reservantur. 

(b) Maneat, quaeso, duretque gentibus, si non amor 
nostri, at certe odium sui, quaudo urgentibus imperii 
fatis nihil iam praestare fortuna mains potest quam 
hostium discordiam. 

(c) Ipsum quin etiam Oceanum ilia temptavimus : 
et superesse adhuc Herculis columnas fama vulgavit, 
sive adiit Hercules, seu quidquid ubique magnificum 
est, in claritatem eius referre consensimus. nee defuit 
audentia Druso Germanico, sed obstitit Oceanus in se 
simul atque in Herculem inquiri. 

8. Illustrate by reference to the Germania the means 
by which the Roman Empire was spread and con- 
solidated. 

9. In what ways does Tacitus contrast the virtues of 
the Germans with the vices of the Romans "? 

10. What does Tacitus tell us of (a) the marriage 
customs, (h) the military arrangements, (c) the use of 
money, (d) punishments inflicted, among the Germans ? 



[if. T. 1915.] 



9H9 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Original Texts, 

EiNHARD, Vita Garoli; Joinville, Vie de Saint Louis ; 

Dante, De Monarchia, 
[Candidates should attempt at least two questions in 

each part of the paper, and among them those 

marked with an asterisk.'^] 

A. 

1. Give a brief history of the Mayors of The Palace 
from Pepin the Short to the accession of Charlemagne. 

2. What do we learn from Einhard as to the wars of 
Charlemagne with the Sclaves, the Huns, and the North- 
men ? Illustrate your answer with a map. 

*3. Translate and comment on the following passages : — 
[a) Ultimi adventus sui non solum hae fuere causae, 
verum etiam quod Romani Leonem pontificem multis 
affectum iniuriis .... fidem regis implorai*e conpulerunt. 
Idcirco Romam veniens propter reparandum, qui nimis 
conturbatus erat, ecclesiae statum ibi totum hiemis tempus 
extraxit. Quo tempore Imperatoris et August! nomen 
accepit. Quod prime in tantum aversatus est ut adfir- 
maret se eo die^ quamvis praecipua festivitas esset, eccle- 
siam non intraturum, si pontilicis consilium praescire 
potuisset. 

(h) Quocumque eundum erat, carpento ibat, quod 
bubus iunctis et bubulco rustico more agente trahebatur. 

(c) Erat ei filius nomine Pippinus .... facie quidem 
pulcher, sed gibbo deformis. Is, cum pater bello contra 
Hunos suscepto in Baioaria hiemaret, aegritudine simu- 
lata cum quibusdam e primoribus Francorum .... 
adversus patrem coniuravit. Quem post fraudem detec- 
tam et coniuratorum damnationem detonsum in coenobio 
Prumia religiosae vitae iaraque volentem vacare per- 
misit. 

(d) Inter cenandum aut aliquod acroama aut lec- 

torem audiebat Delectabatur et libris sancti Augus- 

tini, praecipueque his qui De Civitate Dei praetitulati 

sunt In discenda grammatica Petrum Pisanum 

diaconem senem audivit, in ceteris disciplinis Albinum 
cognomento Alcoinum .... praeceptorem habuit. 

9 H 1 f [Turn over. 



4. Sketch the relations of Charlemagne with the 
Eastern Empire. 

5. Explain — Barbara Garmina. Decessit indidione 
vii, V Kal. Febr. 

. B. 

1. What were the reasons for the conspiracy against 
Blanche of Castile, the Regent of France ? 

2. Explain the position of Syria and Egypt at the date 
of the first crusade of St. Louis. 

3. What appear to you to be the chief characteristics 
of Joinville's Vie (Histoire) de Saint Louis ? 

*4. Translate the following passages and give explana- 
tory notes : — 

(a) Li roys manda tons ses barons a Paris, et lour 
fist faire serement que foy et loiautei porteroient a ses 
enfans, se aucune chose avenoit de li en la voie. 11 le 
me demanda ; maiz je ne voz faire point de serement, car 
je n'estoie pas ses hom. 

(b) Or avint ainsi que si tost comme li cuens 
d'Artois ot passei le flum, il et toute sa gent ferirent aus 
Turs qui s'enfuioient devant aus. Li Temples li manda 
que il lour fesoit grant vileinnie, quant il devoit aler 
apres aus et il aloit devant. 

(c) Je le trais d'une part et li demandai son couvine ; 
et il me dist qu'il avoit estei nez de Provins, et que il 
estoit venus en Egypte avec le roy Jehan, et que il estoit 
mariez en Egypte et grans riches hom. 

(d) Si vous requierent, sire, pour Dieu et pour ce 
que faire le devez, que vous commandez a vos prevoz 
et a vos baillis que touz ceus qui se soufFerront escom- 
meniez an et jour, que on les contreingne par la prise de 
lour biens a ce que il se facent absoudre. 

(e) Biaus sire Diex, je te pri que tu ne seuffi-es que 
je voie ta sainte citei, puisque je ne la puis delivrer des 
mains de tes ennemis. 

C. 

1. What, according to Dante, should be the goal of 
human civilization 1 

*2. 'Amplius, humana universitas est quoddam totum 

9H]t 



ad quasdam partes ; et est quaedam pars ad quoddam 
totum.' 

Translate. What conclusion does Dante draw from 
this statement? 

3. (a) ' Satis igitur declarata subassumpta principali, 
patet quia conclusio certa est : scilicet quod ad optimam 
dispositionem mundi necesse est Monarchiam esse.' 

(6) ' Et humanum genus, potissimum liberum, opti- 
me se habet.' 

Translate and reconcile these two passages. 

*4. Translate and comment on the following passage : — 
' Cum dicitur humanum genus potest regi per unum 
supremum Principem, non sic inteliigendum est, ut 
minima iudicia cuiuscumque municipii ab illo uno im- 
mediate prodire possint .... Sed sic inteliigendum est, 
ut humanum genus secundum sua communia, quae omni- 
bus competunt, ab eo regatur et com muni regula guber- 
netur ad pacem. Quam quidem regulam, sive legem, 
particulares principes ab eo recipere debent : tanquam 
intellectus practicus ad conclusionem operativam recipit 
maiorem propositionem ab intellectu speculativo ; et sub 
ilia particularem, quae proprie sua est, assumit, eb par- 
ticulariter ad operationem concludit.' 

*5. ' genus humanum! quantis procellis atque iacturis, 
quantisque naufragiis agitari te necesse est, dum bellua 
multorum capitum factum, in diversa conaris, intellectu 
aegrotans utroque, similiter et afFectu.' 

Translate. Does the passage give a true description 
of the condition of Italy in the days of Dante ? 



[M. T. 1915.1 



9Hlt 



HONOUE SCHOOL OP MODEEN HISTOEY. 
Previous Examination. 



Original Texts, 

Sully, Economies royales, 
Saint-Simon, Memoires. 
EoussEAU, Contrat social. 

[Candidates should attempt at least two quebtions from 
each p^art of the paper^ and among them those 
marked with an asterisk "^.J 

A. 

1. Draw a map of France, marking the most important 
provinces at the death of Henry IV ; and the chief 
rivers. 

2. Describe, with allusions to the £Jconomies royales^ 
the relations between Finance and England during Henry 
IV 's reign. 

*3. Translate and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Oe qui r^jouyt tellement Sa Majesty (car elle 
confessa de n'avoir jamais eu une si grande somme toute 
a sa disposition) et abaissa si bien le babil de tous ceux 
qui vous accusoient d'ignorance aux finances, que peu 
a peu ils vous en quitterent la superintendance. 

(b) II reste done maintenant a s^avoir de Vostre 
Majesty si elle entend que Ton face pareilles poursuites 
contre les chambres des comptes, pour les deniers qui se 
trouveront avoir est^ divertis par leur seule autorit^, 
comme Ton a fait contre les cy-devant dits receveurs et 
tresoriers de France, dautant qu'il s'y rencontrera beau- 
coup plus de difiicultd, ayant affaire contre des corps et 
compagnies souveraines, et qui se d^fendent de leur 
pouvoir et autorit^, et qui n'ont a rendre raison de leura 
jugemens, lesquels les roys ont rcmis a leurs consciences. 

9 H 6 [Turn over. 



(c) Le roy d'Espagne estoit tomb^ en si grande 
indigence et necesi^it^, que rechercbant a cette occasion 
toutes sortes de moyens et d'expediens, tant injustes ou 
do difficile execution pussent-ils estre, pour recouvrer 
deniers. il avoit, d^s Tannic pass^e, estably en Espagne 
et es Pays-Bas une imposition de trente pour cent sur 
toutes les denr^es et marcbandises qui viendroient de 
France en ses pays, ou sortiroient d'iceux pour entrer en 
France, qui estoit une dace tant excessive, qu'elle avoit 
ruyn^ tout le trafic, avec de grandes plaintes et incom- 
moditez des sujets des deux royaumes. 

(d) Plus, les Provinces-Unies tiendront une bonne 
flotte voguante sur les costes de Flandres, pour les 
infester et empescber que rien n'entre dans leurs ports 
ny n'en sorte. 

4. Describe tbe financial condition of France at the 
close of tbe reign of Henry IV. 



B. 

5. What does Saint-Simon tell us about — 

(a) the Persian ambassador ; 

(b) Alberoni; 

(c) M. and M.^^ de Maine 1 

6. Can you deduce from Saint-Simon's Memoires any 
definite knowledge of the character of the Regent 1 

^7. Translate and comment on the following passages : — 

(a) Louvois, qui n'avoit pas accoutum^ d'etre traitd 
de la sorte, revint chez lui en furie et comme un homme 
au d(^sespoir. Saint-Pouange, les Tilladet et ce pen de 
familiers de toutes ses heures, en furent efFrayes, et dans 
leur inquietude tournerent pour tacher de savoir ce qui 
^toit arriv^. A la fin, il le leur conta, dit qu'il ^toit 
perdu, et que, pour quelques pouces, le roi oublioit tons 
ses services qui lui avoient valu tant de conquetes ; mais 
qu'il y mettroit ordre, et qu'il lui susciteroit une guerre, 
telle qu'il lui feroit avoir besoin de lui, et laisser la 
la truelle, et de la s'emporta en reproches et en fureurs. 

9H6 



(h) Enfin le pailement en place, les pairs arrives, et 
les presidents ayant ^t^ en deux fois prendre leurs four- 
rures derriere des paravents disposes dans la pi^ce voisine, 
des Granges vint avertir que tout ^toit pret. 

(c) Le systeme de Law tiroit a sa fin. Si on se fClt 
content^ de sa banque, et de sa banque r^duite en de 
justes bornes et sages, on aui'oit double tout I'argent du 
royauine et porte une facility infinie a son commerce et 
a celiii des particuliers entre eux, parce que, la banque 
toujours en etat de faire face partout, des billets con- 
tinuellement payables de toute leur valeur auroient ^t^ 
de I'argent comptant et sou vent pr^f^rables a I'argent 
comptant par la facility du transport. 

(d) Jai racontd ailleurs ses humeurs, ses insignes 
malices et ses rares singularitd*^. II jouit le reste de sa 
longue vie de ses privances avec le roi, de ses distinctions 
a la cour, d'une grande consideration, d'une abondance 
extreme, de la vie et du maint'en d'un tres grand seigneur 
et de I'agrement de tenir une des plus magnifiques maisons 
de la cour, et de la meilleure table, soir et matin, la plus 
honorablement frdquentee, et h Paris de meme apres la 
mort du roi. 

C. 

8. Discuss the following extracts from the Social 
Contract : — 

(a) C'est pour cela que Platen refusa de donner des 
lois aux Arcadiens et auK Cyreniens. 

(b) Les Tartares, ses sujets ou ses voisins, devien- 
dront ses maitres et les notres : cette revolution me parait 
infaillible. 

*9. Translate and comment upon the following 
passages : — 

(a) Quand je dis que I'objet des lois est toujours 
general, j'entends que la loi considere les sujets en corps 
et les actions comme abstraites, jamais un homme comme 
individu ni une action particuliere. 

(b) Mais ces objets g^neraux de toute bonne institu- 
tion doivent etre modifies en chaque pays par les 
rapports qui naissent tant de la situation locale que 

9H6 



du caract^re des habitants ; et c'est sur ces rapports 
qu'il faut assigner h chaque peuple un systeme particulier 
d'institution, qui soit le meilleur, non peut-etre en lui- 
meme, mais pour I'fitat auquel il est destind. 

(c) Dans un pays vraiment libre, les citoyens font 
tout avec leurs bras, et rien avec de I'argent ; loin de 
payer pour s'exempter de leurs devoirs, ils payeraient 
pour les remplir eux-roemes. Je suis bien loin des idees 
communes : je crois les corv^es moins contraires a la 
liberty que les taxes. 

(d) De cette maniere, la suspension de I'autorit^ 
It^gislative ne I'abolit point : le magistrat qui la fait taire 
ne pent la faire parler; il la domine sans pouvoir la 
reprdsenter : il peut tout faire, except^ des lois. 

10. Criticize Rousseau's views on — 
(a) the limits of the sovereign power ; 
(h) the relations of Christianity to Patriotism. 



[M. T, 1915.] 



9H6 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

Previous Examination. 



Latin Translation, 

Translate : — 

(a) Gladiatorum speotaculum fult non ex eo genere 
hominum, ex quo lanistis comparare mos est, servorum 
qui venalem sanguinem habent : voluntaria omnis et 
gratuita opera pugnantium fuifc: nam alii missi ab 
regulis sunt ad specimen insitae genti virtutis ostenden- 
dum, alii ipsi professi se pugnaturos in gvatiam ducis, 
alios aemulatio et certamen, ut provocarent provocative 
baud abnuerent, traxit : quidam, quas disceptando con- 
troversias finire nequierant aut noluerant, pacto inter se 
ut victorem res sequeretur, ferro decreverunt. Neque 
obscuri generis bomines sed clari illustresque : Corbis et 
Orsua patrueles fratres, de principatu civitatis quam 
Idem vocabant ambigentes, ferro se certaturos professi 
sunt : Corbis maior erat aetate, Orsuae pater princeps 
proxime fuerat, a fratre malore post mortem eius princi- 
patu accepto. Quum verbis disceptare Scipio vellet ac 
sedare iraSjnegatum id ambo dicere cognatis communibus, 
nee alium deorum bominumve quam Martem se iudicem 
habituros esse. Robore maior, minor flore aetatis ferox, 
mortem in certamine quam ut alter alterius imperio 
subiiceretur praeoptantes, quum dirimi ab tanta rabie 
nequirent, insigne spectaculum exercitui praebuere docu- 
mentumque, quantum cupiditas imperii malum inter 
mortales esset : maior usu armorum etastu facile stolidas 
vires minoris superavit. 

(6) Maesta itaque civitas, prope inops consilii, comi- 
tiorum die tamen in campum descendit, atque in magi- 
stratus versi circumspectant ora principum aliorum alios 
intuentium, fremuntque adeo perditas res desperatumque 
de re publica esse ut nemo audeat in Hispaniam imperium 
accipere, quum subito P. Cornelius, Publii Cornelii qui in 
Hispania ceciderat filius, quattuor et viginti ferme annos 
natus, professus se petere in superiore unde conspici 
posset loco constitit. In quern postquam omnium ora 
convei-sa sunt, clamore ac favore ominati extemplo sunt 

9 H 10 [Turn over. 



felix faustumque imperium : iussi deinde inire sufFragium 
ad nnum omnes non centuriae modo sed etiam homines 
P. Scipioni imperium esse in Hispania iusserunfc. Caete- 
rum post rem actam ut iam resederat impetus animorum 
ardorque, silentium subito ortum et tacita cogitatio, 
quidnam egissent: num favor plus valuisset quam ratio? 
aetatis maxime poenitebat : qiiidam fortunam etiam 
domus horrebant nomenque ex funestis duabus familiis 
in eas provincias, ubi inter sepulcia patris patruique res 
gerendae assent, proficiscentis. 



[M. T, 1915.] 



9 H 10 



HONOUR SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 

Pkevious Examination. 



French Translation. 

Translate : — 

(a) C'est le combat qui nous plait, et non pas la 
victoi're. On aime a voir les combats des animaux, non 
le vainqueur acharn^ sur le vaincu. Que voulait-on voir, 
sinon la fin de la victoire "? Et des qu'elle est arrivee, on 
en est soul. Ainsi dans le jeu5ainsi dans la recherche de 
la v^rit^. On aime a voir dans les disputes le combat 
des opinions ; mais de contempler la^v^rit^ trouvde, point 
du tout. Pour la faire remarquer avec plaisir, il faut la 
faire voir naissant de la dispute. De meme, dans les 
passions, il y a du plaisir a en voir deux contraires se 
heurter ; mais quand Tune est maitresse, ce n'est plus 
que brutality. Nous ne cherchons jamais les choses, 
mais la recherche des choses. Ainsi, dans la com^die, 
les scenes contentes sans crainte ne valent rien, ni 
les extremes misk'es sans esp^rance, ni les amours 
brutales. 

{h) II y a des gens qui voudraient qu'un auteur ne 
parlat jamais des choses dont les autres ontparl^; autre- 
ment on I'accuse de ne rien dire de nouveau. Mais si 
les matieres qu'il traite ne sont pas nouvelles, la disposi- 
tion en est nouvelle. Quand on joue a la paume, c'est 
une meme balle dont on joue Tun et I'autre ; mais I'un 
la place mieux. J'aimerais autant qu'on I'accusat de se 
servir des mots anciens : comme si les memes pens^es ne 
formaient pas un autre corps de discours par une disposi- 
tion diff'<^rente, aussi bien que les memes mots forment 
d'autres pens^es par les difFerentes dispositions. 

(c) C'est que les noirs oiseaux de I'ombre ont eu raison, 
C'est que I'orfraie a bien flaird la trahison, 
C'est qu'un fourbe a surpris le vaillant sans defense, 
C'est qu'on vient d'^craser la vieillesse et I'enfance. 
En vain quelques soldats fideles ont voulu 
Rdsister*a I'abri d'un crdneau vermoulu ; 
Tous sont morts ; et de sang les dalles sont tremp^es ; 
Et la hache, I'estoCj les masses, les ^pees, 
N'ont fait grace a pas un. 

9H3 [M.T,\^\^.] 



HONOTJE SCHOOL OF MODEEN HISTOEY. 

Pkevious Examination. 



German Translation, 
Translate : — 

(a) Mit dem Bedauern eines Wanderers, der ein Land 
verlassen muss, oline dass er's nach seinen Wiinschen 
kennen lernte, verlasse ich Asien. Wie wenig ist's, was 
wir von ihm wissen ! und meistens aus wie spaten Zeiten, 
aus wie unsichern Handen ! Das ostliche Asien ist 
uns nur neulich durch religiose oder politische Parteien 
bekannt, und durch gelehrte Parteien in Europa zum 
Theil so verwirrt worden, dass wir in grosse Strecken 
desselben noch wie in ein Fabelland blicken. In Vorder- 
Asien und dem ihm nachbarlichen Aegypten erscheint 
uns aus der altern Zeit wie ein Triimmer oder wie ein 
verschwundener Traum ; was aus Nachrichten bekannt 
ist, wissen wir nur aus dem Munde fluehtiger Griechen, 
die flir das hohe Alterthum dieser Staaten theils zu jung, 
theils von zu fi-emder Denkart waren, und nur das 
ergrifFen, was zu ihnen gehorte. Bei Griechenland klart 
sich der Morgen auf, und wir schifFen ihm froh entgegen. 
Die Einwohner dieses Landes bekamen in Vergleichung 
mit andern Nationen friih Schrift, und fanden in den 
meisten ihrer Verfassungen Triebfedern, ihre Sprache 
von der Poesie zur Prosa, und in dieser zur Philosophic 
und Geschichte herabzufuhren . . . Ich mochte, wie ein 
Dichter, den weithinsehenden Apoll und die Tochter des 
Gedachtnisses, die alleswissenden Mnsen, anrufen ; aber 
der Geist der Forschung sei mein Apoll und die parteilose 
Wahrheit meine belehrende Muse. 
(6) Vom Eise befreit sind Strom und Bache 

Durch des Friihlings holden, belebenden Blick ; 

Im Thale griinet HofFnungsglUck ; 

Der alte Winter, in seiner Schwache, 

Zog sich in rauhe Berge zuriick. 

Von dorther sendet er, fliehend, nur 

Ohnmachtige Schauer kornigen Eises 

In Streifen iiber die griinende Flur. 

Aber die Sonne duldet kein Weisses ; 

Ueberall regt sich Bildung und Streben, 

Alles will sie mit Farben beleben ; 

Doch an Blumen fehlt's im Revier, 

Sie nimmt geputzte Menschen dafiir. 

9H5 [M,T.l9l^.] 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Previous Examination. 



Italian Translation. 



Translate 



(a) Sono molti clie ricercono chi fussi piii eccellente, 
o Cosimo lui. Nella quale quistione pare da conchiu- 
dere che Cosimo avessi piii saldezza e piii giudicio, perche 
lui fece lo Stato, e da poi che I'ebbe fatto, se lo gode 
trent'anni sicuramente, si puo dire, e sanza contradizione, 
comportando bene uno pari di Neri, e gli aitri di chi aveva 
qualche sospetto, sanza venire a rottura con loro, e nondi- 
meno in modo ne fussi sicuro. E in tante occupazioni 
dello Stato non lascio le cure della mercatanzia e delle 
cose sue private, anzi le governb con tanta diligenza e con 
tanto cervello, che si trovo sempre le ricchezze raaggiori 
dello Stato, il quale era grandissimo ; e non fu constretto 
per bisogno avere a maneggiare I'entrate publiche, ne a 
usurpare quello de' privati. In Lorenzo non fu tanto giu- 
dicio, benche avessi una briga sola di conservare lo Stato, 
perche lo trovo fatto ; nondimeno lo conserve con molti 
pericoli, come fu la novita de' Pazzi e la gita di Napoli; 
nelle mercatanzie e cose private non ebbe intelligenza, in 
modo che andandogli male, fu forzato valersi del publico, 
e forse in qualche cosa del privato, con grandissima infamia 
e carico suo ; ma abbondorono in lui eloquenza. destrezza, 
ingegno universale in delettarsi di tutte le cose virtuose 
e favorirle ; in che Cosimo al tutto manco, il quale, si 
dice, massime da giovane, essere stato nel parlare piu 
tosto inetto che altrimenti. 

(6) Cosi discesi del cerchio piimaio 

Giti nel secondo, che men loco cinghia, 
E tanto piu dolor, che pugne a guaio. 

Stavvi Minos orribilmente, e ringhia : 
Esamina le colpe nell' entrata, 
Giudica e manda, secondo che avvinghia. 

Dico, che quando 1' anima mal nata 
Li vien dinanzi, tutta si confessa; 
E quel conoscitor delle peccata 

9 H 4 [Turn over. 



Vede qual loco d' Inferno h da essa : 

Cignesi colla coda tante volte, 

Quantunque gradi vuol che giu sia messa. 
Sempre dinanzi a lui ne stanno molte : 

Vanno a vicenda ciascuna al giudizio ; 

Dicono, e odono, e poi son giu volte. 
O tu, che vieni al doloroso ospizio, 

Grido Minos a me, quando mi vide, 

Lasciando 1' atto di cotanto uffizio, 
Guarda com' entri, e di cui tu ti fide : 

Non t' inganni 1' ampiezza dell' entrare. 

[ilf. Z1915.] 



9H4 



HONOUE SCHOOL OF MODERN HISTORY. 
Pkevious Examination. 



Political Economy. 

1. 'The inductive school has not remade Economic 
Science ; it has only introduced into it a new Spirit.' 

Discuss this statement. 

2. Explain the bearing of the doctrine of Marginal 
Utility on the question of Value. 

3. Has the development of machinery been detrimental 

to the interests of the labouring classes ? 

4. Distinguish between — 

(a) Normal value and market value. 
(6) Real wages and nominal wages. 
(c) Pure rent and compensation for risk and wear 
and tear. 

V 

5. Examine the value of the criticisms which have 
been made of Ricardo's theory of Rent. 

6. To what causes are economic crises to be attri- 
buted ? 

7. Explain and criticize the theory that wages depend 
on the productivity of labour. 

8. Compare the respective advantages and disadvan- 
tages of tenant farming and of farming by peasant pro- 
prietors. 

9. Would profit sharing offer a satisfactory solution of 
the conflict between labour and capital ? 

10. Trace the history of the evolution of property in 
land. 



[if. T, 1915.] 



9H2 



.&4* 



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507 Osford University examina- 

A5 tion papers 



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